International audience; Original high throughput screening of NF-kB inhibitory drugs Auranofin inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication Auranofin increases the ACE2 mobility at the plasma membrane Auranofin inhibits ACE-2dependent SARS-CoV-2 endocytosis
International audience; Background: COVID-19 lockdowns represent natural experiments where limitations of movement impact on lifestyle behaviors. The aim of this paper was to assess how lockdowns have influenced physical activity and sedentary behaviors among French adults.Methods: 32,409 adults from the NutriNet-Santé study filled out questionnaires in April 2020 (the first 2 weeks after the start of lockdown) and in May 2020 (2 weeks before the lockdown ended). Participants were asked about changes in physical activity level and sitting time, types of physical activity performed, and main reasons for change.Results: For decreased physical activity, similar rates were found at the beginning and end of the lockdown (58 and 55%–56 and 53%, in women and men, respectively). For increased physical activity, the figures were lower (20 and 14%–23 and 18%, in women and men, respectively). The participants with a decreasing physical activity evolution were older and more likely to be living in urban areas. The main reasons for (i) decreased physical activity were limitations of movement and not liking indoor exercise, (ii) increased physical activity were to stay physically fit and healthy. Physical activity changes were inversely associated with reported depressive symptoms.Conclusions: Changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviors are heterogenous for both genders during the lockdown.
International audience; BACKGROUND: The protective immunity against omicron following a BNT162b2 Pfizer booster dose among elderly individuals (ie, those aged >65 years) is not well characterised.METHODS: In a community-based, prospective, longitudinal cohort study taking place in France in which 75 residents from three nursing homes were enrolled, we selected 38 residents who had received a two-dose regimen of mRNA vaccine and a booster dose of Pfizer BNT162b2 vaccine. We excluded individuals that did not receive three vaccine doses or did not have available sera samples. We measured anti-S IgG antibodies and neutralisation capacity in sera taken 56 (28-68) and 55 (48-64) days (median (range)) after the 2(nd) and 3(rd) vaccine doses, respectively. Antibodies targeting the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein were measured with the S-Flow assay as binding antibody units per milliliter (BAU/mL). Neutralising activities in sera were measured as effective dilution 50% (ED50) with the S-Fuse assay using authentic isolates of delta and omicron BA.1.FINDINGS: Among the 38 elderly individuals recruited to the cohort study between November 23(rd), 2020 and April 29(th), 2021, with median age of 88 (range 72-101) years, 30 (78.95%) had been previously infected with SARS-CoV-2. After three vaccine doses, serum neutralising activity was lower against omicron BA.1 (median ED50 of 774.5, range 15.0-34660.0) than the delta variant (median ED50 of 4972.0, range 213.7-66340.0), and higher among previously infected (ie, convalescent; median ED50 against omicron: 1088.0, range 32.6-34660.0) compared with infection-naive residents (median ED50 against omicron: 188.4, range 15.0-8918.0). During the French omicron wave in December 2021-January 2022, 75% (6/8) of naive residents were infected, compared to 25% (7/30) of convalescent residents (P=0.0114). Anti-Spike antibody levels and neutralising activity against omicron BA.1 after a third BNT162b2 booster dose were lower in those with breakthrough BA.1 infection (n=13) compared with those without (n=25), with a median of 1429.9 (range 670.9-3818.3) BAU/mL vs 2528.3 (range 695.4-8832.0) BAU/mL (P=0.029) and a median ED50 of 281.1 (range 15.0-2136.0) vs 1376.0 (range 32.6-34660.0) (P=0.0013), respectively.INTERPRETATION: This study shows that elderly individuals who received three vaccine doses elicit neutralising antibodies against the omicron BA.1 variant of SARS-CoV-2. Elderly individuals who had also been previously infected showed higher neutralising activity compared with naive individuals. Yet, breakthrough infections with omicron occurred. Individuals with breakthrough infections had significantly lower neutralising titers compared to individuals without breakthrough infection. Thus, a fourth dose of vaccine may be useful in the elderly population to increase the level of neutralising antibodies and compensate for waning immunity.
Bastien Berger; Marc Hazzan; Nassim Kamar; Hélène Francois; Marie Matignon; Clarisse Greze; Philippe Gatault; Luc Frimat; Pierre F. Westeel; Valentin Goutaudier; +21 more
Bastien Berger; Marc Hazzan; Nassim Kamar; Hélène Francois; Marie Matignon; Clarisse Greze; Philippe Gatault; Luc Frimat; Pierre F. Westeel; Valentin Goutaudier; Renaud Snanoudj; Charlotte Colosio; Antoine Sicard; Dominique Bertrand; Christiane Mousson; Jamal Bamoulid; Antoine Thierry; Dany Anglicheau; Lionel Couzi; Jonathan M. Chemouny; Agnes Duveau; Valerie Moal; Yannick Le Meur; Gilles Blancho; Jérôme Tourret; Paolo Malvezzi; Christophe Mariat; Jean-Philippe Rerolle; Nicolas Bouvier; Sophie Caillard; Olivier Thaunat;
International audience; SARS-CoV-2 pandemic evolved in two consecutive waves over 2020. Improvements in the management of COVID-19 led to a reduction of mortality rates in hospitalized patients during the second wave. Whether this progress also benefited to kidney transplant recipients (KTR), a population particularly vulnerable to severe COVID-19, remained unclear. In France, 957 KTR were hospitalized for COVID-19 in 2020 and their data were prospectively collected in the French SOT COVID registry. The presentation, management, and outcomes of the 359 KTR diagnosed during the 1st wave were compared to those of the 598 of the 2nd wave. Baseline comorbidities were similar between KTR of the 2 waves. Maintenance immunosuppression was reduced in most patients but withdrawal of antimetabolite (73.7% vs 58.4%, p<0.001) or CNI (32.1% vs 16.6%, p<0.001) was less frequent during the 2nd wave. Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin that were commonly used during the 1st wave (21.7% and 30.9%, respectively) were almost abandoned during the 2nd. In contrast, the use of high dose corticosteroids doubled (19.5% vs. 41.6%, p<0.001). Despite these changing trends in COVID-19 management, 60-day mortality was not statistically different between the 2 waves (25.3% vs. 23.9%; Log Rank, p=0.48) and COVID-19 hospitalization period was not associated with death due to COVID in multivariate analysis (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.67 - 1.17, p = 0.4). We conclude that changing of therapeutic trends during 2020 did not reduce COVID-19 related mortality in KTR. Our data indirectly support the importance of vaccination and monoclonal neutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies to protect KTR from severe COVID-19.
Abstract Background: SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern (VOC) α spread worldwide, including in France, at the beginning of 2021. This variant was suggested to be associated with a higher risk of mortality than other variants. Little information is available in the subset of patients with severe disease admitted in the intensive care unit (ICU). We aimed to characterize the genetic diversity of SARS-CoV-2 variants isolated from patients with severe COVID-19 in order to unravel the relationships between specific viral mutations/mutational patterns and clinical outcomes.Methods: Prospective multicentre observational cohort study. Patients aged ≥18 years admitted in 11 ICUs from Great Paris area hospitals between October 1, 2020, and May 30, 2021 (before the introduction of VOC δ (B.617.2) in France) for acute respiratory failure (SpO2≤90% and need for supplemental oxygen or ventilator support) were included. SARS-CoV-2 infection, determined by RT-PCR testing. The primary clinical endpoint was day-28 mortality. Full-length SARS-CoV-2 genomes were sequenced by means of next-generation sequencing (Illumina COVIDSeq).Results: 413 patients were included, 183 (44.3%) had been infected with pre-existing variants, 197 (47.7%) with variant α (B.1.1.7), and 33 (8.0%) with other variants. Patients infected with pre-existing variants were significantly older (64.9±11.9 vs 60.5±11.8 years; p=0.0005); they had significantly more frequent COPD (11.5% (n=21/183) vs 4.1% (n=8/197); p=0.009), and higher SOFA score (4 [3-8] vs 3 [2-4]; 0.0002). Day-28 mortality was not different between patients infected with pre-existing, α (B.1.1.7) or other variants (31.1% (n=57/183) vs 26.2% (n=51/197) vs 30.3% (n=10/33), respectively; p=0.550). There was no association between day-28 mortality with a specific variant or the presence of specific mutations in SARS CoV-2 genome, including 17 mutations selected in the spike protein and all 1017 non-synonymous mutations detected throughout the entire viral genome.Conclusions: At ICU admission, patients infected with pre-existing variants had a different clinical presentation from those infected with variant α (B.1.1.7) and other variants later in the course of the pandemic, but mortality did not differ between these groups. There was no association between a specific variant or SARS CoV-2 genome mutational pattern and day-28 mortality.
International audience; Memory B-cell and antibody responses to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein contribute to long-term immune protection against severe COVID-19, which can also be prevented by antibody-based interventions. Here, wide SARS-CoV-2 immunoprofiling in Wuhan COVID-19 convalescents combining serological, cellular, and monoclonal antibody explorations revealed humoral immunity coordination. Detailed characterization of a hundred SARS-CoV-2 spike memory B-cell monoclonal antibodies uncovered diversity in their repertoire and antiviral functions. The latter were influenced by the targeted spike region with strong Fc-dependent effectors to the S2 subunit and potent neutralizers to the receptor-binding domain. Amongst those, Cv2.1169 and Cv2.3194 antibodies cross-neutralized SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, including Omicron BA.1 and BA.2. Cv2.1169, isolated from a mucosa-derived IgA memory B cell demonstrated potency boost as IgA dimers and therapeutic efficacy as IgG antibodies in animal models. Structural data provided mechanistic clues to Cv2.1169 potency and breadth. Thus, potent broadly neutralizing IgA antibodies elicited in mucosal tissues can stem SARS-CoV-2 infection, and Cv2.1169 and Cv2.3194 are prime candidates for COVID-19 prevention and treatment.
International audience; BackgroundThere is an urgent need of a new generation of vaccine that are able to enhance protection against SARS-CoV-2 and related variants of concern (VOC) and emerging coronaviruses.MethodsWe identified conserved T- and B-cell epitopes from Spike (S) and Nucleocapsid (N) highly homologous to 38 sarbecoviruses, including SARS-CoV-2 VOCs, to design a protein subunit vaccine targeting antigens to Dendritic Cells (DC) via CD40 surface receptor (CD40.CoV2).FindingsCD40.CoV2 immunization elicited high levels of cross-neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, VOCs, and SARS-CoV-1 in K18-hACE2 transgenic mice, associated with viral control and survival after SARS-CoV-2 challenge. A direct comparison of CD40.CoV2 with the mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine showed that the two vaccines were equally immunogenic in mice. We demonstrated the potency of CD40.CoV2 to recall in vitro human multi-epitope, functional, and cytotoxic SARS-CoV-2 S- and N-specific T-cell responses that are unaffected by VOC mutations and cross-reactive with SARS-CoV-1 and, to a lesser extent, MERS epitopes.InterpretationWe report the immunogenicity and antiviral efficacy of the CD40.CoV2 vaccine in a preclinical model providing a framework for a pan-sarbecovirus vaccine.FundingsThis work was supported by INSERM and the Investissements d'Avenir program, Vaccine Research Institute (VRI), managed by the ANR and the CARE project funded from the Innovative Medicines Initiative 2 Joint Undertaking (JU).
International audience; BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is the most severe clinical entity associated with pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection with a putative role of the spike protein into the immune system activation. Whether COVID-19 mRNA vaccine can induce this complication in children is unknown. We aimed to assess the risk of hyper-inflammatory syndrome following COVID-19 mRNA vaccine in children. METHODS: We conducted a post-authorization national population-based surveillance using the French enhanced pharmacovigilance surveillance system for COVID-19 vaccines. All cases of suspected hyper-inflammatory syndrome following COVID-19 mRNA vaccine in 12-17-year-old children between June 15(th), 2021 and January 1(st), 2022, were reported. Cases were reviewed according to WHO criteria for MIS-C. The reporting rate of this syndrome was compared to the MIS-C rate per 1,000,000 12-17-year-old children infected by SARS-CoV-2. FINDINGS: Up to January 2022, 8,113,058 COVID-19 mRNA vaccine doses were administered to 4,079,234 12-17-year-old children. Among them, 12 presented a hyper-inflammatory syndrome with multisystemic involvement. Main clinical features included male predominance (10/12, 83%), cardiac involvement (10/12, 83%), digestive symptoms (10/12, 83%), coagulopathy (7/12, 58%), cytolytic hepatitis (6/12, 50%), and shock (5/12, 42%). 4/12 (33%) required intensive care unit transfer, and 3/12 (25%) hemodynamic support. All cases recovered. In eight cases, no evidence of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection was found. The reporting rate was 1.5 (95%CI [0.8; 2.6]) per 1,000,000 doses injected, i.e. 2.9 (95%CI [1.5; 5.1]) per 1,000,000 12-17-year-old vaccinated children. As a comparison, 113 MIS-C (95%CI [95; 135]) occurred per 1,000,000 12-17-year-old children infected by SARS-CoV-2. INTERPRETATION: Very few cases of hyper-inflammatory syndrome with multi-organ involvement occurred following COVID-19 mRNA vaccine in 12-17-year-old children. The low reporting rate of this syndrome, compared to the rate of post-SARS-CoV-2 MIS-C in the same age-group, largely supports the vaccination in a context of an important circulation of SARS-CoV-2. FUNDING: ESPID Fellowship Award; Grandir-Fonds de Solidarité Pour L'enfance.
<b><i>Background:</i></b> Long-term care facilities (LTCFs) experienced severe burden from the Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), and vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 is a major issue for their residents. <b><i>Objective:</i></b> The objective of this study was to estimate the vaccination coverage rate among the residents of French LTCFs. <b><i>Method:</i></b> Participants and settings: 53 medical coordinators surveyed 73 LTCFs during the first-dose vaccination campaign using the BNT162b2 vaccine, conducted by health authorities in January and early February 2021. Measurements: in all the residents being in the LTCF at the beginning of the campaign, investigators recorded age, sex, history of clinical or asymptomatic COVID-19, serology for SARS-CoV-2 or severe allergy, current end-of-life situation, infectious or acute disease, refusal of vaccination by the resident or by the representative person of vaccine, and the final status, vaccinated or not. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Among the 4,808 residents, the average coverage rate for COVID-19 vaccination was 69%, and 46% of the LTCFs had a coverage rate <70%. Among unvaccinated residents, we observed more frequently a history of COVID-19 or a positive serology for SARS-CoV-2 (44.6 vs. 11.2% among vaccinated residents, <i>p</i> < 0.001), a history of severe allergy (3.7 vs. 0.1%, <i>p</i> < 0.001), end-of-life situation (4.9 vs. 0.3%, <i>p</i> < 0.001), current infectious or acute illness (19.6 vs. 0.3%, <i>p</i> < 0.001), and refusal of vaccination by residents or representative persons (38.9 vs. 0.4%, <i>p</i> < 0.001). <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> About 3 out of 10 residents remained unvaccinated, and half of the LTCFs had a coverage rate <70%. This suggests that COVID-19 will remain a threat to many LTCFs after the vaccination campaigns.
AbstractEvaluating the characteristics of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern is essential to inform pandemic risk assessment. A variant may grow faster if it produces a larger number of secondary infections (transmissibility advantage) or if the timing of secondary infections (generation time) is better. So far, assessments have largely focused on deriving the transmissibility advantage assuming the generation time was unchanged. Yet, knowledge of both is needed to anticipate impact. Here we develop an analytical framework to investigate the contribution of both the transmissibility advantage and generation time to the growth advantage of a variant. We find that the growth advantage depends on the epidemiological context (level of epidemic control). More specifically, variants conferring earlier transmission are more strongly favoured when the historical strains have fast epidemic growth, while variants conferring later transmission are more strongly favoured when historical strains have slow or negative growth. We develop these conceptual insights into a statistical framework to infer both the transmissibility advantage and generation time of a variant. On simulated data, our framework correctly estimates both parameters when it covers time periods characterized by different epidemiological contexts. Applied to data for the Alpha and Delta variants in England and in Europe, we find that Alpha confers a +54% [95% CI, 45-63%] transmissibility advantage compared to previous strains, and Delta +140% [98-182%] compared to Alpha, and mean generation times are similar to historical strains for both variants. This work helps interpret variant frequency and will strengthen risk assessment for future variants of concern.