publication . Master thesis . 2021

Foreningsidrætten i en coronatid

Brix, Emma; Kroggaard, Camilla Bjerring;
Open Access Danish
  • Published: 01 Jan 2021
  • Publisher: Roskilde Universuítet
  • Country: Denmark
Abstract
Existing knowledge as seen in the study; “Physical Activity in Crisis: The Impact of COVID-19 on Danes' Physical Activity Behavior” (Schmidt & Pawlowski, 2021) sheds light on how the physical behavior of The Danes' during the closure back in March 2020 was to blame for the Danes' level of physical activity falling by 16.1 %. From a health-promoting perspective, these figures are worrying, as physical activity is an important element in maintaining the Danes' general health. This thesis will be based on organized sport as a subject field, as orga-nized sport, including the active members, are expected to be particularly affected by closures, as they no longer have the opportunity to engage in physical activity as they used to. Therefore, this thesis, through philosophical hermeneutics as an approach, will examine how COVID-19 has influenced the individual's experience of and participation in organized sport and what con-sequences this may have for the individual's relationship to/experience of organized sport. The target group consists of eight active members of clubs in Denmark, who play volleyball and handball, respectively at a highly competitive level. The target group is further divided into two age groups, consisting of a young target group, aged 15-19 years and an older target group aged 30-59 years. The choice of these specific age groups is based on Schmidt and Paw-lowski's (2021) study, which shows that the young people's activity level fell significantly more (36.6%) during the first closure than the older ones (6.3%). The empirical evidence of the thesis is based on qualitative research. This has been chosen as the problem focuses on how the individual has experienced the closure of organized sports. Against this background, an in-depth and nuanced picture can be created of the various aspects that may be the basis for the individual's physical activity level being affected during the pan-demic. The empirical consists of eight semi-structured interviews on life patterns. In the analysis, the (Super) Setting approach, the Community health approach and the concept of empowerment are used in an attempt to depict how organized sports appear as a health-promoting context in Danish society. Furthermore, Aaron Antonovsky's theory, Salutogenesis is covered by the concept of Experience of Coherence, used to shed light on how the corona pandemic has affected the informants' experience of coherence, as a result of a periodically lim-ited and inaccessible participation from organized sports. Robert Putnam's theory of Social Capital has been used in the study of how the closure of association sports has influenced the team's opportunities to maintain and develop social capital. This study found that organized sports as a health-promoting context require the right physical and structural conditions to be able to survive. This must be put in relation to the current health crisis, where this structural framework is no longer in force. A team sport requires the right setting as well as the presence of other participants for physical activities to unfold. Of these, the social aspect, including community and togetherness, is considered to be an important and primary driving force for maintaining a level of physical activity in the sports association. In connection with the corona pandemic, it appears that the young people have managed to be physically active on their own initiative, and thus replace the normal training they receive in the sports associations. The statements testify that the informants' general well-being has been af-fected during the closures in question. Young people find it difficult to find meaningful activi-ties that can be a substitute for the activities they normally engage in. Although the well-being of the informants has been affected by the given circumstances, they are all confident and ex-pect that their general well-being will normalize as soon as normal everyday life returns. The statements show that the informants intend to return strongly to organized sports when it reo-pens. However, the statements show a concern regarding whether the number of members will be affected by the closure, especially when it comes to children and young people's connection to association sports.
Eksisterende viden i form af studiet; “Physical Activity in Crisis: The Impact of COVID-19 on Danes’ Physical Activity Behavior” (Schmidt & Pawlowski, 2021) belyser, hvordan danskernes bevægelsesadfærd under nedlukningen tilbage i marts 2020 var skyld i, at danskernes fysiske aktivitetsniveau faldt med 16,1%. Disse tal er ud fra et sundhedsfremmende perspektiv bekymrende, da fysisk aktivitet er et vigtigt element i opretholdelsen af danskernes generelle sundhed. Indeværende speciale vil tage udgangspunkt i foreningsidrætten som genstandsfelt, da foreningsidrætten, herunder de aktive medlemmer, forventes at være særligt påvirket af nedlukninger, da de ikke længere har haft mulighed for at dyrke fysisk aktivitet som de plejer. Derfor vil indeværende speciale, gennem den filosofiske hermeneutik som tilgang, undersøge hvordan COVID-19 har influeret på den enkeltes oplevelse af og deltagelse i foreningsidrætten samt hvilke konsekvenser dette kan have for den enkeltes forhold/oplevelse til/af foreningsidrætten. Målgruppen består af otte aktive medlemmer af foreningsidrætten i Danmark, som dyrker en holdsport i henholdsvis volleyball og håndbold. Målgruppen er yderligere inddelt i to aldersgrupper bestående af en ung målgruppe i alderen 15-19 år og en ældre målgruppe i alderen 30-59 år. Valget af netop disse aldersgrupper baserer sig på Schmidt og Pawlowskis (2021) studie som viser, at de unges aktivitetsniveau faldt markant mere (36,6%) under den første nedlukning end de ældres (6,3%). Specialets empiriindsamling baserer sig på kvalitativ forskning. Dette er valgt, da problemstillingen fokuserer på, hvordan den enkelte har oplevet nedlukningen af foreningsidrætten. På den baggrund kan der skabes et dybdegående samt nuanceret billede af de forskellige aspekter som kan ligge til grund for, at den enkeltes fysiske aktivitetsniveau er blevet påvirket under pandemien. Empirien består af otte semistrukturerede livsverdensinterviews. I analysen er (Super)Setting-tilgangen, Community health-tilgangen og empowermentbegrebet anvendt i et forsøg på at skildrer, hvordan foreningsidrætten fremstår som en sundhedsfremmende kontekst i det danske samfund. Dernæst er Aaron Antonovskys teori Salutogenese omfattet af begrebet Oplevelse af sammenhæng (OAS) anvendt til belysning af, hvordan coronapandemien har påvirket informanternes OAS, som følge af en periodisk begrænset samt utilgængelig deltagelse i foreningsidrætten. Robert Putnams teori vedrørende Social kapital er benyttet i undersøgelsen af, hvordan nedlukningen af foreningsidrætten har influeret på holdets muligheder for at opretholde samt udvikle social kapital. Indeværende undersøgelse fandt, at foreningsidrætten som sundhedsfremmende kontekst kræver de rette fysiske og strukturelle betingelser for at kunne bestå. Dette skal sættes i relation til den nuværende sundhedskrise, hvor disse strukturelle rammer ikke længere er gældende. En holdsport kræver den rette setting samt tilstedeværelsen af andre deltagere for at fysiske aktiviteter kan udfolde sig. Heraf bliver det sociale aspekt, indbefattet af fællesskab og sammenhold, anset som værende en vigtig samt primær drivkraft for fastholdelse af et fysisk aktivitetsniveau i idrætsforeningen. I forbindelse med coronapandemien fremgår det, at de unge har formået at være fysisk aktive på eget initiativ, og dermed erstatte den normale træning de får i idrætsforeningerne. Udsagnene vidner om, at informanternes generelle trivsel er blevet påvirket under de pågældende nedlukninger. Særligt de unge giver udtryk for at have svært ved at finde meningsfulde aktiviteter, der kan indgå som en erstatning for de aktiviteter de under normale omstændigheder engagerer sig i. Selvom informanternes trivsel er blevet påvirket af de givne omstændigheder, er de alle fortrøstningsfulde og forventer at deres generelle trivsel vil normaliseres så snart den normale hverdag vender tilbage. Udsagnene viser, at informanterne har tænkt sig at vende stærkt tilbage til foreningsidrætten når den genåbner. Dog viser udsagnene en bekymring vedrørende, hvorvidt medlemstallet bliver berørt af nedlukningen, specielt når det kommer til børn og unges tilknytning til foreningsidrætten.
Subjects
free text keywords: Foreningsidræt, corona, covid-19, fysisk aktivitet, sundhed, holdsport, sundhedsfremme
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