Dictamen elaborat en el context de desconfinament davant l'emergència provocada per la COVID-19. Ruling release prepared in the context of deconfinement to the emergency caused by COVID-19. Dictamen elaborado en el contexto de desconfinamiento ante la emergencia provodada por la COVID-19.
Data for the paper "Traveller behaviour in public transport in the early stages of COVID-19 pandemic in the Netherlands". Includes, respondents' rankings between two train options and an opt-out option for different choice situations with varying COVID-19 contexts and travel time attributes. Personal characteristics related to mobility, socio-economic status, and COVID-19 perception are also included. A data dictionary is included in the data file. Further information can be found in the linked paper.
This paper considers two current challenges in the governance of maritime transport, specifcally container shipping. The frst is the oligopolistic market structure of container shipping, the downsides of which became evident during the COVID-19 pandemic. The second challenge is climate change, both the need to reduce emissions to zero by 2050 and to adapt to efects that are already locked in. The paper reviews the academic and policy literature and unveils a link between these market and environmental challenges which result from a focus on efciency without considering negative efects such as diseconomies of scale and induced trafc, leading to a continued rise in total industry carbon emissions. The review likewise identifes links in how policy-makers react to the two challenges. Regulators could remove anti-trust exemptions from carriers, and policy-makers are being pushed to provide strict decarbonisation targets with a coherent timeline for ending the use of fossil fuels. Recent thinking on ecological economics, degrowth and steady-state economics is introduced as the paradigm shift that could link these two policy evolutions.
Because of Covid-19, air cargo operations have become more and more important for the airlines to cope with the loss of the passenger traffic revenues. To guarantee the safety and security for a flight carrying cargo, smooth processes are required throughout the whole air cargo supply chain. One of the most important players in this chain is the ground handling agent at the airport who is responsible for ensuring proper handling and weight control of the cargo before it is loaded on the flight. This thesis was commissioned by Japan Airlines Helsinki branch, and it was linked to the project of the airline changing the cargo ground handling agent from the beginning of 2022. The transfer from the previous ground handling agent to the new one needed to be as smooth as possible to guarantee the continuity of the cargo operations for the import and export cargo. The main goal of this thesis project was to find ways to measure the quality during the early stage of the new contract. The research aimed to measure how the new ground handling agent succeeded in taking over the cargo handling operations, and if the service level was meeting the expectations of the airline. The idea for the thesis came from the writer and the focus was set for the first month of operations. The research was conducted as a case study, and the main method for data collection was observation. In addition, data was collected by using irregularity records and other information available related to daily handling. The theoretical framework was built around the concepts of air cargo handling, ground handling agent, and service quality. The results of this research indicated that the transfer was rather smooth and the new ground handling agent was able to take over the operations in such manner that there was no bigger impact on the daily operations from the airline perspective. The research also provided some focus points for the future by identifying certain service deviations during the first month.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, Susi Air as an airline service company experienced a decrease in the number of passenger flights and cargo flights. This study aims to determine the effect of COVID-19 on the number of passenger and cargo flights and the way Susi Air has stabilized the number of flights during the COVID-19 pandemic. The method in this study uses a combined method or mixed methods. This study uses two types of data, namely primary data in the form of observation data carried out directly by researchers in the field, and secondary data in the form of time series data on the number of passenger flights and cargo flights of Susi Air Airlines at Nusawiru Cijulang Airport and interview data conducted with two operational staff. Susi Air Airlines. The results of the study show that the COVID-19 pandemic affects the number of passenger flights with Susi Air Airlines with a significance value in the run test, which is 0.000, the COVID-19 pandemic affects the number of Susi Air cargo flights with a significance value in the t test, namely amounting to 0.000, as well as the way Susi Air has stabilized the number of flights during the COVID-19 pandemic, namely by utilizing Instagram social media as a promotional tool, conducting ticket sales cooperation through the Traveloka platform, establishing pioneering flight collaborations between Susi Air Airlines and the Provincial Government. , providing discounts on airline ticket prices, and providing Charter Medical Evacuation (Medevac Emergency Indonesia) services as one of its service products.
Public transportation in the U.S., including in California, was declining before COVID-19, and the pandemic made a bad situation much worse. In this dissertation, I analyze data from the 2009 and 2017 National Household Travel Surveys and from a California survey administered in May 2021 by IPSOS using both discrete choice (cross-nested logit and generalized ordered logit) and quasi-experimental (propensity score matching) tools first to investigate how Transportation Network Companies (TNCs, e.g., Uber and Lyft) impacted transit ridership before COVID-19, before analyzing how COVID-19 affected transit and other modes.In Chapter 2, my results for the U.S. show that individuals/households who use either public transit or TNCs share socio-economic characteristics, reside in similar areas, and differ from individuals/households who use neither public transit nor TNCs. In addition, individuals/households who use both public transit and TNCs tend to be Millennials or belong to Generation Z, with a higher income, more education, no children, and fewer vehicles than drivers. In Chapter 3, I quantify the impact of TNCs on household transit use by comparing travel for households from the 2017 NHTS (who had access to both transit and TNCs) matched with households from the 2009 NHTS (who only had access to transit) using propensity score matching. Overall, I find a 22% drop for weekdays (1.6 fewer daily transit trips by each household) and a 15% decrease for weekends (1.4 fewer daily transit trips by each household). In Chapter 4, I analyze how Californians changed transportation modes due to COVID-19 and explore their intentions to use different modes after COVID-19. I find that driving but especially transit and TNCs could see substantial drops in popularity after the pandemic. Many Hispanics, African Americans, Asians, lower-income people, and people who would like to telecommute more intend to use transit less. Key obstacles to a resurgence of transit after COVID-19 are insufficient reach and frequency, shortcomings that are especially important to younger adults, people with more education, and affluent households ("choice riders"). My findings highlight the danger of public transit entering into outsourcing agreements with TNCs, neglecting captive riders, and exposing choice riders to TNCs.
Welcome to Mobility and Development: Innovations, Policies, and Practices, an online periodical launched by the World Bank's Transport Global Practice to disseminate policy-oriented and practice-ready publications affecting the transport sector worldwide. In each issue, we will explore timely topics and key trends in mobility and logistic sector influencing wider development outcomes through original, unpublished articles contributed by both World Bank staff and guest authors. The articles in the periodical aim to engage with wider audiences and internal and external stakeholders, including World Bank senior management, staff from other global practices (GPs), donors, and development partners, academia, and policy makers in low- and middle-income countries. For this inaugural issue, we have chosen to focus on Low-carbon and Resilient Mobility in a Post-COVID-19 (coronavirus) World, a theme that is perhaps unavoidable considering the pandemic and its cross-cutting impacts already reshaping the world - as we also continue efforts to diffuse the mounting threat of climate change.
Cities will be home to 2 billion new residents by 2045, and the pressure to develop land in and around cities is growing. This will pose a great challenge to lower‐income cities since they tend to grow through slums and other informal settlements. Slum residents have inadequate and inequitable access to public services and economic opportunities, and on account of the living conditions in these settlements, they are also more vulnerable to diseases, especially highly communicable ones, such as COVID-19. In 2014, an estimated 880 million urban residents lived in slum conditions, compared with 792 million in 2000 (UN 2019). This number is likely to keep growing unless urban spatial expansion is planned and managed well. To achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, development institutions will need to support clients in managing urban spatial growth. An integrated approach towards land administration, land use planning, and land development – three major determinants of urban spatial growth – will be key. This evaluation offers IEG’s first systematic assessment of the World Bank’s support to the management of urban spatial growth. It answers the question: To what extent has World Bank engagement been relevant and effective towards supporting its clients in managing urban spatial growth through land administration, land‐use planning, and land development?
The data in this paper includes city data and epidemic data. The urban data embodies subdistrict zoning vector data, road network vector data, rail transit stations POI data and bus stations POI data of the seven traditional central urban districts of Wuhan. The epidemic data is crawled from the real-time distribution map of infected cases jointly published by the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention and Tencent Group, of which 29324 confirmed cases in 3397 residential areas in Wuhan were summarized as of 2 March 2020 during which Wuhan was at the end of the outbreak with a cumulative total of 49,426 confirmed cases, accounting for 98.16% of the total number of confirmed cases in Wuhan in 2020.