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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Robert, Colebunders; Joseph Nelson, Siewe Fodjo; Guido, Vanham; Rafael, Van den Bergh;

    Following the easing of lockdown measures in many sub-Saharan African countries, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases have been on the rise. As the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, may be difficult to stop in these settings, we propose that the existing COVID-19 prevention strategies aimed at reducing overall transmission are complemented with more targeted strategies to protect people at risk of severe COVID-19 disease. We suggest investigating the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of distributing COVID-19 prevention kits to households with persons at increased risk of severe COVID-19 disease. Highlights • Curbing the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, may be difficult in sub-Saharan Africa. • Overall COVID-19-related mortality remains low because of the young population. • Protecting vulnerable individuals from severe disease should be a priority.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    International Journal of Infectious Diseases
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      International Journal of Infectious Diseases
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    Authors: Stein, Felix; Sridhar, Devi;

    In the final article of the series Felix Stein and Devi Sridhar examine how the World Bank is trying to provide finance to improve preparedness for global pandemics

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    BMJ
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Paul Brandily; Clément Brébion; Simon Briole; Laura Khoury;

    Mortality inequalities remain substantial in many countries, and large shocks such as pandemics could amplify them further. The unequal distribution of COVID-19 confirmed cases suggests that this is the case. Yet, evidence on the causal effect of the epidemic on mortality inequalities remains scarce. In this paper, we exploit exhaustive municipality-level data in France, one of the most severely hit country in the world, to identify a negative relationship between income and excess mortality within urban areas, that persists over COVID-19 waves. Over the year 2020, the poorest municipalities experienced a 30% higher increase in excess mortality. Our analyses can rule out an independent contribution of lockdown policies to this heterogeneous impact. Finally, we find evidence that both labour-market exposure and housing conditions are major determinants of the epidemic-induced effects of COVID-19 on mortality inequalities, but that their respective role depends on the state of the epidemic.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    European Economic Review
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    Hal-Diderot
    Preprint . 2021
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    European Economic Review
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: Research@CBS
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Bitar, Mohammad; Tarazi, Amine;

    International audience; We see spikes in unemployment rates and turbulence in the securities markets during the COVID-19 pandemic. Governments are responding with aggressive monetary expansions and large-scale economic relief plans. We discuss the implications on banks and the economy of prudential regulatory intervention to soften the treatment of non-performing loans and ease bank capital buffers. We apply these easing measures on a sample of Globally Systemically Important Banks (G-SIBs) and show that these banks can play a constructive role in sustaining economic growth during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, softening the treatment of non-performing loans along with easing capital buffers should not undermine banks' solvency in the recovery period. Banks should maintain usable buffer in the medium-term horizon to absorb future losses, as the effect of COVID-19 on the economy might take time to fully materialise.

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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Financial Stability
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Data sources: Crossref
    SSRN Electronic Journal
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2022
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  • Authors: Nepomuk Dunz; Andrea Mazzocchetti; Irene Monasterolo; Arthur H. Essenfelder; +1 Authors

    Climate risks often do not happen in isolation but can compound with other sources of stress such as pandemics and pre-existing financial vulnerabilities, particularly in emerging countries. Compounding events increase the complexity of risk, leading to cascading impacts in the economy and finance. Thus, tailoring macroeconomic models to include compound risk considerations can inform effective recovery policies, avoiding to underestimate risk. We build on the EIRIN macrofinancial model (Monasterolo & Raberto, 2018, 2019) to quantitatively assess the direct and indirect impacts of compound COVID-19 and climate physical risks in the economy and finance, accounting for the fiscal and monetary policy response to shocks. EIRIN captures the richness of climate risk transmission to the economy and finance in a rigorous accounting framework. In addition, EIRIN explicitly embeds a financial sector and financial market, thereby allowing the analysis of the impact of financial feedbacks on endogenous investment and consumption decisions, and on policy effectiveness. Then, via a compound risk indicator, we quantify the non-linearity of compound risk on GDP through time. We calibrate the model on Mexico, a country that is highly exposed to hurricane hazard and COVID-19, and deeply integrated in the global value chain, representing a potential channel of cascading risks. We show that compounding climate physical and COVID-19 risk can give rise to non-linear dynamics that amplify losses, with implications on private and public debt sustainability. The initial shocks’ magnitude and their specific risk transmission channels contribute to explain the evolution of compound risks, given the country’s pre-shock characteristics. Credit market constraints can amplify the shock by limiting firms’ recovery investments, thus mining the effectiveness of increasing fiscal spending. Fiscal policies that depart from a business as usual recovery, and align to climate objectives, could help to build resilience to compound risk, avoiding increases in countries’ divergence and debt sustainability challenges.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cyrus, Elena; Clarke, Rachel; Hadley, Dexter; Bursac, Zoran; +11 Authors

    ABSTRACT Importance The novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), declared a pandemic in March 2020, may present with disproportionately higher rates in underrepresented racial/ethnic minority populations in the United States, including African American communities who have traditionally been over-represented in negative health outcomes. Study Objective To understand the impact of the density of African American communities (defined as the percentage of African Americans in a county) on COVID-19 prevalence and death rate within the three most populous counties in each U.S. state and territory (n=152). Design An ecological study using linear regression was employed for the study. Setting The top three most populous counties of each U.S. state and territory were included in analyses for a final sample size of n=152 counties. Participants Confirmed COVID-19 cases and deaths that were accumulated between January 22, 2020 and April 12, 2020 in each of the three most populous counties in each U.S. state and territory were included. Main outcome measures Linear regression was used to determine the association between African American density and COVID-19 prevalence (defined as the percentage of cases for the county population), and death rate (defined as number of deaths per 100,000 population). The models were adjusted for median age and poverty. Results There was a direct association between African American density and COVID-19 prevalence; COVID-19 prevalence increased 5% for every 1% increase in county AA density (p Conclusion These study findings indicate that communities with a high African American density have been disproportionately burdened with COVID-19. Further study is needed to indicate if this burden is related to environmental factors or individual factors such as types of employment or comorbidities that members of these community have. Key Points Question What is the impact of the density of African American communities (defined as the percentage of African Americans in a county) on COVID-19 prevalence and death rate by U.S. counties. Findings This ecological study including the three most populous counties in each U.S. state and territory, found that COVID-19 prevalence increased 5% for every percentage increase in county African American density, and that the death rate increased 2 per hundred thousand for every percentage increase in county African American density. Both were statistically significant increases. Meaning These study findings indicate that communities with a high African American density have been disproportionately burdened with COVID-19.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    medRxiv
    Preprint . 2020
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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    Health Equity
    Article . Preprint . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Mary Ann Liebert TDM
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2020
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      medRxiv
      Preprint . 2020
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Health Equity
      Article . Preprint . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Mandel, Antoine; Veetil, Vipin;

    International audience This paper estimates the cost of the lockdown of some sectors of the world economy in the wake of COVID-19. We develop a multi sector disequilibrium model with buyer-seller relations between agents located in different countries. The production network model allows us to study not only the direct cost of the lockdown but also indirect costs which emerge from the reductions in the availability of intermediate inputs. Agents determine the quantity of output and the proportions in which to combine inputs using prices that emerge from local interactions. The model is calibrated to the world economy using input-output data on 56 industries in 44 countries including all major economies. Within our model, the lockdowns are implemented as partial reductions in the output of some sectors using data on sectoral decomposition of capacity reductions. We use computational experiments to replicate the temporal sequence of the lockdowns implemented in different countries. World output falls by 7% at the early stage of the crisis when only China is under lockdown and by 23% at the peak of the crisis when many countries are under a lockdown. These direct impacts are amplified as the shock propagates through the world economy because of the buyer-seller relations. Supply-chain spillovers are capable of amplifying the direct impact by more than two folds. Naturally, the substitutability between intermediate inputs is a major determinant of the amplification. We also study the process of economic recovery following the end of the lockdowns. Price flexibility and minor technological adaptations help in reducing the time it takes for the economy to recover. The world economy takes about one quarter to move towards the new equilibrium in the optimistic and unlikely scenario of the end of all lockdowns. Recovery time is likely to be significantly greater if partial lockdowns persist.

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    ZENODO
    Article . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: ZENODO
    SSRN Electronic Journal
    Other literature type . Article . 2021 . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Melissa Mialon; Ilana Pinsky; Laura A. Schmidt;

    ### Summary box The COVID-19 pandemic might present opportunities for transnational food and beverage companies to further consolidate their power within global markets.1 2 Some companies, for example, seem to be currying favour of governments, civil society organisations and communities by handing out free ultraprocessed products to the food insecure through heavily branded philanthropic initiatives.3 Other companies have used the pandemic to forge stronger alliances with government and civil society actors, which may water down or even silence criticism about the negative health impacts resulting from the consumption of their products, particularly ultraprocessed ones.3 This was epitomised by the WHO Foundation’s recent decision to accept funding from Nestle, despite Nestle’s ongoing breaches of the WHO Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes.4 The company’s donations for COVID-19 aid even got a ‘thank you’ from WHO on social media.5 One need look no farther than the last global crisis, the 2007–2008 Great Recession, to understand the food and beverage industry’s behaviour during the COVID-19 crisis. It is notable that the top three publicly traded food and beverage companies emerged from the …

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    BMJ Global Health
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    BMJ Global Health
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    BMJ Global Health
    Article . 2021
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    The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      Article . 2021
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      The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
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    Authors: Quaife, Matthew; van Zandvoort, Kevin; Gimma, Amy; Shah, Kashvi; +53 Authors

    AbstractBackgroundMany low- and middle-income countries have implemented control measures against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, it is not clear to what extent these measures explain the low numbers of recorded COVID-19 cases and deaths in Africa. One of the main aims of control measures is to reduce respiratory pathogen transmission through direct contact with others. In this study we collect contact data from residents of informal settlements around Nairobi, Kenya to assess if control measures have changed contact patterns, and estimate the impact of changes on the basic reproduction number (R0).MethodsWe conducted a social contact survey with 213 residents of five informal settlements around Nairobi in early May 2020, four weeks after the Kenyan government introduced enhanced physical distancing measures and a curfew between 7pm and 5am. Respondents were asked to report all direct physical and non-physical contacts made the previous day, alongside a questionnaire asking about the social and economic impact of COVID-19 and control measures. We examined contact patterns by demographic factors, including socioeconomic status. We described the impact of COVID-19 and control measures on income and food security. We compared contact patterns during control measures to patterns from non-pandemic periods to estimate the change in R0.FindingsWe estimate that control measures reduced physical and non-physical contacts, reducing the R0 from around 2.6 to between 0.5 and 0.7, depending on the pre-COVID-19 comparison matrix used. Masks were worn by at least one person in 92% of contacts. Respondents in the poorest socioeconomic quintile reported 1.5 times more contacts than those in the richest. 86% of respondents reported a total or partial loss of income due to COVID-19, and 74% reported eating less or skipping meals due to having too little money for food.InterpretationCOVID-19 control measures have had a large impact on direct contacts and therefore transmission, but have also caused considerable economic and food insecurity. Reductions in R0 are consistent with the linear epidemic growth in Kenya and other sub-Saharan African countries that implemented similar, early control measures. However, negative and inequitable impacts on economic and food security may mean control measures are not sustainable in the longer term.Research in contextEvidence before this studyWe conducted a PubMed search on 6 June 2020 with no language restrictions for studies published since inception, using the search terms (“social mix*” OR “social cont*” OR “contact pattern*) AND (“covid*”). The search yielded 53 articles, two of which reported changes in social contacts after COVID-19 control measures. The first study reported changes in contact patterns in Wuhan and Shanghai, and the second changes in contact patterns in the UK. We found no studies examining changes in contact patterns due to control measures in sub-Saharan Africa, and no studies disaggregating contacts by socioeconomic status.Added value of this studyThis is the first study to estimate the reproduction number of COVID-19 under control measures in sub-Saharan Africa using primary contact data. This study also moves beyond existing work to i) measure contacts in densely populated informal settlements, ii) explore how social contacts vary across socioeconomic status, and iii) assess the impact of control measures on economic and food security in these areas.Implications of all the evidenceCOVID-19 control measures have substantially reduced social contacts and disease transmission. People of lower socioeconomic status face greater transmission risk as they report more contacts. Control measures have led to considerable economic and food insecurity, and may not be sustainable in the long term without efforts to reduce the burden of control measures on households.

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    medRxiv
    Preprint . 2020
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    BMC Medicine
    Article . Preprint
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    BMC Medicine
    Article . 2020
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      Preprint . 2020
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Authors: Rose, Tanith C; Mason, Kate; Pennington, Andy; McHale, Philip; +3 Authors

    AbstractBackgroundInitial reports suggest that ethnic minorities may be experiencing more severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19) outcomes. We therefore assessed the association between ethnic composition, income deprivation and COVID19 mortality rates in England.MethodsWe performed a cross-sectional ecological analysis across England’s upper-tier local authorities. We assessed the association between the proportion of the population from Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) backgrounds, income deprivation and COVID19 mortality rates using multivariable negative binomial regression, adjusting for population density, proportion of the population aged 50–79 and 80+ years, and the duration of the epidemic in each area.FindingsLocal authorities with a greater proportion of residents from ethnic minority backgrounds had statistically significantly higher COVID19 mortality rates, as did local authorities with a greater proportion of residents experiencing deprivation relating to low income. After adjusting for income deprivation and other covariates, each percentage point increase in the proportion of the population from BAME backgrounds was associated with a 1% increase in the COVID19 mortality rate [IRR=1.01, 95%CI 1.01–1.02]. Each percentage point increase in the proportion of the population experiencing income deprivation was associated with a 2% increase in the COVID19 mortality rate [IRR=1.02, 95%CI 1.01–1.04].InterpretationThis study provides evidence that both income deprivation and ethnicity are associated with greater COVID19 mortality. To reduce these inequalities, Government needs to target effective control and recovery measures at these disadvantaged communities, proportionate to their greater needs and vulnerabilities, during and following the pandemic.FundingNational Institute of Health Research; Medical Research Council

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    medRxiv
    Preprint . 2020
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      Preprint . 2020
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Robert, Colebunders; Joseph Nelson, Siewe Fodjo; Guido, Vanham; Rafael, Van den Bergh;

    Following the easing of lockdown measures in many sub-Saharan African countries, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases have been on the rise. As the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, may be difficult to stop in these settings, we propose that the existing COVID-19 prevention strategies aimed at reducing overall transmission are complemented with more targeted strategies to protect people at risk of severe COVID-19 disease. We suggest investigating the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of distributing COVID-19 prevention kits to households with persons at increased risk of severe COVID-19 disease. Highlights • Curbing the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, may be difficult in sub-Saharan Africa. • Overall COVID-19-related mortality remains low because of the young population. • Protecting vulnerable individuals from severe disease should be a priority.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    International Journal of Infectious Diseases
    Article
    License: CC BY NC ND
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      International Journal of Infectious Diseases
      Article
      License: CC BY NC ND
      Data sources: UnpayWall