Background: The newly identified coronavirus known as 2019-nCoV has posed a serious global health threat. According to the latest report (18-February-2020), it has infected more than 72,000 people globally and led to deaths of more than 1,016 people in China. Methods: The 2019 novel coronavirus proteome was aligned to a curated database of viral immunogenic peptides. The immunogenicity of detected peptides and their binding potential to HLA alleles was predicted by immunogenicity predictive models and NetMHCpan 4.0. Results: We report in silico identification of a comprehensive list of immunogenic peptides that can be used as potential targets for 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) vaccine development. First, we found 28 nCoV peptides identical to Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS CoV) that have previously been characterized immunogenic by T cell assays. Second, we identified 48 nCoV peptides having a high degree of similarity with immunogenic peptides deposited in The Immune Epitope Database (IEDB). Lastly, we conducted a de novo search of 2019-nCoV 9-mer peptides that i) bind to common HLA alleles in Chinese and European population and ii) have T Cell Receptor (TCR) recognition potential by positional weight matrices and a recently developed immunogenicity algorithm, iPred, and identified in total 63 peptides with a high immunogenicity potential. Conclusions: Given the limited time and resources to develop vaccine and treatments for 2019-nCoV, our work provides a shortlist of candidates for experimental validation and thus can accelerate development pipeline.
Rabies can be prevented and managed effectively through routine rabies vaccinations for dogs, with vaccination coverage reaching 70% to form herd immunity. The emergence of the Covid-19 pandemic caused the implementation of rabies vaccination for dogs in The Sanur Region to experience limitations, resulting in a decrease in rabies vaccination coverage. The purpose of this study was to determine rabies vaccination in dogs by owners and related factors during the Covid-19 pandemic in the Sanur area, based on the Precede-Proceed Model theory by Lawrence Green. This study uses a quantitative analytical observational method with cross-sectional design. The study was conducted from March to May 2021, using primary data from 155 dog owners who live in The Sanur Region of Denpasar, and were selected based on proportional random sampling. Primary data collected from online questionnaires were analyzed in three stages, descriptive analysis, different proportion test (chi square), and logistic regression test. The results of the analysis using the chi square test and logistic regression showed that only three variables had a significant influence on the behavior of dog owners in giving rabies vaccinations for their dogs during the Covid-19 pandemic, namely education (OR=140.68;95%CI:10, 77-1837.64), income (OR=13.04;95%CI:2.98-57.06), and knowledge (OR=32.36;95%CI:9.43-111.08).
Keywords: Rabies Vaccination, Dog Owner Behavior
Oscar N Whitney; Basem Al-Shayeb; Alex Crits-Cristoph; Mira Chaplin; Vinson Fan; Hannah Greenwald; Adrian Hinkle; Rose Kantor; Lauren Kennedy; Anna Maurer; +3 more
Oscar N Whitney; Basem Al-Shayeb; Alex Crits-Cristoph; Mira Chaplin; Vinson Fan; Hannah Greenwald; Adrian Hinkle; Rose Kantor; Lauren Kennedy; Anna Maurer; Robert Tjian; UC Berkeley Wastewater-based epidemiology consortium; Kara L Nelson;
This protocol describes the procedure of the "4S" (Sewage, Salt, Silica and SARS-CoV-2) method for SARS-CoV-2 RNA extraction from wastewater. Offering a highly efficient, modular and economical alternative to existing wastewater RNA purification methods, this procedure lowers the barrier to entry for SARS-CoV-2 wastewater-based epidemiology. This procedure is intended to be carried out in a BSL2+ laboratory space, with precautions when handling raw wastewater samples.
This chapter assessed the higher education functions policy development, inequalities, financial management, sport coding, funding, graduation and examination, library and information management, teaching and learning, research, engagement and partnership, internationalization, health and welfare, and infrastructure. The literature review and document analysis were used to review the literature. The study found that the Department of higher Education and Training was not fully prepared for the pandemic. Hence, the pandemic had positive and negative impacts on the South African higher education. This study was limited to South African universities. Further studies can be extended to other universities.
In order to answer the question whether coronaviruses (CoVs) can be transmitted via foods, this review made a comparison between CoVs with the most recognized foodborne virus, human noroviruses (NoVs). As a result, although CoVs indeed have shown the possibilities to remain infectious on foods and/or food packaging materials long enough (from several days to several weeks) to potentially cause transmission, they seem to be less persistent than NoVs towards common disinfection practices with alcohols, chlorine and ultraviolet (UV). More importantly, the chance of foodborne transmission of CoVs is considered low as CoVs mainly spread through the respiratory tract and there is no clear evidence showing CoVs can follow fecal-oral routes like human NoVs and other foodborne viruses.
Abstract Background It is becoming increasingly common for individuals and organizations to use social media platforms such as Facebook. These are being used for a wide variety of purposes including disseminating, discussing and seeking health related information. U.S. Federal health agencies are leveraging these platforms to ‘engage’ social media users to read, spread, promote and encourage health related discussions. However, different agencies and their communications get varying levels of engagement. In this study we use statistical models to identify factors that associate with engagement. Methods We analyze over 45,000 Facebook posts from 72 Facebook accounts belonging to 24 health agencies. Account usage, user activity, sentiment and content of these posts are studied. We use the hurdle regression model to identify factors associated with the level of engagement and Cox proportional hazards model to identify factors associated with duration of engagement. Results In our analysis we find that agencies and accounts vary widely in their usage of social media and activity they generate. Statistical analysis shows, for instance, that Facebook posts with more visual cues such as photos or videos or those which express positive sentiment generate more engagement. We further find that posts on certain topics such as occupation or organizations negatively affect the duration of engagement. Conclusions We present the first comprehensive analyses of engagement with U.S. Federal health agencies on Facebook. In addition, we briefly compare and contrast findings from this study to our earlier study with similar focus but on Twitter to show the robustness of our methods.
Jason A. Rothman; Theresa B Loveless; Joseph Kapcia; Eric D Adams; Joshua A. Steele; Amity G. Zimmer-Faust; Kylie Langlois; David Wanless; Madison Griffith; Lucy Mao; +3 more
Jason A. Rothman; Theresa B Loveless; Joseph Kapcia; Eric D Adams; Joshua A. Steele; Amity G. Zimmer-Faust; Kylie Langlois; David Wanless; Madison Griffith; Lucy Mao; Jeffrey Chokry; John F. Griffith; Katrine Whiteson;
ABSTRACT Municipal wastewater provides an integrated sample of a diversity of human-associated microbes across a sewershed, including viruses. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is a promising strategy to detect pathogens and may serve as an early warning system for disease outbreaks. Notably, WBE has garnered substantial interest during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic to track disease burden through analyses of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA. Throughout the COVID-19 outbreak, tracking SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater has been an important tool for understanding the spread of the virus. Unlike traditional sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 isolated from clinical samples, which adds testing burden to the health care system, in this study, metatranscriptomics was used to sequence virus directly from wastewater. Here, we present a study in which we explored RNA viral diversity through sequencing 94 wastewater influent samples across seven wastewater treatment plants (WTPs), collected from August 2020 to January 2021, representing approximately 16 million people in Southern California. Enriched viral libraries identified a wide diversity of RNA viruses that differed between WTPs and over time, with detected viruses including coronaviruses, influenza A, and noroviruses. Furthermore, single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) of SARS-CoV-2 were identified in wastewater, and we measured proportions of overall virus and SNVs across several months. We detected several SNVs that are markers for clinically important SARS-CoV-2 variants along with SNVs of unknown function, prevalence, or epidemiological consequence. Our study shows the potential of WBE to detect viruses in wastewater and to track the diversity and spread of viral variants in urban and suburban locations, which may aid public health efforts to monitor disease outbreaks. IMPORTANCE Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) can detect pathogens across sewersheds, which represents the collective waste of human populations. As there is a wide diversity of RNA viruses in wastewater, monitoring the presence of these viruses is useful for public health, industry, and ecological studies. Specific to public health, WBE has proven valuable during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic to track the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) without adding burden to health care systems. In this study, we used metatranscriptomics and reverse transcription-droplet digital PCR (RT-ddPCR) to assay RNA viruses across Southern California wastewater from August 2020 to January 2021, representing approximately 16 million people from Los Angeles, Orange, and San Diego counties. We found that SARS-CoV-2 quantification in wastewater correlates well with county-wide COVID-19 case data, and that we can detect SARS-CoV-2 single-nucleotide variants through sequencing. Likewise, wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) harbored different viromes, and we detected other human pathogens, such as noroviruses and adenoviruses, furthering our understanding of wastewater viral ecology.
The cruise ship industry is one of the fastest-growing segments of the tourism sector. In 2019, the industry transported over 30 million passengers across the world, creating over 1.11 million jobs. In as much as the industry plays such a significant role to global and regional economies, it remains vulnerable to a cocktail of challenges, including disease outbreaks. The chapter documents the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global cruise ship industry. Secondary data and document analyses were the main forms of data collection used, while content and thematic analyses were used to analyse the data. The results showed that the COVID-19 outbreak imposed both economic and human costs to the industry. The outbreak decimated the industry, which saw the value of shipping companies’ stock falling by up to 80% in March 2020, with major sources of revenue shut due to the suspension of cruises. With no bailout packages in many instances, the industry faced bankruptcy and imminent collapse. COVID-19 also left the industry facing several criminal investigations and lawsuits due to passenger infections on board. Some ships were denied access to ports and medical facilities on land due to fear of spreading the virus. Those that got access were not allowed disembarkations, with passengers often quarantined for days or weeks. This resulted in additional infections, trauma and psychological stress of the passengers. Probably the biggest loss the industry has incurred is reputational damage, and this has had the potential to impact negatively on its ability to recover after the COVID-19 shock. Through improved public health standards, aggressive marketing and the offering of massive discounts, the industry has the potential to rebound from the COVID-19 disaster. These stand out as the chapter’s key recommendations.
Purpose This study aims to conduct a critical review of the research on the sharing economy to identify its key intellectual foundations and their evolution and offers thematic and methodological recommendations for future research to advance the domain. Design/methodology/approach A tri-method approach using bibliometric (co-citation) analysis, thematic content analysis and a quantitative systematic literature review was conducted on sharing economy research in hospitality and tourism journals, up to and including May 2020. Findings The findings from the three methods were coherent and provide a clear picture of the fact that while research on the sharing economy in hospitality and tourism has achieved significant depth, the breadth of the understanding of this area remains somewhat limited. Each of the three periods of research on the sharing economy identified in the study were marked by a focus on specific thematic areas, with largely Western-situated researchers demonstrating limited theoretical engagement and using a limited range of methods and perspectives (disciplinary, stakeholders and sectors) to examine these themes. Research limitations/implications Recommendations for future thematic research opportunities are provided using a multi-level perspective. The present review does not include research that incorporates the impacts of COVID-19, which has significantly disrupted the hospitality and tourism industry and is the focus of current research in the field. However, the review represents the largest and most comprehensive assessment of the state of research on the sharing economy prior to COVID-19, and, as such, can serve as a valuable baseline for future reviews of sharing economy research during and after the pandemic. Originality/value In contrast with previous literature reviews, the present review is comprehensive in its scope, methodology and temporal coverage of sharing economy research. It also examines the evolution of research on the topic, enabling a more nuanced identification of gaps and future thematic and methodological research opportunities.