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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Andrés Barrios-Rubio; Maria Gutiérrez García;
    Publisher: Ediciones Profesionales de la Informacion SL
    Country: Spain

    The communication industry in Colombia has promoted over the last decade a process of transformation and design of new proposals in both traditional media and digital natives, a range of operational strategies to distribute textual, sound, and visual formats through the social networks, adapting the content to the particularities and attributes of each one of them. The irruption of the implementation of the peace accords, the pandemic and citizen nonconformity taken to the streets have served to verify the real dimension of this reconfiguration, as well as its effectiveness in terms of credibility and scope in the face of an unprecedented scenario that has transformed the social and cultural interaction of citizens through technology. This research focuses on the response of Colombian journalistic agents to the demand for information during the period 2019, 2020 and 2021, from a mixed quantitative-descriptive methodology that allows identifying, quantifying, and assessing the relationship between newspapers, radio stations and television channels with the new platforms. The corpus of the study is made up of the publications on social networks of the Colombian media with the greatest circulation according to the Colombian Association for Media Research: two newspapers (El tiempo and El espectador), five radio stations (Caracol radio, W radio, Blu radio, RCN radio and La FM) and the news from the two television networks with the highest audience (Noticias Caracol and Noticias RCN). The results of the study show a reinforcement of the brand of the journalistic company as a reference for information and credibility, however, the current situation has not served to legitimize the role of journalists in social networks and has underlined the fragility of a media ecosystem highly exposed to polarization, manipulation, and mistrust. Resumen La industria de la comunicación en Colombia ha impulsado a lo largo de la última década un proceso de transformación y diseño de nuevas propuestas tanto en medios tradicionales como en nativos digitales, gama de estrategias operativas para distribuir formatos textuales, sonoros y visuales a través de las redes sociales, adaptando los contenidos a las particularidades y atributos de cada una de ellas. La irrupción de la implementación de los acuerdos de paz, la pandemia y el inconformismo ciudadano llevado a las calles han servido para constatar la dimensión real de esa reconfiguración, así como su efectividad en términos de credibilidad y alcance ante un escenario inédito que ha transformado la interacción social y cultural de los ciudadanos a través de la tecnología. Esta investigación centra su atención en la respuesta de los agentes periodísticos colombianos a la demanda de información durante el periodo 2019, 2020 y 2021, desde una metodología mixta cuantitativo-descriptiva que permite identificar, cuantificar y valorar la relación entre periódicos, emisoras de radio y canales de televisión con las nuevas plataformas. El corpus del estudio está compuesto por las publicaciones en redes sociales de los medios colombianos con mayor difusión según la Asociación Colombiana de Investigación de Medios: dos periódicos (El tiempo y El espectador), cinco cadenas de radio (Caracol radio, W radio, Blu radio, RCN radio y La FM) y los informativos de las dos cadenas televisivas de mayor audiencia (Noticias Caracol y Noticias RCN). Los resultados del estudio evidencian un refuerzo de la marca de la empresa periodística como referente de información y credibilidad, no obstante, la coyuntura del momento no ha servido para legitimar el papel de los periodistas en las redes sociales, y ha subrayado la fragilidad de un ecosistema mediático muy expuesto a la polarización, la manipulación y la desconfianza.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tomer Illouz; Arya Biragyn; Milana Frenkel-Morgenstern; Orly Weissberg; Alessandro Gorohovski; Eugene Merzon; Ilan Green; Florencia Iulita; Lisi Flores-Aguilar; Mara Dierssen; +14 more
    Country: Spain
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Blanca León-Nabal; Cristina Zhang-Yu; José Luis Lalueza;
    Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
    Country: Spain

    The COVID-19 pandemic has sharpened the inequalities in our societies. In Spain, we observed that the impact on schooling varied according to socioeconomic, gender and sociocultural variables. In this article, we present a case analysis illustrating the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on schooling in early educational grades (ages 3–6), which leads us to focus on school-family relationship. First, we present some studies that show the inequalities in education during the lockdown period, the digital divide faced by both schools and families and how digital mediation impacts school-family relationships. Then we will introduce our study, which aims to explore the uses, potentials and limitations of an app intended to facilitate the relationship. Our study took place during September 2020-January 2021, when social restriction persisted. It took the form of a telematic ethnography in which we monitored the meetings of the Early Childhood Education teachers and their interaction with the families via an app-based communication tool. Results have allowed us to identify that most conversations are initiated by the school and their aim is to show families the classroom activities. We have also observed some advantages regarding the use of this app: communication can become more direct and immediate, and teachers have developed strategies to foster proximity in this relationship, as well as to respond inclusively to diversity. Regarding the challenges, we identified the lack of involvement of some families, the need to transform the roles played by families and children, and the difficulty to maintain personalized relationships This research was funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness (MINECO), the Spanish State Research Agency (AEI), and the European Regional Development Funds (European Union), grant number EDU2017-83363-R

  • Publication . Article . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Charlotte E. Blattner;
    Country: Spain

    Within just a few weeks, COVID-19 has caused unprecedented lockdowns, the extensive use of emergency powers, shifts in how and who makes decisions, and unforeseen consequences for marginalized and newly marginalized individuals. Political leaders and journalists were quick to blame animals, such as bats and pangolins, as the ones "responsible" for this crisis. These accusations have led to animals being stigmatized globally; in some places, they were burned or otherwise killed by the hundreds. Framing animals as the scapegoats of the Corona crisis, however, is neither useful nor justified. Ultimately, it isn't animals themselves, but the way in which we treat them that is the true cause of the pandemic. For the first time in history, experts from diverse fields such as has epidemiology, biology, chemistry, physics, and public health have called for a fundamental change in our relationships with animals. However, they do not sufficiently address what this change and our relationships with animals should look like in the future. Drawing on the recent "political turn" in animal ethics, this paper argues that COVID-19 prompts us to begin working to establish a Zoopolis - a shared interspecies society between humans and domesticated animals, and the recognition of wild animals as sovereigns. In doing so, the paper discusses linkages between pandemics and factory farming, structural similarities between human and animal oppression, and opportunities to consider animals in determining the public good, and to work toward a shared interspecies society. En tan solo unas pocas semanas, el COVID-19 ha causado bloqueos sin precedentes, el uso extensivo de poderes de emergencia, cambios en cómo y quién toma decisiones y consecuencias imprevistas para las personas marginadas y recientemente marginadas. Los líderes políticos y periodistas se apresuraron a culpar a los animales, como murciélagos y pangolines, como los "responsables" de esta crisis. Estas acusaciones han llevado a que los animales sean estigmatizados a nivel mundial; en algunos lugares, fueron quemados o asesinados por cientos. Sin embargo, enmarcar a los animales como chivos expiatorios de la crisis del Corona no es útil ni está justificado. En última instancia, no son los animales en sí mismos, sino la forma en que los tratamos, la verdadera causa de la pandemia. Por primera vez en la historia, expertos de diversos campos como la epidemiología, la biología, la química, la física y la salud pública han pedido un cambio fundamental en nuestras relaciones con los animales. Sin embargo, no abordan suficientemente cómo deberían ser este cambio y nuestras relaciones con los animales en el futuro. Basándose en el reciente "giro político" en la ética animal, este documento sostiene que el COVID-19 nos impulsa a comenzar a trabajar para establecer una Zoopolis, una sociedad interespecie compartida entre humanos y animales domésticos, y el reconocimiento de los animales salvajes como soberanos. Al hacerlo, el documento analiza los vínculos entre las pandemias y la agricultura industrial, las similitudes estructurales entre la opresión humana y animal y las oportunidades para considerar a los animales de cara a determinar el bien público y trabajar hacia una sociedad interespecie compartida.

  • Open Access Catalan; Valencian
    Authors: 
    Llor i Vilà, Carles; Giner-Soriano, Maria; Garcia-Sangenis, Ana; Bjerrum, Lars; Morros, Rosa; Ouchi, Dan;
    Country: Spain

    En un estudi de cohorts de tots els pacients diagnosticats de COVID-19 a Catalunya amb complicacions de la malaltia, un grup d'investigació ha estudiat la seva relació amb els antibiòtics. Tenint en compte la intensitat, la presa recent i antibiòtics d'alta prioritat han conclòs que el perill de malaltia greu o mort augmentava en un 12% amb la presa d'antibiòtics. Tot i així, hi ha variacions considerables entre grups, sent els que havien pres antibiòtic més recentment els més vulnerables. Això es deu a l'alteració de la microbiota, sobretot la intestinal, reduint-ne la diversitat i alterant així la immunitat del pacient. En un estudio de cohortes de todos los pacientes diagnosticados de COVID-19 en Cataluña con complicaciones de la enfermedad, un grupo de investigación ha estudiado su relación con los antibióticos. Teniendo en cuenta la intensidad, la toma reciente y antibióticos de alta prioridad han concluido que el peligro de contraer una enfermedad grave o la muerte aumentaba un 12% con la toma de antibióticos. Aun así, existen variaciones considerables entre grupos, siendo los que habían tomado antibióticos más recientemente los más vulnerables. Eso se debe a una alteración de la microbiota, sobre todo la intestinal, reduciendo su diversidad y alterando así la inmunidad del paciente. In a cohort study of all patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in Catalunya with disease's complications, a group of investigation has studied its relationship with the antibiotics. Considering the intensity, the recent take, and high priority antibiotics they conclude that the danger of contracting a serious illness or die augmented a 12% with an antibiotic's intake. However, considerable variations exist between groups, being those who had taken antibiotics recently the most vulnerable. This fact accounts to an alteration in the microbiota, especially intestinal, reducing its diversity and therefore altering the patient's immunity.

  • Open Access Spanish; Castilian
    Authors: 
    Matías-Guiu, J.; Matias-Guiu, J.A.; Alvarez-Sabin, José; Ramon Ara, J.; Arenillas, Juan F; Casado-Naranjo, I.; Castellanos, M.; Jimenez-Hernandez, M.D.; Lainez-Andres, J.M.; Moral, E.; +5 more
    Country: Spain

    Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic will give rise to long-term changes in neurological care, which are not easily predictable. Material and methods: A key informant survey was used to enquire about the changes expected in the specialty over the next 5 years. The survey was completed by heads of neurology departments with broad knowledge of the situation, having been active during the pandemic. Results: Despite a low level of consensus between participants, there was strong (85%) and moderate consensus (70%) about certain subjects, mainly the increase in precautions to be taken, the use of telemedicine and teleconsultations, the reduction of care provided in in-person consultations to avoid the presence of large numbers of people in waiting rooms, the development of remote training solutions, and the changes in monitoring visits during clinical trials. There was consensus that there would be no changes to the indication of complementary testing or neurological examination. Conclusion: The key informant survey identified the foreseeable changes in neurological care after the pandemic. Introducción: La pandemia de COVID-19 va a conllevar cambios en la asistencia neurológica, que no se pueden prever fácilmente a largo plazo. Material y métodos: A través de un modelo de informadores clave se busca el consenso de cómo va a ser la especialidad en un plazo de 5 años, siendo los encuestados jefes de servicio de neurología con conocimiento amplio de la situación al haber actuado durante la pandemia. Resultados: Aunque se obtiene un grado de acuerdo bajo entre los encuestados, sí se describen acuerdos por consenso a nivel mayor (85%) y menor (70%). Los principales acuerdos se refieren al incremento de precauciones, al uso de la telemedicina, al mantenimiento de las consultas telefónicas, a la reducción de asistencia a las consultas evitando que hayan salas de espera con un número alto de personas, al desarrollo de técnicas docentes no presenciales y a la adaptación en el desarrollo de ensayos clínicos en relación con la visita de los monitores. Sin embargo, no se acuerda que haya cambios en la indicación de exploraciones complementarias, ni en la propia exploración neurológica. Conclusión: El método de informadores clave ha permitido conocer qué cambios se pueden prever tras la pandemia.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Josep Cañabate;
    Country: Spain

    En el contexto de la actual pandemia de COVID-19 el presente artículo tiene como objetivo principal poner de manifiesto la necesidad de garantizar un uso legítimo de la "información animal". Los avances en tecnologías de la información suponen unos riesgos y amenazas para los derechos de los animales. En consecuencia, se hace necesario abrir una reflexión sobre el método más idóneo para protegerlos. En primer lugar, se analiza el tratamiento de los datos animales desde la perspectiva de la normativa de protección de datos. Finalmente, se estudia la posibilidad de proteger la información de los animales. In the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic, the main objective of this article is to bring to light the need to guarantee legitimate use of "animal information". Advances in information technologies pose risks and threats to animal rights. Consequently, it is necessary to reflect on the most suitable method to protect them. Firstly, it analyses the treatment of animal data from the perspective of data protection regulations. Ultimately, it examines the possibility of protecting animal data.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rodon, Jordi; Okba, Nisreen M.A.; Te, Nigeer; van Dieren, Brenda; Bosch, Berend Jan; Bensaid, Albert; Segalés, Joaquim; Haagmans, Bart L.; Vergara-Alert, Júlia; LS Virologie; +1 more
    Publisher: Taylor & Francis Open
    Countries: Netherlands, Spain
    Project: EC | VetBioNet (731014), EC | ZAPI (115760)

    The ongoing Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreaks pose a worldwide public health threat. Blocking MERS-CoV zoonotic transmission from dromedary camels, the animal reservoir, could potentially reduce the number of primary human cases. Here we report MERS-CoV transmission from experimentally infected llamas to naïve animals. Directly inoculated llamas shed virus for at least 6 days and could infect all in-contact naïve animals 4-5 days after exposure. With the aim to block virus transmission, we examined the efficacy of a recombinant spike S1-protein vaccine. In contrast to naïve animals, in-contact vaccinated llamas did not shed infectious virus upon exposure to directly inoculated llamas, consistent with the induction of strong virus neutralizing antibody responses. Our data provide further evidence that vaccination of the reservoir host may impede MERS-CoV zoonotic transmission to humans. info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aguilar-Martínez, Alicia; Bosque Prous, Marina; González-Casals, Helena; Colillas-Malet, Ester; Puigcorbé, Susanna; Esquius, Laura; Espelt, Albert; Universitat Central de Catalunya;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Country: Spain

    Adolescence is a critical period in the consolidation of healthy lifestyles that can last into adulthood. To analyze changes in food consumption and eating behaviors in high-school adolescents during the first confinement, a cross-sectional study was conducted at the end of confinement in Spain. Changes in the frequency or quantity of consumption of different types of food and food-related behaviors were analyzed. Socioeconomic and health-related variables were also considered. To determine whether dietary changes were related to socioeconomic position (SEP), Poisson regression models with robust variance were estimated. Overall, there were some changes towards a healthier diet such as an increase in fruit consumption (38.9%) and a decrease in the consumption of soft drinks (49.8%), sweets and pastries (39.3%), and convenience foods (49.2%). Some changes, however, were related to less healthy behaviors, such as a more irregular pattern of meal distribution (39.9%) or an increase in snacking between meals (56.4%). Changes towards less healthy eating were also related to students’ SEP. The risk of worsening the diet was found to be 21% higher in adolescents from a more disadvantaged SEP. Future public policies could be adapted to avoid increasing nutritional and health inequalities.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Català, Martí; Pino, David; Marchena, Miquel; Palacios, Pablo; Urdiales, Tomás; Cardona, Pere-Joan; Alonso Muñoz, Sergio; López-Codina, David; Prats, Clara; Alvarez-Lacalle, Enrique; +1 more
    Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLOS)
    Country: Spain

    Policymakers need a clear and fast assessment of the real spread of the epidemic of COVID-19 in each of their respective countries. Standard measures of the situation provided by the governments include reported positive cases and total deaths. While total deaths immediately indicate that countries like Italy and Spain have the worst situation as of mid April 2020, on its own, reported cases do not provide a correct picture of the situation. The reason is that different countries diagnose diversely and present very distinctive reported case fatality rate (CFR). The same levels of reported incidence and mortality might hide a very different underlying picture. Here we present a straightforward and robust estimation of the diagnostic rate in each European country. From that estimation we obtain an uniform unbiased incidence of the epidemic. The method to obtain the diagnostic rate is transparent and empiric. The key assumption of the method is that the real CFR in Europe of COVID-19 is not strongly country-dependent. We show that this number is not expected to be biased due to demography nor the way total deaths are reported. The estimation protocol has a dynamic nature, and it has been giving converging numbers for diagnostic rates in all European countries as of mid April 2020. From this diagnostic rate, policy makers can obtain an Effective Potential Growth (EPG) updated everyday providing an unbiased assessment of the countries with more potential to have an uncontrolled situation. The method developed will be used to track possible improvements on the diagnostic rate in European countries as the epidemic evolves. CP, PJC and MC received funding from La Caixa Foundation (ID 100010434), under agreement LCF/PR/GN17/50300003; PJC received funding from Agencia de Gestio d'Ajuts Universitaris i de Recerca (AGAUR), Grup Unitat de Tuberculosi Experimental, 2017-SGR-500; CP, DL, SA, MC received funding from Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovacion y Universidades and FEDER, with the project PGC2018-095456-B-I00. EA-L received funding from Spanish Ministerio de Economia, Industria y Competitividad under grant number SAF2017-88019-C3-2-R. This project has been partially funded by the European Comission - DG Communications Networks, Content and Technology through the contract LC-01485746