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The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
746 Research products, page 1 of 75

  • COVID-19
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  • English
    Authors: 
    Legge, Stefan;
    Country: Switzerland

    The Swiss Trade Monitor documents time trends in Switzerland's foreign goods trade. The first edition considers data from January 2019 until September 2022, a time span that covers both the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020 and the Russo-Ukrainian War which started in February 2022. Both events led to noticeable declines in trade volumes which were, however, of temporary nature. Swiss foreign trade recovered quickly from the pandemic-induced decrease. And in contrast to the European Union or the United States, Swiss exports to Russia do not show a lasting decline throughout 2022. Large volumes of pharmaceutical exports imply that Swiss-Russian trade in 2022 is at a level similar to the previous years.

  • Publication . Article . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Marjolein C. J. Caniëls; Irina Nikolova; Isabella Hatak; Petra C. de Weerd‐Nederhof;
    Countries: Netherlands, Switzerland

    The COVID-19 pandemic has affected nearly every aspect of our lives and has caused a considerable rise in psychological complaints such as anxieties and depression. The majority of studies so far has focused on outcomes of the COVID-19 pandemic. To augment current knowledge, we focus on the antecedents of COVID-19 rumination. Specially, we examine how negative and positive work events prior to the outbreak influence individuals' coping capacity with regard to COVID-19 (i.e., the extent to which individuals have recurrent negative thoughts about COVID-19). Drawing on Conservation of Resources Theory (COR), we maintain that positive and negative work events prior to the pandemic can affect one's self-efficacy experiences and in turn can impact recurrent negative thoughts about COVID-19. Alongside exploring the proposed theoretical mediation model, we test one of the key assumptions of the COR theory: the notion of primacy of negative over positive affect that results from negative (vs. positive) work events. Three-waved data was collected among Dutch employees (T1 = 302; T2 = 199; T3 = 171); two prior to the pandemic and one at the onset of the outbreak. Results showed that positive work events increased self-efficacy, which in turn reduced COVID-19 rumination. Contrary to the expectation of primacy of the effects of negative work events, we found no significant impact of negative work events on individuals' COVID-19 rumination.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Hanna, Joëlle; Scheibenreif, Linus Mathias; Mommert, Michael; Borth, Damian;
    Publisher: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society
    Country: Switzerland

    Satellites allow spatially precise monitoring of the Earth, but provide only limited information on events of societal impact. Subjective societal impact, however, may be quantified at a high frequency by monitoring social media data. In this work, we propose a multi-modal data fusion framework to accurately identify periods of COVID-19-related lockdown in the United Kingdom using satellite observations (NO2 measurements from Sentinel-5P) and social media (textual content of tweets from Twitter) data. We show that the data fusion of the two modalities improves the event detection accuracy on a national level and for large cities such as London.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Timo Boppart; Karl Harmenberg; Per Krusell; Jonna Olsson;
    Countries: United Kingdom, Switzerland
    Project: EC | 3D-In-Macro (851891)

    Using an integrated epi-econ model, we compute the value of vaccines for Covid-19, both under a planner's solution and in competitive equilibrium. The specific model, developed in Boppart, Harmenberg, Hassler, Krusell, and Olsson (2020), factors in not just value-of-life aspects along with standard economic variables but also the value of leisure activities that rely on a social component. We find that the societal value of vaccination is large; we estimate that, translated into monetary terms, the value of vaccinating one young individual in the competitive equilibrium is $17,800. Externalities are large: less than half the societal value is internalized by individuals (assuming that they act purely in their self-interest). Finally, behavioral responses are important, with a substantial share of the value of vaccines being attributed to people enjoying more socially-oriented leisure when more people are vaccinated.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Simon Föll; Adrian Lison; Martin Maritsch; Karsten Klingberg; Vera Lehmann; Thomas Züger; David Srivastava; Sabrina Jegerlehner; Stefan Feuerriegel; Elgar Fleisch; +2 more
    Publisher: JMIR
    Country: Switzerland

    Background: To provide effective care for inpatients with COVID-19, clinical practitioners need systems that monitor patient health and subsequently allow for risk scoring. Existing approaches for risk scoring in patients with COVID-19 focus primarily on intensive care units (ICUs) with specialized medical measurement devices but not on hospital general wards. Objective: In this paper, we aim to develop a risk score for inpatients with COVID-19 in general wards based on consumer-grade wearables (smartwatches). Methods: Patients wore consumer-grade wearables to record physiological measurements, such as the heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and respiration frequency (RF). Based on Bayesian survival analysis, we validated the association between these measurements and patient outcomes (ie, discharge or ICU admission). To build our risk score, we generated a low-dimensional representation of the physiological features. Subsequently, a pooled ordinal regression with time-dependent covariates inferred the probability of either hospital discharge or ICU admission. We evaluated the predictive performance of our developed system for risk scoring in a single-center, prospective study based on 40 inpatients with COVID-19 in a general ward of a tertiary referral center in Switzerland. Results: First, Bayesian survival analysis showed that physiological measurements from consumer-grade wearables are significantly associated with patient outcomes (ie, discharge or ICU admission). Second, our risk score achieved a time-dependent area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.73-0.90 based on leave-one-subject-out cross-validation. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of consumer-grade wearables for risk scoring in inpatients with COVID-19. Due to their low cost and ease of use, consumer-grade wearables could enable a scalable monitoring system. Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT04357834; https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04357834 JMIR Formative Research, 6 (6) ISSN:2561-326X

  • English
    Authors: 
    Häberle, Ludwig; Stölzle, Wolfgang; Sievers, Tim Felix;
    Publisher: Cuvillier Verlag
    Country: Switzerland

    The study "Business Aviation Study Switzerland 2022" examines the impact, benefits and trends of Business Aviation with a specific emphasis on the Swiss market. Outlining the economic impact by focusing on the national and regional Swiss Business Aviation airports and their related stakeholder benefits, the study highlights Business Aviation as an integral part and backbone of the highly efficient Swiss aviation system. In 2021, Switzerland recorded close to 100,000 Business Aviation aircraft movements – exceeding the level of 2019. In light of the COVID-19 related crisis of scheduled airline traffic, Business Aviation has proven resilient temporarily increasing its share in total aircraft movements to 27 %. Thus, Business Aviation remains a reliable and irreplaceable partner securing Switzerland’s connectivity, particularly in times of crisis. Looking to the future, Business Aviation opens up the opportunity to act as an innovation driver and technological pioneer paving the way for sustainable aviation in the long term.

  • Embargo English
    Authors: 
    Francesca Casalini; VERONICA VECCHI; Niccolò Cusumano;
    Publisher: Univ. Press
    Country: Switzerland

    Abstract In the wake of the Covid-19 pandemic, public private partnerships (PPP) can prove useful to close the healthcare investment gap and accelerate long-term recovery, by matching public and private money. Despite their extensive application in the delivery of major infrastructure projects globally, their performance remains contested. Drawing on a unique set of data of PPP contracts for healthcare investments in Italy, the paper explores the antecedents (namely, policies, institutions, and contracts), that have influenced the capacity of PPP contracts to deliver performance, measured in terms of value for money (VfM), and contract stability. Results show that although explicit policy goals have a clear contribution, VfM can benefit from competent central PPP institutions, which should play a hands-on role in the planning, design, and project management activities. At the same time, centralised PPP units, if not combined with local competent authorities and strong governance mechanisms, may increase the risk of contract renegotiation.

  • Publication . Book . 2022
    English
    Authors: 
    Casas Klett, Tomas; Cozzi, Guido;
    Publisher: Seismo Press AG
    Country: Switzerland

    The Elite Quality Index 2022 (EQx2022) In the third annual edition of this global political economy index from the University of St.Gallen, data shows where elites deliver or extract value from their individual nations The third EQx2022 annual report scores and ranks 151 countries using 120 component indicators. The Index evaluates whether national elites contribute or take away to the economic advancement of their societies and measures and compares value creation. It focuses primarily on business models that generate the highest incomes in individual national economies. By and large, elites and their businesses are essential for value creation and economic growth. The flip side to value creation is value extraction, which is when elites take value away from the general population to feed their businesses. Such models are based on trade barriers, wars, monopolies, discrimination of any kind. The research, led by the University of St.Gallen (HSG) along with international academic partners and the St.Gallen-based Foundation for Value Creation, provides unique insight into value creation by elites across in 151 nations globally. The Index is based on a framework consisting of four conceptual areas:Economic Power, Economic Value, Political Power and Political Value. Elites are categorized as very high quality elites (rank 1 to 10), high quality elites (rank 11 to 25), quality elites (rank 26 to 75), middle quality elites (rank 76 to 125) and lagging elites (rank below 125). Some of the main findings: The top two places in the EQx2022 have not changed from 2021 and were again taken by Singapore (#1) and Switzerland (#2). Both countries are leaders in the Value Sub-Index, their respective weaknesses being Political Power for Singapore (#20) and Economic Power for Switzerland (#15). Overall, it appears that smaller countries have shown greater resilience during the last year of the COVID-19 pandemic taking 9 of the top 10 positions. Australia (#3) and Israel (#4) have made impressive advances of 6 and 3 places respectively. Conversely, the UK (#8) and the US (#15) have fallen by 5 and 10 places respectively, their fundamental problem being that elites do not create enough Political Value (rank #17 and a dismal #66 respectively).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Silvia Stroe; Charlotta Sirén; Vinit Parida; Joakim Wincent;
    Countries: Switzerland, Italy

    How should new venture ideas be framed in order to acquire human resources and gain support in times of crisis characterized by struggling or failing institutions and governmental organizations? To answer this question, we analyze 316 new venture ideas aimed at alleviating the COVID-19 crisis in 11 countries. We investigate different linguistic framing configurations and test their persuasive power for human resource acquisition. Our fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) and linguistic analysis reveal that a “common enemy framing” is crucial for obtaining resources in crisis contexts. Non-profit venture ideas, specifically, may acquire resources via two additional paths: adding positive emotional content or using an entrepreneurial hustle framing with concrete calls to action. Our findings provide novel insights into entrepreneurial resource acquisition and idea framing during crises.

  • Publication . Book . 2022
    English
    Authors: 
    Cozzi, Guido;
    Country: Switzerland

    Shall vaccine patents be temporarily suspended? In a simple model, we reflect the essence of the debate on the Covid-19 patent waiver. The central message is that if the probability of imitating innovative vaccines is low, then a patent waiver would be harmless to future R&D. Conversely, a patent waiver would be undesirable if it is too easy to imitate future innovations. This paper also derives a simple policy rule for R&D subsidies that governments can use to correct the adverse effects of the waiver on the incentives to innovate. The government can use R&D subsidies to neutralize the harmful effects of an expected patent waiver on the incentives to invest in R&D.We will compute the R&D subsidy increase able to keep innovation as it would be without a patent waiver. The optimal R&D subsidy turns out to be no larger than the probability of successful imitation by competitors following a suspension. This result holds for any R&D technology. Moreover, it is valid in general, even beyond the Covid-19 case. The vaccine industry is highly concentrated. While the social gains from successful imitation are huge, it is usually challenging to transfer vaccine know-how from the handful of patent holders to potential imitators. In this environment, loosening intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection in a pandemic has significant macroeconomic advantages. Still, it may harm future innovation because it would create an expectation of future IPRs waivers. This paper allows an upbeat assessment of the conditions that make a patent waiver desirable, even considering the future R&D implications. Moreover, it shows how reasonable rises in R&D subsidies can overcome the IPRs' uncertainty and restore innovation to the same level that would prevail without a patent waiver. However, mRNA technology vaccines require more protection, given their easier replicability.