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  • COVID-19

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vardavas, Constantine I.; Mathioudakis, Alexander G.; Nikitara, Katerina; Stamatelopoulos, Kimon; Georgiopoulos, Georgios; Phalkey, Revati; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Fernandez, Esteve; Carnicer-Pont, Dolors; Vestbo, Jørgen; +6 more
    Country: United Kingdom

    Background As mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is strongly age-dependent, we aimed to identify population subgroups at an elevated risk for adverse outcomes from COVID-19 using age-/gender-adjusted data from European cohort studies with the aim to identify populations that could potentially benefit from booster vaccinations.Methods We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to investigate the role of underlying medical conditions as prognostic factors for adverse outcomes due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), including death, hospitalisation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mechanical ventilation within three separate settings (community, hospital and ICU). Cohort studies that reported at least age and gender-adjusted data from Europe were identified through a search of peer-reviewed articles published until 11 June 2021 in Ovid Medline and Embase. Results are presented as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals and absolute risk differences in deaths per 1000 COVID-19 patients.Findings We included 88 cohort studies with age-/gender-adjusted data from 6 653 207 SARS-CoV-2 patients from Europe. Hospital-based mortality was associated with high and moderate certainty evidence for solid organ tumours, diabetes mellitus, renal disease, arrhythmia, ischemic heart disease, liver disease and obesity, while a higher risk, albeit with low certainty, was noted for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart failure. Community-based mortality was associated with a history of heart failure, stroke, diabetes and end-stage renal disease. Evidence of high/moderate certainty revealed a strong association between hospitalisation for COVID-19 and solid organ transplant recipients, sleep apnoea, diabetes, stroke and liver disease.Interpretation The results confirmed the strong association between specific prognostic factors and mortality and hospital admission. Prioritisation of booster vaccinations and the implementation of nonpharmaceutical protective measures for these populations may contribute to a reduction in COVID-19 mortality, ICU and hospital admissions.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kerem KAPTANGİL; Kübra AŞAN;
    Publisher: Yusuf KARAKUŞ

    The main purpose of this study is to determine the mediating role of perceived risk in the impact of tourist behavior on liminoid behavior in the Covid-19 pandemic process and the risk perceived at the level of acting liminoid behaviors. The main research question of the study is to what extent liminoid behaviors are perceived as risky by healthcare professionals in the context of tourist behavior despite the precautions. Participants consist of healthcare professionals working in the health sector in Turkey in 2020. A total of 135 questionnaires were obtained using random sampling with the participation of healthcare professionals working in different hospitals in Turkey. Factor analysis and Partial Least Squares structural modeling (PLS) were applied in the analysis of the collected data. According to the analysis results, perceived risk has a mediating effect between the covid tourist behavior and liminoid behavior in various contexts. As one of the prominent findings, it was concluded that the time risk perceived by the participants mediated the relationship between tourist behavior affected by the pandemic and liminoid behavior. Also the relationship between tourist behavior and the subscales of the risk factor will enable the determination of tourism strategies to be developed for tourist behavior.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vuorio, Alpo; Brinck, Jonas; Kovanen, Petri T.;
    Country: Finland

    Based on separate protective mechanisms related to lipid metabolism, viral cell entry and inflammation, fibrate treatment might be advantageous among patients who have been taking fibrates before SARS-CoV-2 infection and continue taking them during the infection. Based on published data on hospitalized COVID-19 patients, we recommend that the clinicians should ask their patients with metabolic syndrome who are already taking fibrates to continue fibrate treatment during the COVID-19 illness. This recommendation applies to both outpatients and hospitalized patients. However, results from the ongoing randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using fenofibrate treatment for the prevention or treatment of COVID-19 have yet to prove that fenofibrate is clinically significant for this indication. Peer reviewed

  • English
    Authors: 
    MOHAMED ABDOUL-LATIF, Fatouma; MOHAMED ABDOUL-LATIF, Houda; MERITO, Ali; MOHAMED ALI, Amina; AINANE, Tarik;
    Publisher: Journal of Analytical Sciences and Applied Biotechnology

    Diarrhea may be present alone or be associated with other symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain or weight loss. Diarrhea diseases represent a true public health that needs to be considered. On the other hand, Diarrhea was a very prevalent symptom of COVID-19 and other infections. This study objects to find different parasitic diarrhea. A total of 850 patients were surveyed, of whom 380 were men and 470 were women (sex ratio 0.80), with an average age of 33.5 years [15-80 years]. Acute diarrhea was reported in 55 % of patients, choleriform in 24 % of patients, and dysenteric in 21 % of patients. Among 850 stool samples, 181 were negative (21 %). A review of the stool revealed altered leukocytes in 374 samples (44 %). The most common parasites reported were Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas intestinalis and Giardia intestinalis representing 85 % of cases. Diseases most commonly associated with diarrhea include malaria (27 %), Covid-19 (15 %), acute lung disease (13 %) and genitourinary infections (9 %). Parasitic diarrhea dominated by helminthiasis remains a concern. Journal of Analytical Sciences and Applied Biotechnology, مجلد 4, عدد 2 (2022): July - December (In progress)

  • Open Access English
    Country: Netherlands

    The co-authors of State of the Art of Purchasing 2022 take the reader through the purchasing and supply 2021 landscape via Part 1 – Buyer-Supplier Relationships: The importance of being a preferred customer to achieve competitive advantages from the supply base; Organisation of innovation sourcing – dealing with innovative suppliers; and Purchasing competences for innovation sourcing. Part 2 – Industry 4.0, the Internet of Things, Procurement 4.0, Circular Economy elaborates Industry 4.0 technologies and Procurement 4.0; Procurement 4.0 and the circular economy; Robotic Process Automation in Procurement. Part 3 – Sustainable Purchasing and Supply Chain Management focuses on Sustainable supply chain laws and due diligence, Sustainable supply chains – what has been achieved and where to go?; and Public procurement as a driver of sustainable innovations in businesses. Finally, Part 4 – Resilient supply chains, COVID-19, Suez Canal blockade and natural disasters Supply chain resilience; anticipating disruptions and natural disasters; The impact of COVID-19 on supply chain resilience; Reshoring in the supply chain.

  • Publication . Book . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Stek, Klaas;

    The co-authors of State of the Art of Purchasing 2022 take the reader through the purchasing and supply 2021 landscape via Part 1 – Buyer-Supplier Relationships: The importance of being a preferred customer to achieve competitive advantages from the supply base; Organisation of innovation sourcing – dealing with innovative suppliers; and Purchasing competences for innovation sourcing. Part 2 – Industry 4.0, the Internet of Things, Procurement 4.0, Circular Economy elaborates Industry 4.0 technologies and Procurement 4.0; Procurement 4.0 and the circular economy; Robotic Process Automation in Procurement. Part 3 – Sustainable Purchasing and Supply Chain Management focuses on Sustainable supply chain laws and due diligence, Sustainable supply chains – what has been achieved and where to go?; and Public procurement as a driver of sustainable innovations in businesses. Finally, Part 4 – Resilient supply chains, COVID-19, Suez Canal blockade and natural disasters Supply chain resilience; anticipating disruptions and natural disasters; The impact of COVID-19 on supply chain resilience; Reshoring in the supply chain.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Holmberg, Marcus; Koppatz, Hanna; Jansson, Anders; Hillingso, Jens Georg; Larsen, Peter Noergaard; Lassen, Kristoffer; Sallinen, Ville; Yaqub, Sheraz; Sparrelid, Ernesto;
    Country: Finland

    Non peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Simona Zollet; Julia Siedle; Miriam Bodenheimer; Steven R. McGreevy; Caroline Boules; Clemens Brauer; Md. Habibur Rahman; Christoph D. D. Rupprecht; Johannes Schuler;
    Countries: Germany, Netherlands

    The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted everyday living and social practices, prompting questions of whether more sustainable consumption patterns are emerging and the likelihood of their long-term retention. To examine these questions, we apply a practice-based approach to a quantitative study of COVID-driven practice changes in the domains of food, material consumption, housing, and mobility conducted in four global North countries (Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United States). We discuss the trends emerging from our analysis from a sustainability perspective and address the role of social practice elements – materials, meanings, competences – in the establishment and discontinuation of sustainable consumption practices. Observed sustainability gains in specific practices and domains (such as a decrease in material consumption and more sustainable food practices and diets), may be offset by other practices, particularly a renewed desire for air travel and larger housing. The uptake and lock-in of sustainable practices are driven by a combination of meaning and material-related practice elements such as the alignment with interests and personal values; the availability of labor, energy, or time; and the ability to routinize practices. However, new policies to support emerging lifestyle shifts, as well as the development of businesses catering to and encouraging low-impact practices, may ultimately determine the formation of a more sustainable “new normal.” We also reflect on the strengths and limitations of using quantitative research methods in studies of sustainable consumption informed by social practice theories.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Virolainen, Savi;
    Publisher: Helsingin yliopisto
    Country: Finland

    This dissertation complements a family of mixture autoregressive models based on Gaussian and Student's t distributions by filling the gaps in the previous literature with four self contained essays. This includes univariate models as well as reduced form and structural multivariate models. Empirical applications to macroeconomics and finance demonstrate their usefulness. I have also accompanied this dissertation with open source software, in the form of R packages uGMAR and gmvarkit, which provide a comprehensive set of tools for estimation and other numerical analysis of the models. The software is distributed through the Comprehensive R Archive Network. The first essay introduces a new mixture autoregressive model that combines linear Gaussian autoregressions and linear Student's t autoregressions as its mixture components. The model has attractive properties analogous to the Gaussian and Student's t mixture autoregressive models, but it is more flexible as it enables to model series which consist of both conditionally homoskedastic Gaussian regimes and conditionally heteroskedastic Student's t regimes. The usefulness of the model is demonstrated in an empirical application to the monthly U.S. interest rate spread between the 3-month Treasury bill rate and the effective federal funds rate. The second essay describes the R package uGMAR, which provides tools for estimating and analysing the Gaussian mixture autoregressive model, the Student's t mixture autoregressive model, and the Gaussian and Student's t mixture autoregressive model. The model parameters are estimated with the method of maximum likelihood by running multiple rounds of a two-phase estimation procedure in which a genetic algorithm is used to find starting values for a gradient based method. For evaluating the adequacy of the estimated models, uGMAR utilizes so-called quantile residuals and provides functions for graphical diagnostics as well as for calculating formal diagnostic tests. uGMAR also facilitates simulation from the processes and forecasting future values of the process by a simulation-based Monte Carlo method. I illustrate the use of uGMAR with the monthly U.S. interest rate spread between the 10-year and 1-year Treasury rates. In the third essay, I proceed to multivariate models and introduce a structural Gaussian mixture vector autoregressive model. The shocks are identified by combining simultaneous diagonalization of the reduced form error covariance matrices with constraints on the time-varying impact matrix. This leads to flexible identification conditions, and some the constraints are also testable. In an empirical application to quarterly U.S. data covering the period from 1953Q3 to 2021Q4, my model identifies two regimes: a stable inflation regime and an unstable inflation regime. The unstable inflation regime is characterized by high or volatile inflation, and it mainly prevails in the 1970's, early 1980's, during the Financial crisis, and in the COVID-19 crisis from 2020Q3 onwards. The stable inflation regime, in turn, is characterized by moderate inflation, and it prevails when the unstable inflation regime does not. While the effects of the monetary policy shock are relatively symmetric in the unstable inflation regime, I find strong asymmetries with respect to the sign and size of the shock as well as to the initial state of the economy in the stable inflation regime. On average, the real effects of the monetary policy shock are somewhat stronger in the stable inflation regime than in the unstable inflation regime. The last essay introduces a new mixture vector autoregressive model based on Gaussian and Student's t distributions. The model incorporates conditionally homoskedastic linear Gaussian vector autoregressions and conditionally heteroskedastic linear Student's t vector autoregressions as its mixture components. For a pth order model, the mixing weights depend on the full distribution of the preceding p observations. The specific formulation of the mixing weights leads to attractive practical and theoretical properties such as ergodicity and full knowledge of the stationary distribution of p+1 consecutive observations. The empirical application studies asymmetries in the effects of Euro area monetary policy shocks. My model identifies two regimes: a low-growth regime and a high-growth regime. The low-growth regime is characterized by negative (but volatile) output gap, and it mainly prevails after the Financial crisis. The high-growth regime is characterized by positive output gap, and it mainly dominates before the Financial crisis. I find the real effects less enduring for an expansionary than for a contractionary monetary policy shock. On average, the inflationary effects of the monetary policy shock are stronger in the high-growth regime than in the low-growth regime. Väitöskirja esittää uusia tilastollisia malleja perättäisinä ajanhetkinä mitattavien eri tilojen välillä vaihtelevien ilmiöiden tutkimiseen. Empiiriset sovellukset makrotalouteen ja finanssiaikasarjoihin havainnollistavat niiden hyödyllisyyttä. Lisäksi väitöskirjaan liittyy kaksi R-kielellä kirjoitettua avoimen lähdekoodin ohjelmistopakettia nimiltään uGMAR ja gmvarkit, jotka tarjoavat kattavan kokoelman työkaluja esitettyjen mallien estimointiin ja muuhun numeeriseen analyysiin.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gabriela Lotta; João Nunes; Michelle Fernandez; Marcela Garcia Correa;
    Publisher: Published by Elsevier B.V.

    The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in calls for an increased integration of community health workers (CHWs) into the health system response. Historically, CHWs can play an important role in ensuring the sustainability of health policy implementation – by addressing social determinants of health and maintaining care for ongoing health problems. Their frontline work, with close contact to populations, places CHWs in a position of increased vulnerability to becoming infected and to being the target of abuse and violence. These vulnerabilities compound underlying problems faced by CHWs, who often come from poor backgrounds, are insufficiently paid and receive inadequate training. Speaking to a scarcity of studies on how CHWs are impacted by the pandemic, this paper conducts a systematic study of CHWs in Brazil. Based on quantitative and qualitative data collected during June and July 2020, it considers perceptions and experiences of CHWs, comparing them with other health professionals. We study the extent to which the pandemic added to existing vulnerabilities and created new problems and imbalances in the work of CHWs. We conclude that COVID-19 led to a deterioration of the working conditions of CHWs, of their relations with other health professionals, and of their ability to carry out their essential work in the public health system.