Van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH, Holbrook MG, Gamble A, Williamson BN, et al. Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1, New England Journal of Medicine, 2020, https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmc2004973.
 Kampf G, Todt D, Pfaender S, Steinmann E. Persistence of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces and their inactivation with biocidal agents. Journal of Hospital Infection 2020, https://www.journalofhospitalinfection.com/article/S0195-6701(20)30046-3/fulltext. [OpenAIRE]
 Schaffer, Jonathan. "What Not to Multiply Without Necessity". Australasian Journal of Philosophy. 93 (4): 644-664, 2015.
 The Airbnb cleaning handbook: Your step-by-step guide to Airbnb's enhanced cleaning protocol, 38 pages, 2020.
 Sizun J, Yu MW, Talbot PJ. Survival of human coronaviruses 229E and OC43 in suspension and after drying on surfaces: a possible source of hospital-acquired infections. J Hosp Infect 2000, https://doi.org//10.1053/jhin.2000.0795. Version Information about changes V0.0.1 Early Draft by LL V0.0.2 changed TOC and added references by LL V0.0.3 added some contents by LL V0.0.4 few modifications by LL V0.0.5 UK pass by Suno Wood V0.0.6 few modifications by LL V0.0.7 Services and Flows V1.0 by LL & ES V0.0.8 Protocol V0.1 by LL V0.0.9 Protocol V0.2 by LL V0.1.0 Protocol V0.3 by LL + UK pass by Cees Lanting + changed TOC V0.2.0 Protocol V0.4 by LL + ES V0.2.1 Intro pass by CL V0.2.2 Protocol V0.5 by LL V0.2.3 Protocol V0.6 by LL + intro by SW V0.23.0 Protocol V0.7 by LL + ES
The present document defines properties and usage of IoT and M2M technology in Contact Tracing.It introduces the method of Asynchronous Contact Tracing (ACT). ACT registers the presence of SARS-CoV-2 virus on IoT connected objects (waste water, or air conditioning filters, or dirty objects, or dirty cleaning tools, etc.) or connected locations (such as a shops, restaurants, corridors in a supermarket, sanitary facilities in a shopping mall, railway stations, airports terminals and gates, etc.) using Group Test (sometime called in the literature Pooling Test).ACT identifies contacts with IoT connected objects that have been contaminated by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and works in synergy with solutions designed for manual and digital contact tracing to identify and alert people who may have been infected by the virus. In case the object is suspected to host or have hosted the SARS-CoV-2 virus, ACT allows users that have been in contact with the object or visited the connected location to be informed.This shifts the paradigm from synchronously tracing the contacts of the people infected by COVID-19 to asynchronously tracing of contacts of materials (such as infected surfaces, waste-water, air-conditioning filters, etc.) that are hosting the SARS-CoV-2 virus.This enables people who have come into contact asynchronously with those particular materials to be alerted of a potential COVID-19 contagion, and, at the same time, it signals that one or more persons have been in contact with the material which is now spreading the SARS-CoV-2 virus.; Asynchronous Contact Tracing (ACT) traces the IoT connected object that may have been infected by the Covid-19 virus (or future pandemic viruses). This shifts the paradigm, from searching for a person in the process of infecting another to the tracing of both potential contamination and infections, and leveraging on the combination of the two information.The scope of this WI is to standardize the full support of Asynchronous Contact Tracing (ACT) by means of1) providing some examples of use and deployment of ACT by means of a few explanatory use cases.2) specifying the ACT method and its interaction with deployed contact tracing applications for human and systems. This includes the interaction with the different technologies used by non ACT contact tracing solutions.3) specifying the ACT system including application protocols and API.The new ACT method will require the use of existing ready-to-market IoT-based technology and well-established wireless network techniques, in particular the ones specified in the ETSI standards ecosystem. Moreover, it will preserve the user's privacy in accordance with GDPR and/or other regional requirements not requiring the transmission of any personal information by the user.