Writing the history of ancient religions usually starts with the gods, considered as personifications linked by kinship or affinity. Yet this oversimplified approach overlooks the fact that gods are multifaceted powers, not individuals. MAP proposes to exploit the epithets attributed to the gods as the most efficient indicator of their multiple powers and modes of action, as well as their connection to places where humans interact with them. Epithets identify the god(s) invoked and thus enhance the effectiveness of ritual communication. With the great number of combinations produced by epithets, their entire repertoire results in a highly complex system of divine networks. The volume and complexity of the data is beyond the limits of what traditional methods can handle. Today, thanks to Big Data and Social Network technologies, which deal with large related groups, we can map the divine and understand how human societies modified these ensembles of names and epithets to meet their needs. MAP intends, for the first time, to compile all attestations of divine epithets in context to enable large-scale analyses. It adopts a comparative approach to two areas: the Greek world and the Western Semitic world during the first millennium BC. Methodologically, MAP innovates by linking the systematic compiling of epithets with Social Network Analysis in order to map the groups, links and polarities of the networks that divine epithets reveal, and interprets them in the light of historical dynamics. Understanding the interface between systems and contexts is one of the major gains of MAP. Religion is explored as an area of social experimentation between norms and inventiveness. MAP also revisits the relationship between religious thought and practice, and between polytheistic and monotheistic systems, questioning the relevance of these categories. The results promise considerable advances in our understanding of ancient religions.
InnEO’Space_PhD project aims at preparing post-graduate candidates and early stage researchers for a successful career through modernised and transferable PhD courses based on innovation skills and employers’ needs. To achieve this, the project will enhance and develop researchers’ innovation-oriented mind-sets and skills through Earth Observation, that offers a multidisciplinary approach and numerous applications in various sectors (environment, climate change, crisis management…). By converging to a joint PhD profile, synergies between universities will be enhanced to promote exchanges and mobility. The project will also create new synergies between: - PhD students and researchers and potential employers, and, - the universities and the private sector. Indeed, the consortium will collaborate with companies, SMEs and clusters to develop the activities, enhance PhD students and early sThe aim of the Open Science innovation in PhD programme through Earth Observation is to prepare young researchers for a successful career by developing modernised PhD courses based on innovation skills and employers’ needs. By implementing four pilots at a large scale and across Europe in the multidisciplinary case of Earth-Observation science applications, the consortium will get a broad mapping of best practices to develop a e-learning course and a PhD career tool kit that will remain accessible after the end of the project. The e-learning course will then be a useful tool for any university, which wants to foster new careers for PhD students and researchers from any domain by providing them with transferable skills to fit the European industry and stakeholder needs other than academic labs. The InnEO’Space_PhD shall stand for a special academic excellence for future scientific leaders in any field related to EO, enlarging their training and experience with soft skills, environment monitoring, open science and entrepreneurship, that are needed elements for innovation at any level.