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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Alizon, Samuel; Sofonea, Mircea, T;

    Travail du groupe de modélisation de l'équipe ETE

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    Hal-Diderot
    Report . 2021
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ HAL-Inserm; Mémoires...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Hal-Diderot
      Report . 2021
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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    Authors: Patricia, Pâme; Cazemajou, Anne; Jean-Marc, Josset;
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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2022
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    Authors: Esplugas-Labatut, Pierre;

    National audience; Saisi par voie de référé-liberté par madame Clémentine Autain et « La France insoumise », le Conseil d’État devait trancher la question de la légalité de dispositions fixées par décret encadrant, pour des raisons liées à l’épidémie de Covid 19, la liberté de réunion et de manifestation en période électorale. Par une ordonnance du 11 juin 2021, la Haute juridiction administrative applique en l’espèce des méthodes classiques visant à concilier des normes d’égale valeur constitutionnelle, à contrôler la proportionnalité des mesures de police adoptées et à assurer le respect du principe d’égalité. De manière plus audacieuse, il interprète les dispositions attaquées afin de les « sauver » comme ne limitant pas le nombre de participants possible à une réunion électorale.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Toulouse 1 Capitole ...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Magali Boespflug; Claire Lefort; Cécile McLaughlin; Petra Pelletier;

    La crise du Covid-19 que nous traversons nous place face à l’ennemi invisible qui contraint notre relation aux autres : ce sont tous nos repères, toutes nos valeurs qui semblent bouleversés. Pourtant, ce virus invisible est en permanence raconté, par les médias, par les pouvoirs publics. Ces récits ont ceci de commun : ils positionnent le virus dans une fonction actantielle très claire, celle de l’ennemi à combattre, entraînant avec lui la constitution d’armées distinctes avec une segmentation de la population très marquée : ceux qui doivent agir pour lutter et tenter de maintenir l’équilibre économique ; les aînés contraints à l’isolement ; les jeunes, stigmatisés car vecteur puissant du virus. Pourtant, la gestion de cette crise nécessite au contraire de renforcer les liens, de réaffirmer le vivre ensemble et le sens du collectif en sortant de ces segmentations par l’âge et en mettant en lumière les émotions et les valeurs humaines communes aux différentes générations.Une première étude faite auprès des jeunes et des seniors montre un panel d’émotions (tristesse, colère, anxiété), de valeurs humaines universelles (sécurité, bienveillance, universalisme) indiquant le besoin de vivre ensemble, avec notamment le mal-être associé à l’isolement social. Sur les fondements analytiques de cette étude, le projet CoviZion se propose de construire une approche méthodologique novatrice permettant de révéler le socle intergénérationnel commun sur lequel les pouvoirs publics, les institutions, les relais médiatiques pourraient s’appuyer pour engager une communication de crise orientée sur les émotions et les valeurs humaines communes et non sur les catégories d’âge. The crisis of Covid-19 that we are crossing nowadays place us face-to-face with an enemy that constrains our relationship with others: the totality of our landmarks and our values seems shattered. Yet, this invisible virus is constantly an object of storytelling by mass media and authorities. These stories have a common point : they place the virus in a clearly actantial function of an enemy we have to fight with, leading to the constitution of distinct armies by a very marked segmentation of the population : those who have to fight and try to maintain the economic balance ; the elders constrained in isolation ; the youths stigmatised as a powerful viral vector. However, the current crisis management, on the contrary, requires strengthening the social links, reaffirming living together, the sense of the collective, by leaving this segmentation by age and highlighting common emotions and human values to different generations.Our first study, conducted with sample of youths and seniors, shows a range of emotions (sadness, anger, anxiety) and universal human values (security, benevolence, universalism) indicating the need to live together, especially due to the state of ill-being related to the feeling of social isolation. Based on the analytical foundations of this study, the project CoviZion proposes to build an innovative methodological approach that allows to reveal the common intergenerational pedestal that might serve authorities, public institutions and media relay to initiate crisis communication oriented toward common emotions and human values, rather than age related categories. Trayectorias Humanas Trascontinentales, N° 10 | 2021

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    Trayectorias Humanas Trascontinentales
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
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    Authors: Ait Lahcen, Dina; Oukassi, Mustapha; Amghar, Nour Eddin;

    Les PME constituent l'épine dorsale de toute économie (Eggers, 2020). Ainsi, lorsque la pandémie COVID-19 a surgi toute l’économie est mise en péril et les PME sont durement touchées. Les premiers chiffres paraissent certes, alarmants, toutefois les perspectives de sortie de ce tourbillon demeurent optimistes. À fin 2020, plus que 95% des PME marocaines ont pu maintenir leur activité (HCP, 2021) dont une bonne partie a fait preuve de résilience et d’agilité et a pu surmonter, relativement, les effets dévastateurs de la crise. Notre recherche vise, alors, à étudier les déterminants clés explicatifs de la réussite des PME marocaines en temps de crise sanitaire et économique COVID-19 en mettant l’accent sur trois principales dimensions: l’environnement, l’entrepreneur et les ressources mobilisées. Pour ce faire, nous avons mené une étude qualitative via des entretiens individuels semi-directifs auprès d’un échantillon de type aléatoire simple composé de 20 entrepreneurs œuvrant dans la région de Rabat-Salé-Kenitra. Les résultats obtenus ont montré que bien que le gouvernement marocain a développé une panoplie de mesures d’appui et de soutien aux PME, la majorité des entrepreneurs considérait que la réussite de leur entreprise est inhérente principalement à des facteurs endogènes liés à leur engagement, leur motivation et aux ressources propres mises à leur disposition et subsidiairement, aux facteurs exogènes liés aux caractéristiques du contexte et aux opportunités offertes par l’environnement où ils opèrent. Mots- clés : PME, réussite, crise, résilience, facteurs. Classification JEL: H 12, P47, F64. Type de l’article : Recherche appliquée SMEs are the backbone of any economy (Eggers, 2020). Thus, when the COVID-19 pandemic emerged, the entire economy was put at risk and SMEs were hit hard. The first figures seem to be alarming, but the prospects for emerging from this vortex remain optimistic. At the end of 2020, more than 95% of Moroccan SMEs have been able to maintain their activity (HCP, 2021), many of which have shown resilience and agility and have been able to overcome the devastating effects of the crisis. Our research aims, then, to study the key determinants explaining the success of Moroccan SMEs in times of health and economic crisis COVID-19 by focusing on three main dimensions: the environment, the entrepreneur and the resources mobilized. To this end, we conducted a qualitative study through individual semi-directive interviews with a simple random sample of 20 entrepreneurs operating in the Rabat-Salé-Kenitra region. The results obtained showed that although the Moroccan government has developed a wide range of support measures for SMEs, the majority of the entrepreneurs considered that the success of their business is mainly due to endogenous factors related to their commitment, their motivation and the resources at their disposal, and secondarily, to exogenous factors related to the characteristics of the context and the opportunities offered by the environment in which they operate. Keywords: SME, success, crisis, resilience, factors. JEL Classification : H 12, P47, F64. Paper type: Empirical research.

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    ZENODO
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: ZENODO
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    ZENODO
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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    Authors: Audran, Jacques; Kaqinari, Tomas; Kern, Dominique; Makarova, Elena;

    Les mesures de confinement imposées aux établissements d’enseignement supérieur au premier semestre 2020 en Europe ont nécessité une migration d’urgence vers l’enseignement en ligne pour assurer la continuité des enseignements. Bien qu’un soutien ait été généralement proposé aux enseignants, il leur a fallu s’adapter d’urgence à ces nouvelles conditions de travail. Cette situation particulière a offert l’opportunité de mieux comprendre la complexité du défi auquel ont dû faire face les enseignants. L’objectif de cet article est de mettre en évidence les premières réactions des enseignants du supérieur afin de repérer leurs priorités d’action et d’éventuelles évolutions de leur rapport au numérique. Pour cela, l’article s’appuie sur les résultats d’une enquête menée auprès d’enseignants de trois universités en Suisse et en France dans le bassin du Rhin supérieur. À cet effet, un questionnaire diffusé à la fin du premier confinement au printemps 2020 a permis de recueillir 616 réponses. Le questionnaire administré a porté sur les pratiques, mais aussi sur le « ressenti » des enseignants durant trois périodes : l’avant-confinement, la période de basculement vers le tout à distance et l’après-confinement. Les premiers résultats montrent que ce recours massif à l’enseignement en ligne a été dominé par le besoin de maintenir la relation avec les étudiants. Ils suggèrent aussi que la pandémie a amélioré l’acceptabilité de l’enseignement en ligne, sans pour autant garantir son adoption pérenne. The lockdown of higher education institutions in the European spring semester 2020 required an emergency migration to online teaching. Although support was offered to lecturers, the necessity to adapt to the situation remained in charge of them. This particular situation offers the opportunity to better understand the complexity of the challenge faced by the teachers and the possible evolution of their relationship to digital education. The main goal of this paper is to highlight the teachers’ first reactions, their priorities, and any changes in their relationship to educational technologies. Lecturers and teachers from three universities (N= 616) from the Upper Rhine region in Switzerland and France completed an online survey just after the spring 2020 lockdown. The questionnaire asked them about their practices and their feelings over three periods: before the lockdown, the period of switching to online lessons, and after lockdown. The first results show the effects produced by this massive use of online education and first and foremost the need to maintain the relationship with the students. They also suggest that the pandemic has improved the acceptability of online education, without ensuring its sustainable adoption.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Plaisance, Guillaume;

    Objective: This research explores the relationship between the governance of nonprofit organizations and their overall performance, which also includes their impact on their stakeholders. It therefore has analytical objectives around stakeholder relationships: with whom to work and to whom to be accountable? How to be accountable and strengthen the links with them? What accounts to give and what are the evaluation criteria? The effects of governance, the forms taken by accountability and the social construction of organizational performance and impact are therefore particularly studied.Approach and method: The main anchor is the contingent vision of organizations, to which the stakeholder and resource dependency theories belong. Based on a hypothetico-deductive approach inserted in the critical realist epistemic paradigm (PERC), the hypotheses from the literature are tested using methods of textual data analysis, logistic and linear multiple regressions, and structural equation models. The analyses focused on data from the largest French nonprofit organizations, on a questionnaire of nonprofit leaders during the Covid-19 crisis, on a survey of individual stakeholders, and on the case of the Young Farmers.Results: The conducted studies have shown that governance mechanisms can be explained by the sector and the actions of the nonprofits. However, the links between governance and overall performance need to be studied on a case-by-case basis. The same is true for the effects of accountability on performance. The short-term performance of nonprofit organizations, i.e., their viability, is enhanced by maintaining governance arrangements, while the adoption of a societal orientation has contrasting effects on viability. Finally, governance improves impact and relationship quality with stakeholders, which has a positive effect on organizational impact. However, these results need to be studied in detail in terms of governance mechanisms, stakeholders and performance dimensions.Theoretical implications: The obtained results enable to meet the objectives set. Thus, the contingent view of governance in nonprofit organizations leads to a strong adaptability (within each organization and to its stakeholders). Reporting is a crucial accountability mechanism but the relationship with stakeholders is particularly relevant too. Finally, all of the concepts discussed are contingent, making it possible to explain an emotional and subjective vision of impact as well as the multidimensionality of performance. The theories mobilized are therefore particularly adapted to nonprofit organizations and their operationalization has been revisited.Practitioner and societal implications: The results call for a reasonable and flexible measurement of the impact of nonprofit organizations and underline the crucial character of governance to improve performance and impact, in spite of mistrust. Stakeholder prioritization is crucial to avoid the problems associated with holistic accountability. The components of relationship quality can then become criteria for prioritizing stakeholders, as they vary among stakeholders and have an effect on performance and impact.; Objectif : La présente recherche explore la relation entretenue entre la gouvernance des organisations à but non lucratif et leur performance globale, qui inclut également leur impact sur leurs parties prenantes. Elle affiche donc des objectifs analytiques autour des liens avec les parties prenantes : avec qui œuvrer et à qui rendre des comptes ? comment rendre des comptes et raffermir les liens avec elles ? quels comptes rendre et quels sont les critères d’évaluation ? Les effets de la gouvernance, les formes prises par la reddition des comptes et la construction sociale de la performance et de l’impact organisationnels sont donc particulièrement étudiés.Approche et méthode : L’ancrage principal est la vision contingente des organisations, à laquelle appartiennent les théories des parties prenantes et de la dépendance aux ressources. A partir d’une démarche hypothético-déductive insérée dans le paradigme épistémique réaliste critique (PERC), les hypothèses issues de la littérature sont testées à partir de méthodes d’analyses de données textuelles, de régressions multiples logistiques et linéaires ainsi que de modèles d’équations structurelles. Les analyses ont porté sur les données des plus grandes associations françaises, sur un questionnaire auprès des dirigeants associatifs pendant la crise de la Covid-19, sur une enquête auprès de parties prenantes individuelles ainsi que sur le cas des Jeunes Agriculteurs.Résultats : Les études menées ont permis de montrer que les mécanismes de gouvernance s’expliquent notamment grâce au secteur et aux actions de l’association. En revanche, les liens entre gouvernance et performance globale sont à étudier au cas par cas. Il en va de même pour les effets de la reddition des comptes sur la performance. La performance à court-terme des associations, à savoir leur viabilité, est renforcée par le maintien des dispositifs de gouvernance tandis que l’adoption d’une orientation sociétale a des effets contrastés sur la viabilité. Enfin, globalement, la gouvernance améliore l’impact et la qualité de relation avec les parties prenantes qui elle-même a un effet positif sur l’impact organisationnel. Cependant, ces résultats doivent être étudiés dans le détail des mécanismes de gouvernance, des parties prenantes et des dimensions de la performance.Implications théoriques : Les résultats obtenus permettent de répondre aux objectifs fixés. Ainsi, la vision contingente de la gouvernance des organisations à but non lucratif conduit à une forte adaptabilité (dans chaque organisation et à ses parties prenantes). Le reporting est un mécanisme crucial de reddition des comptes mais la relation avec les parties prenantes est aussi particulièrement pertinente. Enfin, l'ensemble des concepts abordés sont contingents, permettant d'expliquer une vision émotionnelle et subjective de l’impact ainsi que la multidimensionnalité de la performance. Les théories mobilisées sont donc particulièrement adaptées pour les associations et leur opérationnalisation a été revisitée.Implications praticiennes et sociétales : Les résultats invitent à une mesure raisonnable et flexible de l’impact des organisations à but non lucratif et soulignent le caractère crucial de la gouvernance pour améliorer la performance et l’impact, en dépit des méfiances. La priorisation des parties prenantes est en outre cruciale, pour éviter les problèmes associés à la reddition des comptes holistique. Les composantes de la qualité de relation peuvent alors devenir des critères de hiérarchisation et de priorisation des parties prenantes, car elles varient selon les parties prenantes et ont un effet sur la performance et l’impact.

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    Oskar Bordeaux
    Doctoral thesis
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    Authors: Falconieri, Irene; Revet, Sandrine;

    L'apparition de la pandémie de Sars-CoV-2 a généré un climat d'incertitude généralisé et a imposé des ajustements soudains dans les modes de vie et les relations sociales, dans les temps et les formes de travail, dans les pratiques de l'administration territoriale et dans de nombreux autres domaines de la sphère publique et privée. Les concepts d'urgence et de crise sanitaire, ainsi que les outils de gouvernance qui leur sont associés, ont représenté les principales catégories à travers lesquelles le phénomène a été pensé, communiqué et mis en œuvre par les institutions et agences nationales et supranationales. Cela s'est fait au détriment d'une approche holistique et d'une perspective temporelle de plus long terme, capable de faire ressortir le réseau articulé de relations entre les différentes sphères et échelles de la société qui a conditionné l'étendue et les caractéristiques de la situation pandémique à l'échelle nationale et internationale.

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    Authors: KAMEL, Said; RAYNOR, Alexandre; ZOZOR, Samuel; LACAPE, Geneviève; +15 Authors

    International audience; Pour citer cet article : Atteintes myocardiques au cours de la maladie à coronavirus 19 (Covid-19) : principaux mécanismes physiopathologiques et utilité clinique des biomarqueurs cardiaques.

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    Oskar Bordeaux
    Article . 2021
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    Hal-Diderot
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      Oskar Bordeaux
      Article . 2021
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    Authors: Éric Triquet;

    Pour les spécialistes des sciences sociales, l’événement correspondrait avant tout à un phénomène vécu comme une rupture, par un collectif, ou plus largement une société. L’auteur propose dans cet article une analyse du traitement journalistique de l’événement « pandémie de COVID-19 » par le quotidien Le Monde. Il cherche à rendre compte de la construction médiatique de l’événement à travers différents niveaux de traitement de l’information. Les articles ont été collectés à partir des archives en ligne du quotidien, grâce à une recherche par mots clés disponible uniquement pour les abonnés. La période retenue est celle du premier confinement en France, entre le 17 mars et le 11 mai 2020. For specialists in the social sciences, an event describes primarily a phenomenon experienced as a disruption by a group or more broadly a society. The author presents in this article an analysis of the journalistic treatment of the “COVID-19 pandemic” event by the daily Le Monde. He looks at the media construction of the event through the lens of various levels of information treatment. Articles were collected from the paper’s online archives through subscriber-only keyword searches. The period under consideration is that of the first lockdown in France, from March 17 to May 11, 2020. Para los especialistas en ciencias sociales, el evento correspondería antes que todo a un fenómeno experimentado como una ruptura, por un colectivo, o más ampliamente una sociedad. El autor del artículo propone en este estudio un análisis del manejo periodístico del evento “pandemia de COVID-19” por el diario Le Monde. Dicho autor intenta informar sobre la construcción mediática del evento mediante diferentes niveles de manejo de la información. Los artículos fueron recopilados en los archivos en línea del diario, gracias a una búsqueda a partir de palabras clave disponibles únicamente para los suscritos. El periodo seleccionado es el del primer confinamiento en Francia, entre el 17 de marzo y el 11 de mayo de 2020.

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    Authors: Alizon, Samuel; Sofonea, Mircea, T;

    Travail du groupe de modélisation de l'équipe ETE

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    Hal-Diderot
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    Authors: Patricia, Pâme; Cazemajou, Anne; Jean-Marc, Josset;
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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2022
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    Authors: Esplugas-Labatut, Pierre;

    National audience; Saisi par voie de référé-liberté par madame Clémentine Autain et « La France insoumise », le Conseil d’État devait trancher la question de la légalité de dispositions fixées par décret encadrant, pour des raisons liées à l’épidémie de Covid 19, la liberté de réunion et de manifestation en période électorale. Par une ordonnance du 11 juin 2021, la Haute juridiction administrative applique en l’espèce des méthodes classiques visant à concilier des normes d’égale valeur constitutionnelle, à contrôler la proportionnalité des mesures de police adoptées et à assurer le respect du principe d’égalité. De manière plus audacieuse, il interprète les dispositions attaquées afin de les « sauver » comme ne limitant pas le nombre de participants possible à une réunion électorale.

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    Authors: Magali Boespflug; Claire Lefort; Cécile McLaughlin; Petra Pelletier;

    La crise du Covid-19 que nous traversons nous place face à l’ennemi invisible qui contraint notre relation aux autres : ce sont tous nos repères, toutes nos valeurs qui semblent bouleversés. Pourtant, ce virus invisible est en permanence raconté, par les médias, par les pouvoirs publics. Ces récits ont ceci de commun : ils positionnent le virus dans une fonction actantielle très claire, celle de l’ennemi à combattre, entraînant avec lui la constitution d’armées distinctes avec une segmentation de la population très marquée : ceux qui doivent agir pour lutter et tenter de maintenir l’équilibre économique ; les aînés contraints à l’isolement ; les jeunes, stigmatisés car vecteur puissant du virus. Pourtant, la gestion de cette crise nécessite au contraire de renforcer les liens, de réaffirmer le vivre ensemble et le sens du collectif en sortant de ces segmentations par l’âge et en mettant en lumière les émotions et les valeurs humaines communes aux différentes générations.Une première étude faite auprès des jeunes et des seniors montre un panel d’émotions (tristesse, colère, anxiété), de valeurs humaines universelles (sécurité, bienveillance, universalisme) indiquant le besoin de vivre ensemble, avec notamment le mal-être associé à l’isolement social. Sur les fondements analytiques de cette étude, le projet CoviZion se propose de construire une approche méthodologique novatrice permettant de révéler le socle intergénérationnel commun sur lequel les pouvoirs publics, les institutions, les relais médiatiques pourraient s’appuyer pour engager une communication de crise orientée sur les émotions et les valeurs humaines communes et non sur les catégories d’âge. The crisis of Covid-19 that we are crossing nowadays place us face-to-face with an enemy that constrains our relationship with others: the totality of our landmarks and our values seems shattered. Yet, this invisible virus is constantly an object of storytelling by mass media and authorities. These stories have a common point : they place the virus in a clearly actantial function of an enemy we have to fight with, leading to the constitution of distinct armies by a very marked segmentation of the population : those who have to fight and try to maintain the economic balance ; the elders constrained in isolation ; the youths stigmatised as a powerful viral vector. However, the current crisis management, on the contrary, requires strengthening the social links, reaffirming living together, the sense of the collective, by leaving this segmentation by age and highlighting common emotions and human values to different generations.Our first study, conducted with sample of youths and seniors, shows a range of emotions (sadness, anger, anxiety) and universal human values (security, benevolence, universalism) indicating the need to live together, especially due to the state of ill-being related to the feeling of social isolation. Based on the analytical foundations of this study, the project CoviZion proposes to build an innovative methodological approach that allows to reveal the common intergenerational pedestal that might serve authorities, public institutions and media relay to initiate crisis communication oriented toward common emotions and human values, rather than age related categories. Trayectorias Humanas Trascontinentales, N° 10 | 2021

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    Trayectorias Humanas Trascontinentales
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
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    Authors: Ait Lahcen, Dina; Oukassi, Mustapha; Amghar, Nour Eddin;

    Les PME constituent l'épine dorsale de toute économie (Eggers, 2020). Ainsi, lorsque la pandémie COVID-19 a surgi toute l’économie est mise en péril et les PME sont durement touchées. Les premiers chiffres paraissent certes, alarmants, toutefois les perspectives de sortie de ce tourbillon demeurent optimistes. À fin 2020, plus que 95% des PME marocaines ont pu maintenir leur activité (HCP, 2021) dont une bonne partie a fait preuve de résilience et d’agilité et a pu surmonter, relativement, les effets dévastateurs de la crise. Notre recherche vise, alors, à étudier les déterminants clés explicatifs de la réussite des PME marocaines en temps de crise sanitaire et économique COVID-19 en mettant l’accent sur trois principales dimensions: l’environnement, l’entrepreneur et les ressources mobilisées. Pour ce faire, nous avons mené une étude qualitative via des entretiens individuels semi-directifs auprès d’un échantillon de type aléatoire simple composé de 20 entrepreneurs œuvrant dans la région de Rabat-Salé-Kenitra. Les résultats obtenus ont montré que bien que le gouvernement marocain a développé une panoplie de mesures d’appui et de soutien aux PME, la majorité des entrepreneurs considérait que la réussite de leur entreprise est inhérente principalement à des facteurs endogènes liés à leur engagement, leur motivation et aux ressources propres mises à leur disposition et subsidiairement, aux facteurs exogènes liés aux caractéristiques du contexte et aux opportunités offertes par l’environnement où ils opèrent. Mots- clés : PME, réussite, crise, résilience, facteurs. Classification JEL: H 12, P47, F64. Type de l’article : Recherche appliquée SMEs are the backbone of any economy (Eggers, 2020). Thus, when the COVID-19 pandemic emerged, the entire economy was put at risk and SMEs were hit hard. The first figures seem to be alarming, but the prospects for emerging from this vortex remain optimistic. At the end of 2020, more than 95% of Moroccan SMEs have been able to maintain their activity (HCP, 2021), many of which have shown resilience and agility and have been able to overcome the devastating effects of the crisis. Our research aims, then, to study the key determinants explaining the success of Moroccan SMEs in times of health and economic crisis COVID-19 by focusing on three main dimensions: the environment, the entrepreneur and the resources mobilized. To this end, we conducted a qualitative study through individual semi-directive interviews with a simple random sample of 20 entrepreneurs operating in the Rabat-Salé-Kenitra region. The results obtained showed that although the Moroccan government has developed a wide range of support measures for SMEs, the majority of the entrepreneurs considered that the success of their business is mainly due to endogenous factors related to their commitment, their motivation and the resources at their disposal, and secondarily, to exogenous factors related to the characteristics of the context and the opportunities offered by the environment in which they operate. Keywords: SME, success, crisis, resilience, factors. JEL Classification : H 12, P47, F64. Paper type: Empirical research.

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    ZENODO
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: ZENODO
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    ZENODO
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY
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    Authors: Audran, Jacques; Kaqinari, Tomas; Kern, Dominique; Makarova, Elena;

    Les mesures de confinement imposées aux établissements d’enseignement supérieur au premier semestre 2020 en Europe ont nécessité une migration d’urgence vers l’enseignement en ligne pour assurer la continuité des enseignements. Bien qu’un soutien ait été généralement proposé aux enseignants, il leur a fallu s’adapter d’urgence à ces nouvelles conditions de travail. Cette situation particulière a offert l’opportunité de mieux comprendre la complexité du défi auquel ont dû faire face les enseignants. L’objectif de cet article est de mettre en évidence les premières réactions des enseignants du supérieur afin de repérer leurs priorités d’action et d’éventuelles évolutions de leur rapport au numérique. Pour cela, l’article s’appuie sur les résultats d’une enquête menée auprès d’enseignants de trois universités en Suisse et en France dans le bassin du Rhin supérieur. À cet effet, un questionnaire diffusé à la fin du premier confinement au printemps 2020 a permis de recueillir 616 réponses. Le questionnaire administré a porté sur les pratiques, mais aussi sur le « ressenti » des enseignants durant trois périodes : l’avant-confinement, la période de basculement vers le tout à distance et l’après-confinement. Les premiers résultats montrent que ce recours massif à l’enseignement en ligne a été dominé par le besoin de maintenir la relation avec les étudiants. Ils suggèrent aussi que la pandémie a amélioré l’acceptabilité de l’enseignement en ligne, sans pour autant garantir son adoption pérenne. The lockdown of higher education institutions in the European spring semester 2020 required an emergency migration to online teaching. Although support was offered to lecturers, the necessity to adapt to the situation remained in charge of them. This particular situation offers the opportunity to better understand the complexity of the challenge faced by the teachers and the possible evolution of their relationship to digital education. The main goal of this paper is to highlight the teachers’ first reactions, their priorities, and any changes in their relationship to educational technologies. Lecturers and teachers from three universities (N= 616) from the Upper Rhine region in Switzerland and France completed an online survey just after the spring 2020 lockdown. The questionnaire asked them about their practices and their feelings over three periods: before the lockdown, the period of switching to online lessons, and after lockdown. The first results show the effects produced by this massive use of online education and first and foremost the need to maintain the relationship with the students. They also suggest that the pandemic has improved the acceptability of online education, without ensuring its sustainable adoption.

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    Authors: Plaisance, Guillaume;

    Objective: This research explores the relationship between the governance of nonprofit organizations and their overall performance, which also includes their impact on their stakeholders. It therefore has analytical objectives around stakeholder relationships: with whom to work and to whom to be accountable? How to be accountable and strengthen the links with them? What accounts to give and what are the evaluation criteria? The effects of governance, the forms taken by accountability and the social construction of organizational performance and impact are therefore particularly studied.Approach and method: The main anchor is the contingent vision of organizations, to which the stakeholder and resource dependency theories belong. Based on a hypothetico-deductive approach inserted in the critical realist epistemic paradigm (PERC), the hypotheses from the literature are tested using methods of textual data analysis, logistic and linear multiple regressions, and structural equation models. The analyses focused on data from the largest French nonprofit organizations, on a questionnaire of nonprofit leaders during the Covid-19 crisis, on a survey of individual stakeholders, and on the case of the Young Farmers.Results: The conducted studies have shown that governance mechanisms can be explained by the sector and the actions of the nonprofits. However, the links between governance and overall performance need to be studied on a case-by-case basis. The same is true for the effects of accountability on performance. The short-term performance of nonprofit organizations, i.e., their viability, is enhanced by maintaining governance arrangements, while the adoption of a societal orientation has contrasting effects on viability. Finally, governance improves impact and relationship quality with stakeholders, which has a positive effect on organizational impact. However, these results need to be studied in detail in terms of governance mechanisms, stakeholders and performance dimensions.Theoretical implications: The obtained results enable to meet the objectives set. Thus, the contingent view of governance in nonprofit organizations leads to a strong adaptability (within each organization and to its stakeholders). Reporting is a crucial accountab