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131 Research products, page 1 of 14

  • COVID-19
  • Research data
  • Other research products
  • 2017-2021
  • Open Access
  • COVID-19
  • Rural Digital Europe

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Costa, Filipa Oliveira;
    Country: Portugal

    O presente relatório cobre o estágio curricular realizado no âmbito do Mestrado em Estudos Interculturais para Negócios do Instituto Superior de Contabilidade e Administração do Porto e que decorreu no Museu da Chapelaria, um museu localizado na cidade de São João da Madeira. Na atual cultura tecnologicamente evoluída, os museus podem ajudar a ligar o que costumava ser ao que mudou e ao que se vai tornar. Isto significa que os museus colocam a nossa sociedade em perspetiva e através de novas estratégias de comunicação, como a transformação digital, podem criar novas ideias para se manterem relevantes e únicos. A transformação digital trouxe novos horários de trabalho e regulamentos para os museus. Uma vez encerrados devido à situação do Covid-19, o trabalho remoto e a promoção digital foram essenciais. Em resposta ao confinamento, o mercado iniciou uma necessidade de inovação e estratégias para continuar a dar ao público acesso à cultura. Devido à exigência do consumo imediato por parte do público, é valiosa a capacidade de adaptação de um museu às mudanças sociais e económicas da sociedade. Em resposta à crescente procura do mercado no setor cultural, os museus têm sido obrigados a utilizar recursos tecnológicos mais atrativos e, como resultado, envolveremse mais eficazmente com o público. Assim, a utilização do marketing surgiu de forma espontânea no desenvolvimento e aumento da oferta cultural. Além disso, os museus estão ainda mais ligados à comunidade em que estão inseridos e ao tipo de consumidores culturais que desejam atrair. O objetivo deste relatório é apresentar e analisar o estágio no Museu da Chapelaria e retratar em pormenor as tarefas realizadas ao longo do estágio relacionadas com os museus e o projeto Interferências 1.0 (cujo promove o acesso à cultura para grupos mais vulneráveis da sociedade), aludindo às novas estratégias de comunicação e de atração de públicos que foram criadas para o novo tipo de situação de trabalho em que o mundo está a viver. This report covers the curricular internship from Porto Accounting and Business School’s Master degree in Intercultural Studies for Business. The internship was completed at Museu da Chapelaria, a museum located in the city of São João da Madeira. In today’s technologically evolved culture, museums may help connect what used to be to what has changed and will become. This means that museums put our society into perspective, and through new communication strategies such as digital transformation, they can create new ideas to stay relevant and unique. The digital transformation brought new work schedules and regulations to museums. Once they were closed due to the Covid-19 situation, remote work and digital promotion were essential. The market started a need for innovation and strategies to keep giving the public access to culture. Due to the public’s demand for immediate consumption, a museum’s ability to adapt to society's social and economic changes is valuable. In recent years, in response to growing market demand in the cultural sector, museums have been forced to use more attractive technological resources and, as a result, engage more effectively with the public. Thus, the use of marketing has emerged spontaneously in the development and increase of cultural offerings. Furthermore, museums are connecting even more with the community they are inserted in and the type of culture consumers they want to attract. The objective of this report is to present and analyze the internship at Museu da Chapelaria and portray in full detail the tasks carried out throughout the internship related to the museums and the project Interferências 1.0 (which promotes access to culture for more vulnerable groups in society), alluding to the new strategies that were created for the new type of work situation the world is living in.

  • Open Access Swedish
    Authors: 
    Abrahamsson, Ishtar; Larsson, Emma;
    Country: Sweden

    Utbrottet av COVID-19 pandemin har fört med sig en rad implikationer på privatpersoner, välfärden och inte minst företag runt om i världen. Distansarbete blev under våren 2020 en lösning för många företag att kunna fortsätta bedriva sina verksamheter. Den plötsliga omvandlingen till distansarbete har haft en del påverkan på hur organisationer opererar, inte minst hur kommunikation och information färdas mellan medarbetare. Syftet med denna rapport är att fånga hur chefers ledarskapsstil påverkas under en plötslig digital transformation som skett som en konsekvens av coronapandemin. Studien ska kunna bidra till en djupare förståelse för ledarskap under extraordinära omständigheter som har inneburit distansarbete på marknader där kunskapsintensiva företag och enheter är aktiva. Empiriskt material har samlats in genom kvalitativa intervjuer med chefer via digitala plattformar på grund utav de rådande restriktionerna under arbetet av denna studie. Slutsatsen av studien tyder på en uppenbar förändring av chefers ledarskapsstilar i kunskapsintensiva företag i jämförelse med ledarskapsstilen innan COVID-19 pandemin. Cheferna i denna studie har fått justera och anpassa sitt ledarskap mellan en stöttande ledarskapsstil i vissa lägen och en dominerande ledarskapsstil i andra lägen under distansarbetet.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Anghel, Brindusa; Lacuesta Gabarain, Aitor; Tagliati, Federico;
    Publisher: Banco de España
    Country: Spain

    Este documento analiza las competencias financieras de las empresas españolas de menos de 50 trabajadores (pequeñas empresas) a partir de una encuesta elaborada por el Banco de España entre marzo y mayo de 2021, que se engloba dentro de un proyecto desarrollado por la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos (OCDE): International Network on Financial Education (OCDE/INFE). La encuesta incluye una serie de preguntas con el objetivo de medir las competencias financieras de las empresas (conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos financieros), así como la tenencia de instrumentos financieros, el impacto de la crisis del COVID-19 sobre su actividad o el nivel de digitalización de la empresa. Estas preguntas deben de ser contestadas por el propietario de la empresa, siempre que tome alguna decisión financiera en relación con aquella. Los principales resultados de la encuesta apuntan a que, en general, en España los propietarios de las empresas con menos de 20 trabajadores y las empresas de servicios de alojamiento y hostelería, construcción y otros servicios personales (grupo heterogéneo de ramas, que incluiría empresas de educación, reparaciones o lavandería, entre otras) presentan unos conocimientos financieros bajos en comparación con las empresas de entre 20 y 49 trabajadores y con las del resto de los sectores. En cuanto a las actitudes financieras, los propietarios de las empresas de más de 10 trabajadores presentan una mayor tendencia a establecer objetivos financieros a largo plazo respecto a los propietarios de empresas de menos de 10 trabajadores. Algunos comportamientos financieros están menos generalizados en las empresas de menor tamaño (y especialmente en las de menos de 5 trabajadores), como, por ejemplo, disponer de estrategias en caso de robo y considerar opciones de distintos proveedores de productos o de servicios financieros. Finalmente, las pequeñas empresas españolas, independientemente de su tamaño, sobresalen por el bajo porcentaje de propietarios que han pensado en la financiación de su jubilación. El uso de los instrumentos de capital y de otras formas de financiación más recientes como los bonos sostenibles, los business angels o la financiación participativa) es marginal en las pequeñas empresas españolas. Asimismo, es limitado en estas empresas el empleo del seguro de daños materiales, y principalmente del de interrupción de negocio. No se observan diferencias importantes en los conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos financieros según el género del propietario de la empresa. Además, en general, las competencias financieras medias en las pequeñas empresas mejoran con el nivel educativo tan solo si el propietario tiene formación concreta en temas relacionados con la empresa, la economía o las finanzas. Otras características que se asocian positivamente con las capacidades financieras, independientemente del nivel educativo, son disponer de 10 años de experiencia empresarial o tener un progenitor empresario. El impacto de la crisis del COVID-19 en el nivel de facturación, en los beneficios y en la deuda fue bastante similar en empresas con distintos grados de competencias financieras. Sin embargo, los efectos negativos en el empleo y en la liquidez fueron algo menores para los cuartiles más altos de competencias financieras de los propietarios. Adicionalmente, mayores conocimientos financieros estuvieron asociados a una probabilidad superior de solicitar y de obtener un nuevo préstamo o de beneficiarse de un aval público. Las empresas con menores conocimientos financieros sí utilizaron en mayor medida transferencias de renta, así como moratorias de alquiler. Finalmente, existe una relación positiva entre competencias financieras y mayor nivel de digitalización en la empresa con anterioridad a la pandemia. Sin embargo, no existe correlación de competencias financieras y un incremento de las actividades digitales tras el COVID-19. This paper analyses the financial competencies of Spanish enterprises with fewer than 50 employees (small enterprises) based on a survey conducted by the Banco de España between March and May 2021 as part of a project launched by the OECD (International Network on Financial Education, OECD/INFE). The survey includes a series of questions aimed at measuring firms’ financial competencies (financial knowledge, attitudes and behaviour) and the financial instruments held by them, the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on their activity and their level of digitalisation. It is the owners of the firms who should answer these questions insofar as it is they who make financial decisions in relation to their firm. The main results of the survey suggest that, in Spain, owners of enterprises with fewer than 20 employees have little financial knowledge compared with those of enterprises with between 20 and 49 employees. The same is true of firms in the accommodation and food service activities, construction and other personal service sectors (a heterogeneous group of sectors which would include firms in education, repairs or laundry services, among others) compared with firms in other sectors. In terms of financial attitudes, owners of firms with more than ten employees have a greater tendency to set long-term financial goals than owners of firms with fewer than ten employees. Some financial behaviours (such as having strategies in place in the event of theft or considering different options for their financial product and service providers) are less widespread among smaller firms, especially those with fewer than five employees. Lastly, the percentage of Spanish small enterprises, regardless of size, whose owners have thought about how to finance their retirement is remarkably low. The use of capital instruments and other more recent types of financing (such as sustainable bonds, business angels or crowdfunding) is marginal in small Spanish enterprises. Likewise, the use of property and, particularly, business interruption insurance is limited among these firms. There are no discernible, significant differences in financial knowledge, attitudes and behaviours in terms of the gender of the business owner. Also, in general, the average financial competencies in small enterprises improve with the level of educational attainment only if the owner has specific training in business, economics or finance. Other characteristics positively associated with financial competencies, irrespective of educational attainment, are having ten years of entrepreneurial experience or having an entrepreneur for a parent. The impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the level of turnover, profits and debt was quite similar for firms with different degrees of financial competencies. However, the negative impact on employment and liquidity was somewhat lower for the higher quartiles of owners’ financial competencies. Additionally, higher financial knowledge was associated with being more likely to apply for and obtain a new loan or benefit from a public guarantee. Firms with less financial knowledge did make greater use of income transfers and rental moratoria. Lastly, there is a positive correlation between financial competencies and a higher level of digitalisation in the firm pre-pandemic. However, there is no such correlation between financial competencies and digital activities following COVID-19.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Anghel, Brindusa; Lacuesta Gabarain, Aitor; Tagliati, Federico;
    Publisher: Banco de España
    Country: Spain

    Este documento analiza las competencias financieras de las empresas españolas de menos de 50 trabajadores (pequeñas empresas) a partir de una encuesta elaborada por el Banco de España entre marzo y mayo de 2021, que se engloba dentro de un proyecto desarrollado por la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos (OCDE): International Network on Financial Education (OCDE/INFE). La encuesta incluye una serie de preguntas con el objetivo de medir las competencias financieras de las empresas (conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos financieros), así como la tenencia de instrumentos financieros, el impacto de la crisis del COVID-19 sobre su actividad o el nivel de digitalización de la empresa. Estas preguntas deben de ser contestadas por el propietario de la empresa, siempre que tome alguna decisión financiera en relación con aquella. Los principales resultados de la encuesta apuntan a que, en general, en España los propietarios de las empresas con menos de 20 trabajadores y las empresas de servicios de alojamiento y hostelería, construcción y otros servicios personales (grupo heterogéneo de ramas, que incluiría empresas de educación, reparaciones o lavandería, entre otras) presentan unos conocimientos financieros bajos en comparación con las empresas de entre 20 y 49 trabajadores y con las del resto de los sectores. En cuanto a las actitudes financieras, los propietarios de las empresas de más de 10 trabajadores presentan una mayor tendencia a establecer objetivos financieros a largo plazo respecto a los propietarios de empresas de menos de 10 trabajadores. Algunos comportamientos financieros están menos generalizados en las empresas de menor tamaño (y especialmente en las de menos de 5 trabajadores), como, por ejemplo, disponer de estrategias en caso de robo y considerar opciones de distintos proveedores de productos o de servicios financieros. Finalmente, las pequeñas empresas españolas, independientemente de su tamaño, sobresalen por el bajo porcentaje de propietarios que han pensado en la financiación de su jubilación. El uso de los instrumentos de capital y de otras formas de financiación más recientes como los bonos sostenibles, los business angels o la financiación participativa) es marginal en las pequeñas empresas españolas. Asimismo, es limitado en estas empresas el empleo del seguro de daños materiales, y principalmente del de interrupción de negocio. No se observan diferencias importantes en los conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos financieros según el género del propietario de la empresa. Además, en general, las competencias financieras medias en las pequeñas empresas mejoran con el nivel educativo tan solo si el propietario tiene formación concreta en temas relacionados con la empresa, la economía o las finanzas. Otras características que se asocian positivamente con las capacidades financieras, independientemente del nivel educativo, son disponer de 10 años de experiencia empresarial o tener un progenitor empresario. El impacto de la crisis del COVID-19 en el nivel de facturación, en los beneficios y en la deuda fue bastante similar en empresas con distintos grados de competencias financieras. Sin embargo, los efectos negativos en el empleo y en la liquidez fueron algo menores para los cuartiles más altos de competencias financieras de los propietarios. Adicionalmente, mayores conocimientos financieros estuvieron asociados a una probabilidad superior de solicitar y de obtener un nuevo préstamo o de beneficiarse de un aval público. Las empresas con menores conocimientos financieros sí utilizaron en mayor medida transferencias de renta, así como moratorias de alquiler. Finalmente, existe una relación positiva entre competencias financieras y mayor nivel de digitalización en la empresa con anterioridad a la pandemia. Sin embargo, no existe correlación de competencias financieras y un incremento de las actividades digitales tras el COVID-19. This paper analyses the financial competencies of Spanish enterprises with fewer than 50 employees (small enterprises) based on a survey conducted by the Banco de España between March and May 2021 as part of a project launched by the OECD (International Network on Financial Education, OECD/INFE). The survey includes a series of questions aimed at measuring firms’ financial competencies (financial knowledge, attitudes and behaviour) and the financial instruments held by them, the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on their activity and their level of digitalisation. It is the owners of the firms who should answer these questions insofar as it is they who make financial decisions in relation to their firm. The main results of the survey suggest that, in Spain, owners of enterprises with fewer than 20 employees have little financial knowledge compared with those of enterprises with between 20 and 49 employees. The same is true of firms in the accommodation and food service activities, construction and other personal service sectors (a heterogeneous group of sectors which would include firms in education, repairs or laundry services, among others) compared with firms in other sectors. In terms of financial attitudes, owners of firms with more than ten employees have a greater tendency to set long-term financial goals than owners of firms with fewer than ten employees. Some financial behaviours (such as having strategies in place in the event of theft or considering different options for their financial product and service providers) are less widespread among smaller firms, especially those with fewer than five employees. Lastly, the percentage of Spanish small enterprises, regardless of size, whose owners have thought about how to finance their retirement is remarkably low. The use of capital instruments and other more recent types of financing (such as sustainable bonds, business angels or crowdfunding) is marginal in small Spanish enterprises. Likewise, the use of property and, particularly, business interruption insurance is limited among these firms. There are no discernible, significant differences in financial knowledge, attitudes and behaviours in terms of the gender of the business owner. Also, in general, the average financial competencies in small enterprises improve with the level of educational attainment only if the owner has specific training in business, economics or finance. Other characteristics positively associated with financial competencies, irrespective of educational attainment, are having ten years of entrepreneurial experience or having an entrepreneur for a parent. The impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the level of turnover, profits and debt was quite similar for firms with different degrees of financial competencies. However, the negative impact on employment and liquidity was somewhat lower for the higher quartiles of owners’ financial competencies. Additionally, higher financial knowledge was associated with being more likely to apply for and obtain a new loan or benefit from a public guarantee. Firms with less financial knowledge did make greater use of income transfers and rental moratoria. Lastly, there is a positive correlation between financial competencies and a higher level of digitalisation in the firm pre-pandemic. However, there is no such correlation between financial competencies and digital activities following COVID-19.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    European Union Agency for Cybersecurity;
    Publisher: European Union Agency for Cybersecurit
    Country: Greece

    DOI: 10.2824/201143 www.enisa.europa.eu Catalogue number: TP-07-21-067-EN-N In recent years, digitalisation has turned everything into something connected and smarter. How ever, w hile creating numerous opportunities for the European economy and society, technologies bring forw ard several new challenges. According to a recent study 1, cyber threats increase year over year, as the popularity of emerging technologies, such as Internet of Things (IoT), Artificial Intelligence (AI), big data, the large use of cloud computing, as w ell as connected devices, provide copious w ays to invade an organisation. An attack directed at a critical infrastructure, such as a hospital, can lead to physical damages and put the lives of patients at risk2. Therefore, there is a need for solid Incident Response Capabilities (IRC) in the health sector, in particular health care settings (including hospitals and private clinics). This sector indeed faces threats along its entire supply chain w ith potentially disastrous societal consequences for a multiplicity of stakeholders (citizens, public authorities, regulators, professional associations, large industries, SMEs), w hich become even more vulnerable in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic. This report focuses on sectoral CSIRT capabilities status and development w ithin the health sector since the implementation of the NIS Directive. The aim of the report is to offer insights on current incident response (IR) trends in order to draw practical recommendations about the development of IR capabilities in the health sector.

  • Other research product . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    World Bank Group;
    Publisher: World Bank, Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    Commodity prices have risen to high levels by historical standards. Energy prices have increased sharply, especially for natural gas and coal, while most non-energy prices have plateaued after steep increases earlier in the year. Crude oil prices are forecast to average $74/bbl in 2022, up from a projected $70/bbl in 2021. After registering more than 48 percent increase this year, metal prices are projected to decline 5 percent in 2022. Agricultural prices, which are projected to rise more than 20 percent this year, are expected to broadly stabilize in 2022. These forecasts are subject to substantial risks, from adverse weather, further supply constraints, or additional outbreaks of COVID-19. Energy prices are particularly at risk of additional volatility in the near-term given low inventory levels. A Special Focus section explores the impact of urbanization on commodity demand. Although cities are often associated with increased demand for energy commodities (and hence greenhouse gas emissions) the report finds that high-density cities, particularly in advanced economies, can have lower per capita energy demand than low-density cities. As the share of people living in urban areas is expected to continue to rise, these results highlight the need for strategic urban planning to maximize the beneficial elements of cities and mitigate their negative impacts.

  • Open Access Swedish
    Authors: 
    Lindahl, Frida; Sasivarevic, Selma;
    Country: Sweden

    The covid-19 pandemic has brought a tremendous amount of unexpected change to many parts of daily life - work being no exception. Since March of 2020 employers have been urged to take measures allowing for telework in order to decrease the spreading of the virus, consequently leading to offices closing. The purpose of this study was to examine how employees who previously worked in offices experience teleworking in general, the pros and cons of teleworking, and its effects on their well-being. The study aims to increase knowledge and understanding of the suitability for the continued use of telework after the covid-19 pandemic. To gather data a qualitative method consisting of nine digital semi-structured interviews with respondents who previously worked full time in office environments was used. The respondents varied in age and were affiliated with four different organizations. The interviews were later transcribed and reviewed using thematic analysis. The main findings suggest that the teleworking experience has been conclusively beneficial to the respondents as the majority express a desire to continue teleworking part-time after restrictions have been lifted. The experienced benefits consist of increased control and flexibility in day-to-day life as well as improved work productivity. The need for teleworking has also brought unforeseen benefits such as a digitalization process, which wouldn’t have been prioritized equivalently had it not been out of necessity. The main downsides of teleworking were the lack of social stimulation and rigid communication associated with the shortage of in-person interaction. Additionally, the findings suggest detriments associated with the use of activity-based offices. This was listed as one of the main reasons related to requesting the continuation of partial telework. Finally, the findings may provide insight regarding digital working methods for future employers to consider going forward, seeing to the vast experience accumulated since March of 2020.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Zeufack, Albert G.; Calderon, Cesar; Kubota, Megumi; Korman, Vijdan; Cantu Canales, Catalina; Kabundi, Alain Ntumba;
    Publisher: Washington, DC: World Bank
    Country: United States

    In 2021, Sub-Saharan Africa emerged from the recession, but its recovery is still timid and fragile. The region is projected to grow at a rate of 3.3 percent—a weaker pace of recovery than that of advanced and emerging market economies. In 2022–23, the region is projected to grow at rates below 4 percent; however, growth above 5 percent is attainable with rapid vaccine deployment in the region and thereby withdrawal of COVID-19 containment measures. In response to the pandemic, African countries are undertaking structural and economic reforms. Countries have been relatively disciplined on monetary and fiscal policies. However, limited fiscal space is handicapping African countries in injecting the fiscal resources required to launch a vigorous policy response to COVID-19.Accelerating the economic recovery in the region would require significant additional externalfinancing, in addition to rapid deployment of the vaccine. Africa’s unique conditions, such as low baseline development, preexisting climate vulnerabilities, low use of fossil fuel energy, and high reliance on climate-sensitive agriculture, pose additional challenges from climate change, but also provide opportunities to build and use greener technologies. Climate change should be considered by policymakers as a source of structural change. For instance, the energy access problem in the region can be solved by the adoption of renewable energy alongside expansion of the national grid. Policy makers need domestic and international financing to create new jobs—including green jobs. For example, in a region where much of the infrastructure, cities, and transportation systems are yet to be built, investments in climate-smart infrastructure can help cities create jobs. In resource-rich countries, wealth exposure to carbon risk can be reduced by fostering asset diversification that supports human and renewable natural capital accumulation. Financing climate change adaptation in Sub-Saharan Africa is essential, and policies to mobilize resources are critical to create more, better, and sustainable jobs.

  • Open Access Indonesian
    Authors: 
    Fadilla, R. (Rafa);
    Publisher: Inara
    Country: Indonesia

    The extraordinary case of Covid-19 has made health workers the front line in handling it. To prevent the risk of contracting, health workers must use Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) as protection. PPE that must be worn for at least 5 hours a day and is waterproof makes users experience much sweating. If not prevented, health workers can be exposed to dehydration and even death. Based on the explanation above, PPE has been designed that can cool IoT-based health workers. Also, all activities can be monitored remotely via the WEB, accessible via a smartphone or computer. In addition to WEB, data can be displayed via the LCD. The DHT22 sensor and the airflow sensor will detect the hazmat's temperature, humidity, and airflow. Furthermore, the tool is also equipped with UVC rays that can clean the air from microorganisms. Activity data will be stored in cloud storage, which is helpful as an evaluation material and reference for health workers' health progress. From the tests' results, the tool will function when the temperature and humidity follow the setpoint.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    Open Access Danish
    Authors: 
    Lyngdorf, Niels Erik Ruan; Bertel, Lykke Brogaard; Andersen, Thomas;
    Publisher: Aalborg University
    Country: Denmark

    Dagens podcast produceres som del af dissemineringen af undersøgelsen - Evaluering Af Digitalt Understøttet Læring På Aalborg Universitet I 2020 - Underviser- Og Studenterperspektiver På Universitetets Nedlukning Som Følge Af Covid-19, som blev foretaget i efteråret 2020 og dækkede undervisere og studerendes oplevelser af arbejds- og studielivet i relation til studieaktiviteter på AAU i foråret 2020 til efteråret 2020. Rapporten er struktureret omkring 5 hovedtemaer: Digitalt understøttet undervisning, PBL-modellen, Vejledning, Eksamen, og sidst Trivsel, motivation og identitet. Denne podcastserie vil dække dele af disse temaer over 3 afsnit og i dag i denne første del taler vi om trivsel, motivation og identitet med fokus på studerende.