Publisher: BLISS: The ISS Blog on Global Development and Social Justice
As the Omicron variant continues to spread across the globe, Western nations have taken the decision to impose travel bans to African countries. This measure to contain the virus, is the latest -but neither the only nor the most outrageous- example of how Covid-19 responses have been instrumentalised for political purposes, write Dorothea Hilhorst and Rodrigo Mena.
This is the second special issue of the Journal of Sonic Studies on the topic Sound at Home. In the original call for papers, we asked scholars from a variety of disciplines to engage with home sounds – everyday sounds such as the hum of appliances, the babble of water piping, the chatter of media or the creaking of a wooden floor; sounds that seep in from other homes and from the world outside (traffic, music, shouting, etc.); disconcerting, unfamiliar sounds of places that have become a temporary home; or sounds that go unheard in their familiarity – using a wide range of approaches and methods. The call was sent out in February 2020, just before much of public life around the globe came to a halt in response to the unfolding Covid-19 pandemic. Despite these challenging circumstances, we received an unexpectedly large number of exciting submissions from a variety of perspectives and decided to split the special issue up into two: The first issue (JSS21) was published before the summer of 2021 and consists of submissions that analyze, through diverse approaches, home sounds, focusing on sonic territoriality, materiality, and the concept of home beyond the traditional family dwelling.This second issue (JSS22) consists of contributions dealing with a number of closely related topics, namely, the home in its relation to the outside world, sonic communities within or in spite of isolation, and vocal expression as part of or in defiance of this isolation. Instead of offering a brief overview of these papers in this introduction, we would like to take the opportunity here to call attention to some interesting rhythms and trends in the scholarly investigation of sounds in the home that have surfaced across both issues.
Training is an important aspect of knowledge acquisition and transfer in the Social Sciences and Humanities Open Cloud project (SSHOC). For successful implementation and promotion of the SSH Open Cloud, it is crucial to empower users, and to facilitate mutual learning and networking among data producers, users, and experts. Therefore, the SSHOC Training Community has been established. It aims to facilitate knowledge exchange and collaboration between experts who provide training to scholars in the Social Sciences and Humanities (SSH) on tools and services offered by the European Open Science Cloud (EOSC). As part of various training formats during the SSHOC project lifecycle, T6.4 has conducted a series of bootcamps. These four events were directed at different stakeholder groups, primarily research libraries and archives, universities, and research-performing institutions. The bootcamps covered a broad range of topics and tools relevant for Open Science and Research Data Management and for conducting training in those fields. This deliverable reports the outcomes of the bootcamps that, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, took place online. Chapter two brings individual bootcamp reports that provide deeper insights into structure, topics,and stakeholder representation. Since the final bootcamp, co-located with the IASSIST conference, was organised in May 2021 due to the original postponement of the IASSIST conference, the final deliverable describing the bootcamps (D6.12) as well as the deliverable of the final version of the toolkit (D6.11) and its related milestone (MS41) were delayed. In the following chapters, a reflection of all the bootcamps is provided together with a compilation of lessons learned and best practices for setting up online events.
This document aims to capture some of the ongoing trends and everyday life challenges in public space observed in Dutch cities since the Covid-19 pandemic hit. We interviewed professionals from municipalities, research organizations, NGOs and design and architecture agencies in the Netherlands, each part of the community of practice connected to the project ‘From Prevention to Resilience’. In these interviews, partners reflected on the various responses that have sprung up during one year of Covid-19 and how these may inform efforts to design better futures for our cities.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, was identified in late 2019 and went on to cause over 3.3 million deaths in 15 months. To date, targeted antiviral interventions against COVID-19 are limited. The spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 infection ranges from asymptomatic to fatal disease. However, the reasons for varying outcomes to SARS-CoV-2 infection are yet to be elucidated. Here we show that an endogenously activated interferon lambda (IFNλ) pathway leads to resistance against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Using a well-differentiated primary nasal epithelial cell (WD-PNEC) model from multiple adult donors, we discovered that susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection, but not respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, varied. One of four donors was resistant to SARS-CoV-2 infection. High baseline IFNλ expression levels and associated interferon stimulated genes correlated with resistance to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Inhibition of the JAK/STAT pathway in WD-PNECs with high endogenous IFNλ secretion resulted in higher SARS-CoV-2 titres. Conversely, prophylactic IFNλ treatment of WD-PNECs susceptible to infection resulted in reduced viral titres. An endogenously activated IFNλ response, possibly due to genetic differences, may be one explanation for the differences in susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans. Importantly, our work supports the continued exploration of IFNλ as a potential pharmaceutical against SARS-CoV-2 infection.