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The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
25 Research products, page 1 of 3

  • COVID-19
  • Publications
  • Other research products
  • 2018-2022
  • Closed Access
  • DK
  • English
  • University of Southern Denmark Research Output

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  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Ana Beatriz Pizarro; Emma Persad; Solange Durao; Barbara Nussbaumer-Streit; Jean S Engela-Volker; Damien McElvenny; Sarah Rhodes; Katie Stocking; Tony Fletcher; Craig Martin; +5 more
    Country: Denmark

    Background: Although many people infected with SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2) experience no or mild symptoms, some individuals can develop severe illness and may die, particularly older people and those with underlying medical problems. Providing evidence-based interventions to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection has become more urgent with the spread of more infectious SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoC), and the potential psychological toll imposed by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Controlling exposures to occupational hazards is the fundamental method of protecting workers. When it comes to the transmission of viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2, workplaces should first consider control measures that can potentially have the most significant impact. According to the hierarchy of controls, one should first consider elimination (and substitution), then engineering controls, administrative controls, and lastly, personal protective equipment (PPE). Objectives: To assess the benefits and harms of interventions in non-healthcare-related workplaces to reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection relative to other interventions, or no intervention. Search methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register, the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS), Clinicaltrials.gov, and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform to 14 September 2021. We will conduct an update of this review in six months. Selection criteria: We included randomised control trials (RCT) and planned to include non-randomised studies of interventions. We included adult workers, both those who come into close contact with clients or customers (e.g. public-facing employees, such as cashiers or taxi drivers), and those who do not, but who could be infected by co-workers. We excluded studies involving healthcare workers. We included any intervention to prevent or reduce workers' exposure to SARS-CoV-2 in the workplace, defining categories of intervention according to the hierarchy of hazard controls, i.e. elimination; engineering controls; administrative controls; personal protective equipment. Data collection and analysis: We used standard Cochrane methods. Our primary outcomes were incidence rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection (or other respiratory viruses), SARS-CoV-2-related mortality, adverse events, and absenteeism from work. Our secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality, quality of life, hospitalisation, and uptake, acceptability, or adherence to strategies. We used the Cochrane RoB 2 tool to assess the risk of bias, and GRADE methods to assess the certainty of evidence for each outcome. Main results: Elimination of exposure interventions. We included one study examining an intervention that focused on elimination of hazards. This study is an open-label, cluster-randomised, non-inferiority trial, conducted in England in 2021. The study compared standard 10-day self-isolation after contact with an infected person to a new strategy of daily rapid antigen testing and staying at work if the test is negative (test-based attendance). The trialists hypothesised that this would lead to a similar rate of infections, but lower COVID-related absence. Staff (N = 11,798) working at 76 schools were assigned to standard isolation, and staff (N = 12,229) at 86 schools to the test-based attendance strategy. The results between test-based attendance and standard 10-day self-isolation were inconclusive for the rate of symptomatic PCR-positive SARS-COV-2 infection rate ratio ((RR) 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74 to 2.21; 1 study, very low-certainty evidence)). The results between test-based attendance and standard 10-day self-isolation were inconclusive for the rate of any PCR-positive SARS-COV-2 infection (RR 1.35, 95% CI 0.82 to 2.21; 1 study, very low-certainty evidence). COVID-related absenteeism rates were 3704 absence days in 566,502 days-at-risk (6.5 per 1000 days at risk) in the control group and 2932 per 539,805 days-at-risk (5.4 per 1000 days at risk) in the intervention group (RR 0.83; 95% CI 0.55 to 1.25). The certainty of the evidence was downgraded to low, due to imprecision. Uptake of the intervention was 71 % in the intervention group, but not reported for the control intervention. The trial did not measure other outcomes, SARS-CoV-2-related mortality, adverse events, all-cause mortality, quality of life, and hospitalisation. We found one ongoing RCT about screening in schools, using elimination of hazard strategies. Personal protective equipment. We found one ongoing non-randomised study on the effects of closed face shields to prevent COVID-19 transmission. Other intervention categories. We did not find studies in the other intervention categories. Authors' conclusions: We are uncertain whether a test-based attendance policy affects rates of PCR-postive SARS-CoV-2 infection (any infection; symptomatic infection) compared to standard 10-day self-isolation amongst school and college staff. Test-based attendance policy may result in little to no difference in absence rates compared to standard 10-day self-isolation. As a large part of the population is exposed in the case of a pandemic, an apparently small relative effect that would not be worthwhile from the individual perspective may still affect many people, and thus, become an important absolute effect from the enterprise or societal perspective. The included study did not report on any other primary outcomes of our review, i.e. SARS-CoV-2-related mortality and adverse events. No completed studies were identified on any other interventions specified in this review, but two eligible studies are ongoing. More controlled studies are needed on testing and isolation strategies, and working from home, as these have important implications for work organisations.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Signe Skovgaard Hviid; Veronica Pisinger; Sofie Have Hoffman; Johanne Aviaja Rosing; Janne Shurmann Tolstrup;
    Country: Denmark

    Objective: As alcohol is often consumed for social purposes, we aimed to explore how restrictions during the first Danish COVID-19 lockdown affected the alcohol use among adolescents aged 15–20. Method: In May 2020, 11,596 15- to 20-year-olds from two subpopulations answered a survey regarding their alcohol use and social life, as well as changes to these, during the Danish lockdown. Using survey data from all participants, we performed a multinomial logistic regression to assess the association between determinants of alcohol use and perceived change in alcohol use during the Danish lockdown. We used longitudinal data from one subpopulation ( n=1869) to perform negative binomial regressions exploring changes in frequency of alcohol use from 2019 to 2020. Results: Of all participants, 59% drank less, 75% had fewer in-person social interactions and 56% met more frequently online during lockdown. Girls were more likely than boys to have a perceived decrease in alcohol use during lockdown (odds ratio (OR)=1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27–1.56). A perceived decrease in in-person social interaction during lockdown was associated with less drinking (OR=2.27; 95% CI 1.98–2.61), while a perceived increase in in-person social interaction during lockdown was associated with more drinking (OR=1.42; 95% CI 1.11–1.82) compared to unchanged drinking behaviour and social interaction. Conclusions: Adolescents in Denmark drank less during the Danish lockdown than before. Findings indicate that there is a close relationship between in-person social interactions and frequency of drinking. Drinking episodes when meeting online were rare and were not unambiguously associated with changes in drinking during lockdown.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2022
    Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    O'Hagan, John; Borowiecki, Karol J;
    Publisher: Routledge
    Country: Denmark

    The approach of this chapter is polemical in nature, reflecting the very fluid situation that lies ahead for orchestras post COVID-19. The chapter has three main academic research objectives. First, to put the current debate in context, it looks at the key challenges that orchestras have faced since the turn of the last century and in what way COVID-19 posed new problems that impacted orchestral music. The second objective is to outline some special short-term measures introduced to mitigate the impact of COVID-19, namely: (i) the income-support measures needed to sustain orchestras; and (ii) the extent to which orchestras could come together and practice, and in fact perform, even if only in front of no or very limited live audiences. The third objective is to discuss what possibly lies ahead for live orchestral music, post-COVID-19, and in a rapidly changing world regarding technological advances in the production and consumption of orchestral music. To inform this discussion, some broad trends in the ‘consumption’ of orchestral music over time, particularly in terms of numbers attending live concerts and revenues from streamed concerts, are examined.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Amin Naemi; Mostafa Naemi; Romina Zarrabi Ekbatani; Thomas Schmidt; Ali Ebrahimi; Marjan Mansourvar; Uffe Kock Wiil;
    Publisher: Springer
    Country: Denmark

    This paper analyzes single and two-wave COVID-19 outbreaks using two novel hybrid models, which combine machine learning and statistical methods with Richards growth models, to simulate and forecast the spread of the infection. For this purpose, historical cumulative numbers of confirmed cases for three countries, including Iran, Italy, and Mexico, are used. The analysis of the Richards models shows that its single-stage form can model the cumulative number of infections in countries with a single wave of outbreak (Italy and Mexico) accurately while its performance deteriorates for countries with two-wave outbreaks (Iran), which clarifies the requirement of multi-stage Richards models. The results of multi-stage Richards models reveal that the prevention of the second wave could reduce the outbreak size in Iran by approximately 400,000 cases, and the pandemic could be controlled almost 7 months earlier. Although the cumulative size of outbreak is estimated accurately using multi-stage Richards models, the results show that these models cannot forecast the daily number of cases, which are important for health systems’ planning. Therefore, two novel hybrid models, including autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA)-Richards and nonlinear autoregressive neural network (NAR)-Richards, are proposed. The accuracy of these models in forecasting the number of daily cases for 14 days ahead is calculated using the test data set shows that forecast error ranges from 8 to 25%. A comparison between these hybrid models also shows that the machine learning-based models have superior performance compared with statistical-based ones and on average are 20% more accurate.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Mostafa Naemi; Amin Naemi; Romina Zarrabi Ekbatani; Ali Ebrahimi; Thomas Schmidt; Uffe Kock Wiil;
    Publisher: Springer
    Country: Denmark
  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Juliane K. Mueller; Peter Riederer; Walter E. Müller;
    Country: Denmark

    AbstractSince the beginning of the coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 pandemic, the need for effective treatments for COVID-19 led to the idea of “repurposing” drugs for antiviral treatment. Several antipsychotics and antidepressants have been tested for in vitro activity against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Chlorpromazine, other phenothiazine antipsychotics, and the antidepressant fluoxetine were found to be rather potent in these studies. However, whether effective plasma concentrations can be obtained with clinically accepted doses of these drugs is not clear. Data of COVID-19 patients are not yet available but several clinical studies are currently underway.The specific serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine is a potent Sigma-1 receptor agonist and reduces inflammation in animal models of cytokine-stress. Accordingly, fluvoxamine treatment was superior to placebo in reducing impaired respiratory function and other symptoms of inflammation in COVID-19 patients in a placebo-controlled clinical study and another open clinical trial. The beneficial effects of fluvoxamine on the course of COVID-19 were recently confirmed in a large placebo-controlled double-blind trial with several hundred patients.Inflammation represents a major risk factor for many psychiatric disorders which explains the high susceptibilitiy of COVID-19 patients for psychiatric diseases. Many antidepressants and antipsychotics possess anti-inflammatory properties independent of sigma-1 activity which might be important to reduce psychiatric symptoms of COVID-19 patients and to improve respiratory dysfunction and other consequences of inflammation. This might explain the rather unspecific benefit which has been reported for several cohorts of COVID-19 patients treated with different psychotropic drugs.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Sarah Cook; Marianne S. Ulriksen;
    Country: Denmark

    In this article we discuss the findings of contributions to the special issue titled Social policy responses to COVID-19. The articles add to the body of emerging evidence on how the pandemic has exacerbated the situation for some already vulnerable population groups, while also creating new sources of vulnerability affecting different groups. Despite both aggravated and new vulnerabilities, the articles demonstrate how governments have largely responded within the frameworks of their existing systems and institutions. Hence, overall, we do not see major shifts in policy direction. At the same time, some innovative responses or efforts to reach different groups are apparent, and it may just be too early to identify more fundamental shifts. IOs can play a key role in supporting such potential reforms. However, although IOs called for global solidarity at the start of the pandemic, many countries have ‘gone in on themselves’ and governments have largely strengthened the national focus of their policies. The potential for IOs to provide strong leadership in the long-term is still conceivable. The crisis is global and with all the different measures countries have put in place, there is a wealth of experience that could be collected and shared and IOs are well placed to do this. Responding to the pandemic will continue to require a global social policy perspective.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Mellupe, Renata;
    Publisher: Syddansk Universitet. Det Samfundsvidenskabelige Fakultet
    Country: Denmark

    Forskning i, hvordan stressfaktorer i forbindelse med udfordringer og hindringer påvirker performance, er vokset stærkt frem i litteraturen om organisatorisk stress. Vores forståelse af de mekanismer, som kan forklare disse effekter, er dog stadig begrænset. Denne artikelbaserede afhandling, som tager afsæt i udfordrings-/hindrings stressmodellen og transaktionsteori omkring stress, behandler i tre forskningsartikler spørgsmålet om, hvordan stressfaktorer påvirker performance ved at undersøge underliggende kognitive mekanismer og faktorer, som er relateret til disse effekter. Den første artikel har fokus på, hvordan udfordrings- og hindringsvurdering bidrager til vores forståelse af sammenhængen mellem stressfaktorer og performance. Artiklen præsenterer en oversigt over empiriske resultater, og stiller de studier, som måler vurderinger og de studier, der ikke tager vurderinger med i betragtning op overfor hinanden. Den konkluderer, at måling af vurderinger giver et mere detaljeret billede af sammenhængene mellem stressfaktorer og performancerelaterede resultater. Den anden artikel beskriver et præregistreret eksperimentelt studie, som har undersøgt virkningen af stressfaktorens styrke (opgavesværhedsgrad) på udfordrings-/hindringsvurderinger og performance af en krævende kognitiv opgave. Studiet fandt en ikke-lineære effekt af opgavesværhedsgrad på udfordringsvurderinger, mens effekten på hindringsvurderinger var lineær. Samtidig bekræfter det hindringsvurderingens medierende rolle i sammenhængen mellem opgavesværhedsgrad og performance. Den tredje artikel beskriver to studier. Studie 1 er et præregistreret eksperiment, som udforsker, hvilken rolle tidligere erfaringer og feedback spiller i det dynamiske stressforløb. Artiklen fokuserer især på, hvordan opgaveperformance, vist som en sideløbende performance feedback (dvs. simultan præsentation af opadgående social sammenligning og objektiv feedback) medierer ændringer i udfordrings- og hindringsvurderinger. Studie 1 underbygger delvist dets hypoteser om indirekte effekter. Studie 2 bygger på Studie 1 og anvender derudover eye-tracking til at undersøge sammenhængene mellem udfordrings-/hindringsvurderinger og opmærksomhed på de to nævnte aspekter af sideløbende feedback for at kaste lys på hvilke opmærksomhedsprocesser, der ligger bag de effekter, der blev fundet i Studie 1. Studie 2 er i øjeblikket i gang med dataindsamling og er ikke afsluttet på grund af COVID-19-inducerede restriktioner på laboratoriet. Denne afhandlings overordnede resultater anbefaler en gentænkning af den nuværende forståelsesramme for udfordrings-/hindrings stressmodellen ved at åbne for en mere kompleks konceptualisering af sammenhængen mellem stressfaktorer og performance i organisationer. Research on the effects of challenge and hindrance stressors on performance is burgeoning in organizational stress literature. Nevertheless, our understanding of the mechanisms explaining these effects is still limited. Grounded in the challenge-hindrance stressor framework and the transactional theory of stress, this article-based dissertation addresses the question of how stressors produce their effects on performance by investigating the underlying cognitive mechanisms and factors associated with these effects in three research papers. Specifically, to understand how challenge and hindrance appraisals contribute to our understanding of the stressor-performance link, the first paper presents a review of the empirical findings that contrasts the studies that measure appraisals with those that do not consider appraisals. It finds that measurement of appraisals offers more refined picture of the relationships between the stressors and performance-related outcomes. The second paper conducts a pre-registered experimental study to investigate the effects of the magnitude of a stressor (task difficulty) on challenge and hindrance appraisals and performance in a demanding cognitive task. It finds the non-linear effects of task difficulty on challenge appraisals, while the effects on hindrance appraisals were linear. In addition, it provides support for the mediating role of the hindrance appraisals in the task difficulty-performance relationships. The third paper consists of two studies. Study 1 carries out a pre-registered experiment to explore the role of prior experience and feedback in the dynamic stress process. Specifically, it examines how task performance, provided as in-task concurrent feedback, i.e., simultaneous presentation of upward social comparison and objective feedback, mediates change in challenge and hindrance appraisals. Study 1 finds partial support for the hypothesized effects. Study 2 examines the underlying effects found in Study 1 and employs eye-tracking to explore the associations between challenge and hindrance appraisals and attentional focus on the two elements of the in-task concurrent feedback to shed light on attentional processes. Study 2 is currently in the process of data collection and is not completed due to COVID-19 induced restrictions on the laboratory. The overall results of this dissertation encourage rethinking the existing state of the challenge-hindrance stressor framework by inviting a more complex conceptualization of the stressor-performance association in organizations.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Pia Iben Pietersen; Lars Konge; Rasmus Nyholm Jørgensen; Amy Farr; Christian B. Laursen;
    Country: Denmark

    Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has had an unprecedented effect on healthcare systems worldwide. Members of the European Respiratory Society (ERS) were surveyed to obtain a rapid insight of pulmonologists’ clinical life and experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic.Objective: To explore to which extent the COVID-19 situation affected pulmonologists’ work and educational strategies.Method: An electronic survey was compiled and distributed to ERS members in February 2021. The survey was open in three months. Besides, answering demographic data, members were asked to rate six variables on a scale from 1-10 and answer two yes/no questions.Results: A total of 579 members completed the survey (2.4% of all members). Mean age was 45.4 ±11.4 years, and the gender almost equally distributed (female n=265, 46%). Most of the responses were provided by pulmonologists from public, university hospitals (n=306, 53%) and major public hospitals (n=135, 23%). One-hundred and fifty-seven (27.2%) members reported that they did not receive sufficient training related to the COVID-19 pandemic and more than one-third (36.3% (n=210)) have performed procedures that they did not feel competent in. Of the six investigated outcomes, the COVID-19 pandemic had the greatest impact on workload (median 8 (6-9)) and change in work schedule (median 8 (6-9)).Conclusion: The COVID-19 has had a significant impact on pulmonologists’ workload and change in work schedule. A large proportion have had to perform procedures without feeling competent. Our findings could aid preserving the pulmonologists’ wellbeing after the crisis and supports the need to establish educational activities to ensure competency in COVID-19 related procedures.FootnotesCite this article as: European Respiratory Journal 2021; 58: Suppl. 65, OA2745.This abstract was presented at the 2021 ERS International Congress, in session “Prediction of exacerbations in patients with COPD”.This is an ERS International Congress abstract. No full-text version is available. Further material to accompany this abstract may be available at www.ers-education.org (ERS member access only).

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Shulzhenko, Elena; Secchi, Davide; Senderovitz, Martin; Hansen, Kristian Rune; van Bakel, Marian;
    Country: Denmark
Advanced search in Research products
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The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
25 Research products, page 1 of 3
  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Ana Beatriz Pizarro; Emma Persad; Solange Durao; Barbara Nussbaumer-Streit; Jean S Engela-Volker; Damien McElvenny; Sarah Rhodes; Katie Stocking; Tony Fletcher; Craig Martin; +5 more
    Country: Denmark

    Background: Although many people infected with SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2) experience no or mild symptoms, some individuals can develop severe illness and may die, particularly older people and those with underlying medical problems. Providing evidence-based interventions to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection has become more urgent with the spread of more infectious SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoC), and the potential psychological toll imposed by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Controlling exposures to occupational hazards is the fundamental method of protecting workers. When it comes to the transmission of viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2, workplaces should first consider control measures that can potentially have the most significant impact. According to the hierarchy of controls, one should first consider elimination (and substitution), then engineering controls, administrative controls, and lastly, personal protective equipment (PPE). Objectives: To assess the benefits and harms of interventions in non-healthcare-related workplaces to reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection relative to other interventions, or no intervention. Search methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register, the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS), Clinicaltrials.gov, and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform to 14 September 2021. We will conduct an update of this review in six months. Selection criteria: We included randomised control trials (RCT) and planned to include non-randomised studies of interventions. We included adult workers, both those who come into close contact with clients or customers (e.g. public-facing employees, such as cashiers or taxi drivers), and those who do not, but who could be infected by co-workers. We excluded studies involving healthcare workers. We included any intervention to prevent or reduce workers' exposure to SARS-CoV-2 in the workplace, defining categories of intervention according to the hierarchy of hazard controls, i.e. elimination; engineering controls; administrative controls; personal protective equipment. Data collection and analysis: We used standard Cochrane methods. Our primary outcomes were incidence rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection (or other respiratory viruses), SARS-CoV-2-related mortality, adverse events, and absenteeism from work. Our secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality, quality of life, hospitalisation, and uptake, acceptability, or adherence to strategies. We used the Cochrane RoB 2 tool to assess the risk of bias, and GRADE methods to assess the certainty of evidence for each outcome. Main results: Elimination of exposure interventions. We included one study examining an intervention that focused on elimination of hazards. This study is an open-label, cluster-randomised, non-inferiority trial, conducted in England in 2021. The study compared standard 10-day self-isolation after contact with an infected person to a new strategy of daily rapid antigen testing and staying at work if the test is negative (test-based attendance). The trialists hypothesised that this would lead to a similar rate of infections, but lower COVID-related absence. Staff (N = 11,798) working at 76 schools were assigned to standard isolation, and staff (N = 12,229) at 86 schools to the test-based attendance strategy. The results between test-based attendance and standard 10-day self-isolation were inconclusive for the rate of symptomatic PCR-positive SARS-COV-2 infection rate ratio ((RR) 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74 to 2.21; 1 study, very low-certainty evidence)). The results between test-based attendance and standard 10-day self-isolation were inconclusive for the rate of any PCR-positive SARS-COV-2 infection (RR 1.35, 95% CI 0.82 to 2.21; 1 study, very low-certainty evidence). COVID-related absenteeism rates were 3704 absence days in 566,502 days-at-risk (6.5 per 1000 days at risk) in the control group and 2932 per 539,805 days-at-risk (5.4 per 1000 days at risk) in the intervention group (RR 0.83; 95% CI 0.55 to 1.25). The certainty of the evidence was downgraded to low, due to imprecision. Uptake of the intervention was 71 % in the intervention group, but not reported for the control intervention. The trial did not measure other outcomes, SARS-CoV-2-related mortality, adverse events, all-cause mortality, quality of life, and hospitalisation. We found one ongoing RCT about screening in schools, using elimination of hazard strategies. Personal protective equipment. We found one ongoing non-randomised study on the effects of closed face shields to prevent COVID-19 transmission. Other intervention categories. We did not find studies in the other intervention categories. Authors' conclusions: We are uncertain whether a test-based attendance policy affects rates of PCR-postive SARS-CoV-2 infection (any infection; symptomatic infection) compared to standard 10-day self-isolation amongst school and college staff. Test-based attendance policy may result in little to no difference in absence rates compared to standard 10-day self-isolation. As a large part of the population is exposed in the case of a pandemic, an apparently small relative effect that would not be worthwhile from the individual perspective may still affect many people, and thus, become an important absolute effect from the enterprise or societal perspective. The included study did not report on any other primary outcomes of our review, i.e. SARS-CoV-2-related mortality and adverse events. No completed studies were identified on any other interventions specified in this review, but two eligible studies are ongoing. More controlled studies are needed on testing and isolation strategies, and working from home, as these have important implications for work organisations.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Signe Skovgaard Hviid; Veronica Pisinger; Sofie Have Hoffman; Johanne Aviaja Rosing; Janne Shurmann Tolstrup;
    Country: Denmark

    Objective: As alcohol is often consumed for social purposes, we aimed to explore how restrictions during the first Danish COVID-19 lockdown affected the alcohol use among adolescents aged 15–20. Method: In May 2020, 11,596 15- to 20-year-olds from two subpopulations answered a survey regarding their alcohol use and social life, as well as changes to these, during the Danish lockdown. Using survey data from all participants, we performed a multinomial logistic regression to assess the association between determinants of alcohol use and perceived change in alcohol use during the Danish lockdown. We used longitudinal data from one subpopulation ( n=1869) to perform negative binomial regressions exploring changes in frequency of alcohol use from 2019 to 2020. Results: Of all participants, 59% drank less, 75% had fewer in-person social interactions and 56% met more frequently online during lockdown. Girls were more likely than boys to have a perceived decrease in alcohol use during lockdown (odds ratio (OR)=1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27–1.56). A perceived decrease in in-person social interaction during lockdown was associated with less drinking (OR=2.27; 95% CI 1.98–2.61), while a perceived increase in in-person social interaction during lockdown was associated with more drinking (OR=1.42; 95% CI 1.11–1.82) compared to unchanged drinking behaviour and social interaction. Conclusions: Adolescents in Denmark drank less during the Danish lockdown than before. Findings indicate that there is a close relationship between in-person social interactions and frequency of drinking. Drinking episodes when meeting online were rare and were not unambiguously associated with changes in drinking during lockdown.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2022
    Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    O'Hagan, John; Borowiecki, Karol J;
    Publisher: Routledge
    Country: Denmark

    The approach of this chapter is polemical in nature, reflecting the very fluid situation that lies ahead for orchestras post COVID-19. The chapter has three main academic research objectives. First, to put the current debate in context, it looks at the key challenges that orchestras have faced since the turn of the last century and in what way COVID-19 posed new problems that impacted orchestral music. The second objective is to outline some special short-term measures introduced to mitigate the impact of COVID-19, namely: (i) the income-support measures needed to sustain orchestras; and (ii) the extent to which orchestras could come together and practice, and in fact perform, even if only in front of no or very limited live audiences. The third objective is to discuss what possibly lies ahead for live orchestral music, post-COVID-19, and in a rapidly changing world regarding technological advances in the production and consumption of orchestral music. To inform this discussion, some broad trends in the ‘consumption’ of orchestral music over time, particularly in terms of numbers attending live concerts and revenues from streamed concerts, are examined.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Amin Naemi; Mostafa Naemi; Romina Zarrabi Ekbatani; Thomas Schmidt; Ali Ebrahimi; Marjan Mansourvar; Uffe Kock Wiil;
    Publisher: Springer
    Country: Denmark

    This paper analyzes single and two-wave COVID-19 outbreaks using two novel hybrid models, which combine machine learning and statistical methods with Richards growth models, to simulate and forecast the spread of the infection. For this purpose, historical cumulative numbers of confirmed cases for three countries, including Iran, Italy, and Mexico, are used. The analysis of the Richards models shows that its single-stage form can model the cumulative number of infections in countries with a single wave of outbreak (Italy and Mexico) accurately while its performance deteriorates for countries with two-wave outbreaks (Iran), which clarifies the requirement of multi-stage Richards models. The results of multi-stage Richards models reveal that the prevention of the second wave could reduce the outbreak size in Iran by approximately 400,000 cases, and the pandemic could be controlled almost 7 months earlier. Although the cumulative size of outbreak is estimated accurately using multi-stage Richards models, the results show that these models cannot forecast the daily number of cases, which are important for health systems’ planning. Therefore, two novel hybrid models, including autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA)-Richards and nonlinear autoregressive neural network (NAR)-Richards, are proposed. The accuracy of these models in forecasting the number of daily cases for 14 days ahead is calculated using the test data set shows that forecast error ranges from 8 to 25%. A comparison between these hybrid models also shows that the machine learning-based models have superior performance compared with statistical-based ones and on average are 20% more accurate.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Mostafa Naemi; Amin Naemi; Romina Zarrabi Ekbatani; Ali Ebrahimi; Thomas Schmidt; Uffe Kock Wiil;
    Publisher: Springer
    Country: Denmark
  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Juliane K. Mueller; Peter Riederer; Walter E. Müller;
    Country: Denmark

    AbstractSince the beginning of the coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 pandemic, the need for effective treatments for COVID-19 led to the idea of “repurposing” drugs for antiviral treatment. Several antipsychotics and antidepressants have been tested for in vitro activity against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Chlorpromazine, other phenothiazine antipsychotics, and the antidepressant fluoxetine were found to be rather potent in these studies. However, whether effective plasma concentrations can be obtained with clinically accepted doses of these drugs is not clear. Data of COVID-19 patients are not yet available but several clinical studies are currently underway.The specific serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine is a potent Sigma-1 receptor agonist and reduces inflammation in animal models of cytokine-stress. Accordingly, fluvoxamine treatment was superior to placebo in reducing impaired respiratory function and other symptoms of inflammation in COVID-19 patients in a placebo-controlled clinical study and another open clinical trial. The beneficial effects of fluvoxamine on the course of COVID-19 were recently confirmed in a large placebo-controlled double-blind trial with several hundred patients.Inflammation represents a major risk factor for many psychiatric disorders which explains the high susceptibilitiy of COVID-19 patients for psychiatric diseases. Many antidepressants and antipsychotics possess anti-inflammatory properties independent of sigma-1 activity which might be important to reduce psychiatric symptoms of COVID-19 patients and to improve respiratory dysfunction and other consequences of inflammation. This might explain the rather unspecific benefit which has been reported for several cohorts of COVID-19 patients treated with different psychotropic drugs.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Sarah Cook; Marianne S. Ulriksen;
    Country: Denmark

    In this article we discuss the findings of contributions to the special issue titled Social policy responses to COVID-19. The articles add to the body of emerging evidence on how the pandemic has exacerbated the situation for some already vulnerable population groups, while also creating new sources of vulnerability affecting different groups. Despite both aggravated and new vulnerabilities, the articles demonstrate how governments have largely responded within the frameworks of their existing systems and institutions. Hence, overall, we do not see major shifts in policy direction. At the same time, some innovative responses or efforts to reach different groups are apparent, and it may just be too early to identify more fundamental shifts. IOs can play a key role in supporting such potential reforms. However, although IOs called for global solidarity at the start of the pandemic, many countries have ‘gone in on themselves’ and governments have largely strengthened the national focus of their policies. The potential for IOs to provide strong leadership in the long-term is still conceivable. The crisis is global and with all the different measures countries have put in place, there is a wealth of experience that could be collected and shared and IOs are well placed to do this. Responding to the pandemic will continue to require a global social policy perspective.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Mellupe, Renata;
    Publisher: Syddansk Universitet. Det Samfundsvidenskabelige Fakultet
    Country: Denmark

    Forskning i, hvordan stressfaktorer i forbindelse med udfordringer og hindringer påvirker performance, er vokset stærkt frem i litteraturen om organisatorisk stress. Vores forståelse af de mekanismer, som kan forklare disse effekter, er dog stadig begrænset. Denne artikelbaserede afhandling, som tager afsæt i udfordrings-/hindrings stressmodellen og transaktionsteori omkring stress, behandler i tre forskningsartikler spørgsmålet om, hvordan stressfaktorer påvirker performance ved at undersøge underliggende kognitive mekanismer og faktorer, som er relateret til disse effekter. Den første artikel har fokus på, hvordan udfordrings- og hindringsvurdering bidrager til vores forståelse af sammenhængen mellem stressfaktorer og performance. Artiklen præsenterer en oversigt over empiriske resultater, og stiller de studier, som måler vurderinger og de studier, der ikke tager vurderinger med i betragtning op overfor hinanden. Den konkluderer, at måling af vurderinger giver et mere detaljeret billede af sammenhængene mellem stressfaktorer og performancerelaterede resultater. Den anden artikel beskriver et præregistreret eksperimentelt studie, som har undersøgt virkningen af stressfaktorens styrke (opgavesværhedsgrad) på udfordrings-/hindringsvurderinger og performance af en krævende kognitiv opgave. Studiet fandt en ikke-lineære effekt af opgavesværhedsgrad på udfordringsvurderinger, mens effekten på hindringsvurderinger var lineær. Samtidig bekræfter det hindringsvurderingens medierende rolle i sammenhængen mellem opgavesværhedsgrad og performance. Den tredje artikel beskriver to studier. Studie 1 er et præregistreret eksperiment, som udforsker, hvilken rolle tidligere erfaringer og feedback spiller i det dynamiske stressforløb. Artiklen fokuserer især på, hvordan opgaveperformance, vist som en sideløbende performance feedback (dvs. simultan præsentation af opadgående social sammenligning og objektiv feedback) medierer ændringer i udfordrings- og hindringsvurderinger. Studie 1 underbygger delvist dets hypoteser om indirekte effekter. Studie 2 bygger på Studie 1 og anvender derudover eye-tracking til at undersøge sammenhængene mellem udfordrings-/hindringsvurderinger og opmærksomhed på de to nævnte aspekter af sideløbende feedback for at kaste lys på hvilke opmærksomhedsprocesser, der ligger bag de effekter, der blev fundet i Studie 1. Studie 2 er i øjeblikket i gang med dataindsamling og er ikke afsluttet på grund af COVID-19-inducerede restriktioner på laboratoriet. Denne afhandlings overordnede resultater anbefaler en gentænkning af den nuværende forståelsesramme for udfordrings-/hindrings stressmodellen ved at åbne for en mere kompleks konceptualisering af sammenhængen mellem stressfaktorer og performance i organisationer. Research on the effects of challenge and hindrance stressors on performance is burgeoning in organizational stress literature. Nevertheless, our understanding of the mechanisms explaining these effects is still limited. Grounded in the challenge-hindrance stressor framework and the transactional theory of stress, this article-based dissertation addresses the question of how stressors produce their effects on performance by investigating the underlying cognitive mechanisms and factors associated with these effects in three research papers. Specifically, to understand how challenge and hindrance appraisals contribute to our understanding of the stressor-performance link, the first paper presents a review of the empirical findings that contrasts the studies that measure appraisals with those that do not consider appraisals. It finds that measurement of appraisals offers more refined picture of the relationships between the stressors and performance-related outcomes. The second paper conducts a pre-registered experimental study to investigate the effects of the magnitude of a stressor (task difficulty) on challenge and hindrance appraisals and performance in a demanding cognitive task. It finds the non-linear effects of task difficulty on challenge appraisals, while the effects on hindrance appraisals were linear. In addition, it provides support for the mediating role of the hindrance appraisals in the task difficulty-performance relationships. The third paper consists of two studies. Study 1 carries out a pre-registered experiment to explore the role of prior experience and feedback in the dynamic stress process. Specifically, it examines how task performance, provided as in-task concurrent feedback, i.e., simultaneous presentation of upward social comparison and objective feedback, mediates change in challenge and hindrance appraisals. Study 1 finds partial support for the hypothesized effects. Study 2 examines the underlying effects found in Study 1 and employs eye-tracking to explore the associations between challenge and hindrance appraisals and attentional focus on the two elements of the in-task concurrent feedback to shed light on attentional processes. Study 2 is currently in the process of data collection and is not completed due to COVID-19 induced restrictions on the laboratory. The overall results of this dissertation encourage rethinking the existing state of the challenge-hindrance stressor framework by inviting a more complex conceptualization of the stressor-performance association in organizations.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Pia Iben Pietersen; Lars Konge; Rasmus Nyholm Jørgensen; Amy Farr; Christian B. Laursen;
    Country: Denmark

    Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has had an unprecedented effect on healthcare systems worldwide. Members of the European Respiratory Society (ERS) were surveyed to obtain a rapid insight of pulmonologists’ clinical life and experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic.Objective: To explore to which extent the COVID-19 situation affected pulmonologists’ work and educational strategies.Method: An electronic survey was compiled and distributed to ERS members in February 2021. The survey was open in three months. Besides, answering demographic data, members were asked to rate six variables on a scale from 1-10 and answer two yes/no questions.Results: A total of 579 members completed the survey (2.4% of all members). Mean age was 45.4 ±11.4 years, and the gender almost equally distributed (female n=265, 46%). Most of the responses were provided by pulmonologists from public, university hospitals (n=306, 53%) and major public hospitals (n=135, 23%). One-hundred and fifty-seven (27.2%) members reported that they did not receive sufficient training related to the COVID-19 pandemic and more than one-third (36.3% (n=210)) have performed procedures that they did not feel competent in. Of the six investigated outcomes, the COVID-19 pandemic had the greatest impact on workload (median 8 (6-9)) and change in work schedule (median 8 (6-9)).Conclusion: The COVID-19 has had a significant impact on pulmonologists’ workload and change in work schedule. A large proportion have had to perform procedures without feeling competent. Our findings could aid preserving the pulmonologists’ wellbeing after the crisis and supports the need to establish educational activities to ensure competency in COVID-19 related procedures.FootnotesCite this article as: European Respiratory Journal 2021; 58: Suppl. 65, OA2745.This abstract was presented at the 2021 ERS International Congress, in session “Prediction of exacerbations in patients with COPD”.This is an ERS International Congress abstract. No full-text version is available. Further material to accompany this abstract may be available at www.ers-education.org (ERS member access only).

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Shulzhenko, Elena; Secchi, Davide; Senderovitz, Martin; Hansen, Kristian Rune; van Bakel, Marian;
    Country: Denmark