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247 Research products, page 1 of 25

  • COVID-19
  • Other research products
  • 2018-2022
  • Open Access
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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Carroll, Lorraine; Byrne, Fionnuala; Canty, Gillian; Gallagher, L. (Louise); Smith, Valerie;
    Country: Ireland

    Trinity Health and Education International Research Conference 2022 (THEConf 2022), Virtual Event, 8-10 March 2022 Background: The World Health Organisation (WHO) declared a global pandemic on the 11th of March 2020. The Irish government subsequently imposed the first national lockdown and stringent measures to curb the spread of COVID-19 between March-May 2020. Concerns were raised about whether women were fearful of accessing maternity services during the lockdown. Maternal perception of reduced fetal movements (RFM) in pregnancy is a common reason for self-referral to maternity services. International guidelines recommend that women perceiving RFM attend their maternity unit for fetal assessment. Objectives: We sought to determine the impact of the first global pandemic lock-down on attendances for reduced fetal movements (RFM) during pregnancy in a large urban maternity unit. Methods: All women with a singleton pregnancy, presenting to the emergency department (ED) of the National Maternity Hospital, Dublin with a primary presentation of perceived reduced fetal movements after 24 weeks’ gestation between 1st January 2020 and 30th April 2020 were included. Findings: Between January 1 and February 29, 2020 there were 2135 total attendances to the ED; 264 of these were for RFM (12.4%). From March 1- April 30, we observed a significant decline in the number of attendances to ED, totalling 1458; 231 of these were for RFM (15.8%). During the first lock-down period (March-April 2020) overall attendances to the ED decreased by 31.7%, however referrals for RFM increased by 27.4%. Conclusions: There was a significant decrease in the number of attendances to the ED during the first lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic, however referrals for RFM increased.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Eriksson, Rasmus;
    Country: Sweden

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between economic preferences and attitudes towards vaccination against COVID-19. These relationships are important to explore in order to design correct and effective vaccination policies that can increase vaccination willingness and decrease vaccination hesitancy. This study is specifically looking at risk preferences, ambiguity preferences and other regarding preferences. Vaccination is arguably a decision between two risky options. The risk of vaccination and the risk of non-vaccination. It is also possible to argue that vaccination is a decision between a perceived unknown risk of vaccination and a known risk of non-vaccination. This introduces the concept of ambiguity aversion where ambiguity averse people arguably prefer the known risk of non-vaccination over the unknown risk of vaccination. It is also possible to argue that vaccination is one form of prosocial behaviour and people have various preferences for the wellbeing of others, i.e., other regarding preferences. Data on economic preferences and vaccination attitudes was gathered with an online survey and measured with validated survey questions. The survey was distributed to students at the School of Business, Economics and Law at the University of Gothenburg. The data was analysed with multiple different data analysis methods, most notably ordered probit regression and probit regression. A significant positive relationship is found between risk preferences and willingness to vaccinate against COVID-19. Ambiguity averse people are significantly more likely to vaccinate against COVID-19. Perfect altruists are significantly less likely to vaccinate against COVID-19 compared to free riders. Future research is encouraged to investigate whether these findings hold true for a larger and more representative sample.

  • Open Access Swedish
    Authors: 
    Englund, Liza; Liravian Heidari, Azam;
    Country: Sweden

    The year 2020 turned out very differently than most expected. The Covid-19 pandemic incited stay-at-home directives, social distancing and other restrictions in a world-wide attempt to stop the spread of the virus. Early on, social workers and other professions recognised the danger of isolation for already vulnerable groups. This study aims to investigate the effects of Covid-19 on intimate partner violence. Specifically, it looks at how the nature of intimate partner violence has changed and how it has affected women and their ability to leave. A qualitative study was conducted using eight semi-structured interviews with people who have worked with battered women during the Covid-19 pandemic. The study uses feminist theory, the normalization process theory and coercive control to interpret the results. Using thematic analysis, the results showed that several professionals have seen variation in the number of women seeking help and the type of violence they have experienced. Furthermore, the results suggest that the stay-at-home directives, working from home and increased unemployment have affected intimate partner violence. The common themes include changes in violent behaviour, difficulty leaving, economic effects of the pandemic, mental health, and delayed effects of the pandemic on intimate partner violence. In conclusion, we found that isolation has made battered women’s situation more difficult, and it has affected their ability to leave. While we can’t generalise to a wider population, we believe this is important for future research and we believe social workers need to be aware of how battered women have been affected by the pandemic.

  • Open Access Swedish
    Authors: 
    Axede, Linnea; Ringqvist, Clara;
    Country: Sweden

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att utifrån ett kommunikationsperspektiv undersöka motivation och ansvar i relation till vaccination. Metod: Kvalitativa fokusgruppsintervjuer. Material: Tre fokusgrupper om 3-4 deltagare. Huvudresultat: Resultatet av vår studie visar att social gemenskap och rädslan för socialt utanförskap har stor betydelse kopplat till upplevd motivation att ta vaccin mot covid-19. Vidare ser vi mönster som framställer hur motivationen också utgörs av aspekterna att skydda samhället samt att skydda sig själv. Kopplat till upplevt ansvar visar resultatet på ett förskjutet ansvar till myndigheterna och större organisationer för att skapa förståelse och medvetenhet kring covid-19 och vaccination. Således ser vi mönster på hur det bland respondenterna finns en rädsla för att sprida falsk information på grund av okunskap. Kopplat till kampanjen finner vi resultat som pekar på en distinktion mellan att uppfatta kampanjen som enkel och därmed slagkraftig eller enkel och därmed informationsfattig. Det finns även en åtskillnad vad gäller huruvida kändisar är en källa för identifikation, dock visar resultatet att respondenterna är eniga och positiva kring deras förmåga att skapa räckvidd.

  • Open Access Swedish
    Authors: 
    Jansson, Linda;
    Country: Sweden

    Syftet med den här studien är att undersöka utformningen samt mottagandet av Göteborgs universitets decentraliserade kriskommunikation gällande covid-19 under 2020 med fokus på webbplatsen Studentportalen. Det för att få djupare kunskap om hur decentraliserad kriskommunikation kan fungera i praktiken. Det första teoretiska ramverk som uppsatsen utgår ifrån är ett teoretiskt perspektiv på kriskommunikation. Detta inkluderar etablerade strategier och förhållningssätt för effektiv kriskommunikation. Studiens andra teoretiska ramverk utgår ifrån Stuart Halls modell för kodning och avkodning. Modellen erbjuder insikt i kommunikationsprocessen mellan sändare och mottagare. En komparativ textanalys har använts som verktyg för att urskilja likheter och skillnader mellan den universitetsgemensamma kriskommunikationen och fakulteternas kriskommunikation. För att få en insikt i studenternas uppfattningar av Göteborgs universitets decentraliserade kriskommunikation genomfördes kvalitativa intervjuer. Resultatet visar att decentraliserad kriskommunikation kan vara fördelaktigt för en organisation med många beståndsdelar. Dock bör det finnas en medvetenhet för att olika attityder kan göra sig synliga i kommunikationens innehåll.

  • Open Access Swedish
    Authors: 
    Toresson, Jennica;
    Country: Sweden

    In Sweden, some municipalities have been hit considerably harder than others by COVID-19. A deeper understanding of this variance can have significant health-promoting and economic implications and can help to increase resiliency. The existing research literature has largely focused on the effects of restrictive measures and individuals varying compliance to them. Surprisingly, few studies have examined whether the spatial planning of the environment can be linked to individuals' lack of compliance and risk of becoming infected. This thesis sheds light on the spatial planning of the outdoor environment in schools and examines whether there is a connection between the average open space per pupil and confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Swedish municipalities. The study has a statistical design, and the analysis was performed in two steps. The results from the first step of the analysis showed that municipalities with less open space per pupil had more cases of covid-19, but that the covariation was probably caused by underlying factors. The second step of the analysis was a quasi-experiment designed to get closer to the possibility of drawing some conclusions about causality. The result from the second step was ambiguous, but still gave some indication that the spatial planning of the environment in schools may have affected the spread of infection during the semester. However, the overall assessment was that there was insufficient support for the hypothesis. Thus, it was concluded that the spatial planning of the outdoor environment in schools has not affected the spread of covid-19 in Swedish municipalities.

  • Open Access Swedish
    Authors: 
    Eriksson, Patrik;
    Country: Sweden

    Vi har idag tillgång till information och nyheter via olika medier såsom radio, tv och tidningar. Samtidigt med detta finns där människor som inte tror att det vi blir informerade om är sant, att nyhetsmedier censurerar incidenter och förmedlar vinklade skildringar. Många av dessa misstror också varningarna om klimatet liksom att faran från covid-19 är överdriven och att staten konspirerar för att manipulera sin befolknings agerande. Public service och dagspress utmanas därför av alternativa nyhetskällor som utger sig för att stå oberoende från staten och till skillnad från den traditionella nyhetsmedian återger sanningen och verkligen granskar makthavarna. Många människor väljer att lyssna mer på de alternativa nyhetskällorna därför att de bekräftar deras föreställningsvärld. Syftet med den här studien är att via en kvantitativ studie utröna om där finns ett samband mellan ett bristfälligt förtroende för traditionella nyhetsmedier och valet att exponera sig för alternativa medier – om en misstro för nyhetsmedian liksom en svag tilltro till demokratin gör att man vänder public service och dagstidningar ryggen för att istället finna sin information via alternativa mediekällor. Resultatet uppvisar att där finns ett samband mellan svagt förtroende för nyhetsmedier och exponering av alternativ media och att där finns skillnader utifrån politisk åskådning och uppfattningen om hur väl den traditionella nyhetsmedian skildrar migrationen. De svarande har angett att de upplever att det är viktigt att nyhetsmedia är detaljerad i sin skildring, att den kan skapa ett intresse för nyheterna liksom att den täcker vad som är relevant. När dessa kriterier inte uppfylls vänder man sig till andra medier.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Sträng, Adam;
    Country: Sweden

    The European Union is founded on certain core values as expressed in its constitutional framework. One of the fundamental values is the adherence of the rule of law, which constitute a legal obligation across all 27 member states. The rule of law as envisaged by the EU, is aimed towards ensuring good governance and upholding fundamental rights and freedoms for its citizens. Drawing on the many previous European wars, conflicts and the genocide by Adolf Hitler’s Nazi Germany, the post-World War II EU legal order aims to pre-empt similar situations happening again. In the 2010’s concerns and discussion regarding rule of law and democratic backsliding began to gain traction in the EU. Legislative changes in Hungary seemed to entrench the ruling Fidesz party led by Eurosceptic Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orbán. European institutions held that changes made to the national judiciary, which saw the lines blur between politicians, the executive and the judiciary, amounted to a violation of the EU legal order and its rule of law obligation. In 2015 the Polish right-wing, populist Eurosceptic political party Prawo i Sprawiedliwość swept to power in Poland, winning both the presidency and a parliamentary majority. The new Polish government has since 2015 been on a collision-course with the European Commission and the Court of Justice of the European Union over legislative changes to the national judiciary, which according to the EU breaches the rule of law by dismantling checks and balances. In October 2021, the Polish Constitutional Tribunal rejected the principle of primacy of EU law as a response to the criticism from European institutions. The ruling saw the EU-Polish tug-of-war over the rule of law sharply escalate. The rule of law in the European Union and the recent events in Poland is of greater public interest as it comes in a volatile global situation. The ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, global terrorism, migration and potential geopolitical conflicts in Europe are all factors which affect the European Union. Domestic rifts between member states and the EU political leadership risks eroding the impact of EU law in member states. By using a multi-faceted interdisciplinary methodological approach, through the doctrinal legal method, the comparative legal method and document analysis, various contrasting perspectives are interpreted with a broad epistemological understanding in mind, in order to explain the situation. This study will investigate the situation through critical analysis and answer what rule of law backsliding tell us about EU values, how the rule of law is enforceable from an EU perspective, and how rule of law backsliding has been developing in Poland and why. The rule of law in the EU is a highly complex and opaque issue. Poland’s standpoint can be traced to its history and the constitutional culture in part owing to the communist-era weak legal culture and a modern political will geared towards national sovereignty. Concerns about the efficiency of enforcement of the EU’s own legal framework point towards larger issues relating to the legal structure of which the EU is built upon. In the face of a global volatile state, it can be considered imperative the European Union be adequately prepared to enforce its own structure, or risk internal disintegration.

  • Other research product . 2022
    Open Access Swedish
    Authors: 
    Pedersen, Ida; Bohlin, Ester;
    Country: Sweden

    Bakgrund: I Sverige är majoriteten av alla aborter hemaborter. Hemabort innebär idag att den medicinska aborten startas på sjukhus och att kvinnan därefter slutför aborten i hemmet. Förslag har lagts fram att hela abortprocessen ska kunna göras i hemmet och att barnmorskans ansvarsområde inom abortvården ska utökas. Covid-19 pandemin har bidragit till att utvecklingen inom abortvården påskyndats men forskningen kring kvinnors upplevelse av hemabort är begränsad. Syfte: Att undersöka kvinnors upplevelse av att genomgå en hemabort. Metod: En systematisk litteraturstudie med kvalitativa data. För datainsamling användes databaserna Pubmed, Cinahl och Scopus. Resultatet inkluderade elva kvalitetsgranskade artiklar. Dataanalysen inspirerades av Bettany- Saltikovs och McSherrys (2016) nio steg för dataanalys. Resultat: De inkluderade studierna är publicerade mellan 2009–2021 och omfattar 480 deltagare. Vid dataanalys identifierades tre huvudkategorier; “Hemmets trygghet”, “Vikten av stöd och information” och “Abortprocessen”. Hemmet beskrevs som en trygg plats där kvinnan kunde bevara sin integritet, det gav en känsla av kontroll att själv kunna styra när aborten ska ske. Valfrihet relaterat till metod var betydelsefullt, att inte få välja abortmetod eller plats påverkade upplevelsen negativt. En viktig faktor för en positiv abortupplevelse var adekvat information och stöd av vårdpersonal före, under och efter aborten. Information om smärta och blödning var ofta otillräcklig och underdriven. Att starta aborten beskrevs med motstridiga känslor. För många var intaget av den första tabletten svårare än själva utstötningen av fostret. Själva utstötningen var en lättnad, men symtomen beskrevs också som värre än förväntat. Slutsats: Hemabort är en uppskattad metod då det ger ökad bekvämlighet och autonomi. En förutsättning för att känna sig trygg i hemmet är dock information och stöd, från vårdpersonal och nära anhörig. Background: In Sweden, the majority of all abortions are home abortions. The term home abortion means that the medical abortion starts at the hospital but is completed at home. Recent proposals suggest expanding the midwife’s area of responsibility within abortion care and to modernize the Swedish abortion law. The Covid-19 pandemic has contributed to accelerating developments in abortion care but the research examining women’s experiences of home abortion is limited. Aim: To examine women’s experience of undergoing an abortion at home. Method: A systematic literature review including qualitative data. The databases Pubmed, Cinahl and Scopus were used for data collection. Eleven articles were included in the results. The data analysis was inspired by Bettany-Saltikov and McSherry’s (2016) nine steps for data analysis. Results: The included studies are published between 2009-2021, which includes 480 participants in total. The data analysis identified three main categories: “The comfort of the home”, “Importance of support and information” and “The abortion process”. Choosing to abort at home was described as comforting and practical. The woman’s integrity could easily be maintained, and it gave the women a sense of control. Choosing the method was important, the womens’s experience were affected negatively when they weren't allowed to choose the method or place for the abortion. A factor for a positive abortion experience was adequate information and support from healthcare professionals before, during and after the abortion. Information about pain and bleeding was often insufficient and understated. Starting the abortion was described with conflicting feelings, the intake of the first tablet was for many more difficult than the expulsion itself. Conclusion: Home abortion is an appreciated method as it provides increased comfort and autonomy. Information and support in connection with a home abortion is fundamental for feeling safe during the abortion.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Löfgren, Johanna;
    Country: Sweden

    The Covid-19 pandemic proves to be a major crisis with substantial effect on our society and thus projects an important area for academic research. Governments across the globe have taken extraordinary measures to fight the pandemic, with restrictions that limit social contact in order to stop the transmission of the virus. Democratically elected leaders face difficult decisions in determining what policies to adopt. Through a comparative case study of Sweden and Denmark’s Covid-19 response, this study aims to contribute to the theoretical and practical knowledge of which factors may shape differences in crisis response among democracies. In particular, the study focuses on how factors of governance can serve as an explanatory variable, and outline how considerations on democratic principles shape the two differing responses. Through elite interviews with experts, public officials and politicians involved in pandemic-related policymaking in Sweden and Denmark, I find that differing governance features and administrative traditions play an important role in explaining the differing responses. Furthermore, findings indicate that Denmark’s response is characterized as 'political’ while the Swedish response is considered to be ‘expert-led’. In addition, democratic principles of rule of law and individual liberties shape the responses to different extents in the countries. Through these results, I contribute to important insights for future policymaking in crisis response and highlight implications for the cooperation between the two neighboring countries.