Our working hypothesis is that key factors in COVID-19 imaging are the available imaging data and their label noise and confounders, rather than network architectures per se. Thus, we applied existing state-of-the-art convolution neural network frameworks based on the U-Net architecture, namely nnU-Net , and focused on leveraging the available training data. We did not apply any pre-training nor modi ed the network architecture. First, we enriched training information by generating two additional labels for lung and body area. Lung labels were created with a public available lung segmentation network and weak body labels were generated by thresholding. Subsequently, we trained three di erent multi-class networks: 2-label (original background and lesion labels), 3-label (additional lung label) and 4-label (additional lung and body label). The 3-label obtained the best single network performance in internal cross-validation (Dice-Score 0.756) and on the leaderboard (Dice- Score 0.755, Haussdor 95-Score 57.5). To improve robustness, we created a weighted ensemble of all three models, with calibrated weights to optimise the ranking in Dice-Score. This ensemble achieved a slight performance gain in internal cross-validation (Dice-Score 0.760). On the validation set leaderboard, it improved our Dice-Score to 0.768 and Haussdor 95- Score to 54.8. It ranked 3rd in phase I according to mean Dice-Score. Adding unlabelled data from the public TCIA dataset in a student-teacher manner signi cantly improved our internal validation score (Dice-Score of 0.770). However, we noticed partial overlap between our additional training data (although not human-labelled) and nal test data and therefore submitted the ensemble without additional data, to yield realistic assessments.
The Schengen Area is one of the pillars of the European project. But it has been affected by several difficulties: the serious consequences of the global economic and financial crisis (2008-2018), growing concerns over external migratory pressure and the question of enlargement, fears of social dumping and, since March 2020, the COVID-19 crisis. Identifying these obstacles is vital so that pragmatic solutions can be found without jeopardising the founding principle.