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9,876 Research products, page 1 of 988

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  • COVID-19

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  • English
    Authors: 
    Donadelli, Flavia;
    Publisher: London School of Economics and Political Science
    Country: United Kingdom

    An underlying assumption of modern political states is that they are rational systems that ‘follow the science’ to achieve optimal outcomes for their citizens. Whilst COVID-19 continues to foreground the strengths and weaknesses of different national scientific advice systems, Flavia Donadelli draws on evidence from Brazilian policymaking to argue that evidence informed policymaking is a far more ephemeral process and heavily dependent on institutional and political contexts for it to operate effectively.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Garcia-Beyaert, Sofia; Suades Vall, Anna; Carbó, Marta; Fatjó, Georgina; Martínez, Claudia; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Grup de Recerca MIRAS;
    Country: Spain

    Terminología: ecografía - venir de nalgas - PCR - consultas externas - ingresar - romper aguas - parto vaginal - trabajo de parto - facilitadores para la inducción al parto - epidural - coronar - ambulatorio - sutura continua - dar el pechos - anemia Con la colaboracíón de: Marian Román Caro, Irene Ruiz Abad, Ferran Sánchez Rodríguez, Abraham Dámaso Sánchez Kate está en el tercer trimestre de su primer embarazo. Después de hacerse una analítica y otras pruebas, acude a una visita con su ginecóloga para hablar de la necesidad de hacer una cesárea. Esta visita tiene lugar durante la pandemia de la COVID-19.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lièvre, Astrid; Turpin, Anthony; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Le Malicot, Karine; Thariat, Juliette; Ahle, Guido; Neuzillet, Cindy; Paoletti, Xavier; Bouché, Olivier; Aldabbagh, Kais; +18 more
    Country: France

    BACKGROUND: Cancer patients are thought to have an increased risk of developing severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and of dying from the disease. In this work, predictive factors for COVID-19 severity and mortality in cancer patients were investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this large nationwide retro-prospective cohort study, we collected data on patients with solid tumours and COVID-19 diagnosed between March 1 and 11th June 2020. The primary end-point was all-cause mortality and COVID-19 severity, defined as admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) and/or mechanical ventilation and/or death, was one of the secondary end-points. RESULTS: From April 4 to 11th June 2020, 1289 patients were analysed. The most frequent cancers were digestive and thoracic. Altogether, 424 (33%) patients had a severe form of COVID-19 and 370 (29%) patients died. In multivariate analysis, independent factors associated with death were male sex (odds ratio 1.73, 95%CI: 1.18-2.52), The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Scale (ECOG PS) ≥ 2 (OR 3.23, 95%CI: 2.27-4.61), updated Charlson comorbidity index (OR 1.08, 95%CI: 1.01-1.16) and admission to ICU (OR 3.62, 95%CI 2.14-6.11). The same factors, age along with corticosteroids before COVID-19 diagnosis, and thoracic primary tumour site were independently associated with COVID-19 severity. None of the anticancer treatments administered within the previous 3 months had any effect on mortality or COVID-19 severity, except for cytotoxic chemotherapy in the subgroup of patients with detectable severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), which was associated with a slight increase of the risk of death (OR 1.53; 95%CI: 1.00-2.34; p = 0.05). A total of 431 (39%) patients had their systemic anticancer treatment (such as chemotherapy, targeted or immune therapy) interrupted or stopped following diagnosis of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality and COVID-19 severity in cancer patients are high and are associated with general characteristics of patients. We found no deleterious effects of recent anticancer treatments, except for cytotoxic chemotherapy in the RT-PCR-confirmed subgroup of patients. In almost 40% of patients, the systemic anticancer therapy was interrupted or stopped after COVID-19 diagnosis.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Elfiky, Abdo A.;

    Aims: A newly emerged Human Coronavirus (HCoV) is reported two months ago in Wuhan, China (COVID-19). Until today >2700 deaths from the 80,000 confirmed cases reported mainly in China and 40 other countries. Human to human transmission is confirmed for COVID-19 by China a month ago. Based on the World Health Organization (WHO) reports, SARS HCoV is responsible for >8000 cases with confirmed 774 deaths. Additionally, MERS HCoV is responsible for 858 deaths out of about 2500 reported cases. The current study aims to test anti-HCV drugs against COVID-19 RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Materials and methods: In this study, sequence analysis, modeling, and docking are used to build a model for Wuhan COVID-19 RdRp. Additionally, the newly emerged Wuhan HCoV RdRp model is targeted by anti-polymerase drugs, including the approved drugs Sofosbuvir and Ribavirin. Key findings: The results suggest the effectiveness of Sofosbuvir, IDX-184, Ribavirin, and Remidisvir as potent drugs against the newly emerged HCoV disease. Significance: The present study presents a perfect model for COVID-19 RdRp enabling its testing in silico against anti-polymerase drugs. Besides, the study presents some drugs that previously proved its efficiency against the newly emerged viral infection.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jue, Erik; Ismagilov, Rustem F.;
    Country: United States

    In response to the rapidly evolving COVID-19 pandemic, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has rapidly issued 49 emergency use authorizations (EUAs) for SARS-CoV-2 in vitro diagnostic test-kits. A critical metric in the performance evaluation for a diagnostic test kit is the analytical sensitivity, which is measured by the limit of detection (LOD). Commercial RNA stocks with known titers are used to determine LOD. We identified a problem with the titer reported for the commercial stocks when examining the analytical sensitivity of the reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) protocol that is recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) using plasmid DNA from Integrated DNA Technologies (IDT), synthetic RNA from BEI Resources (BEI), and extracted genomic RNA from BEI. We detected 3/3 positives for reactions containing synthetic RNA at a concentration of 0.1 copies/reaction (based on the supplier's label concentration). The apparent better-than-single-molecule performance is a statistically highly unlikely event, indicating a potential inaccuracy in the supplier's quantification of the stock material. Using an ultrasensitive and precise assay, reverse transcription digital PCR (RT-dPCR), we independently quantified concentrations of commercial SARS-CoV-2 plasmid DNA and SARS-CoV-2 RNA stocks. For plasmid DNA, the actual concentration measured by RT-dPCR was 11% of the nominal label concentration. For synthetic RNA, the actual concentration measured by RT-dPCR for one lot was 770% of the label concentration and for a different lot was 57% of the label concentration. For genomic RNA, the concentration measured by RT-dPCR for one lot was 240% of the label concentration and for a different lot it was 300% of the label concentration. This SARS-CoV-2 genomic RNA from BEI Resources has been used in at least 11 approved FDA Emergency Use Authorizations as of April 27, 2020. Such deviations of reported RNA or DNA stock concentrations from true concentrations can result in inaccurate quantification and calculation of LOD. Precise and accurate reporting of DNA and RNA stock concentrations by commercial suppliers will enable accurate quantification of assay performance, which is urgently needed to improve evaluation of different assays by diagnostic developers and regulatory bodies.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Scott, Dana; Finamor, Lucas;
    Country: Germany

    In response to the Covid-19 pandemic, the United States enacted the CARES Act, which expanded unemployment insurance (UI) benefits by providing a $600 weekly payment in addition to state unemployment benefits. We test whether changes in UI benefit generosity are associated with decreased employment, both at the onset of the benefits expansion and as businesses began to reopen. We use data from Homebase, a private firm that provides scheduling and time clock software to small businesses, which allows us to exploit high-frequency observations to understand how firms and workers respond to policy changes in real time. While our results show that relative declines in employment and hours occurred in mid-March, we find that the workers with higher post-CARES replacement rates did not experience larger declines in employment or hours of work when the benefits expansion went into effect. They have also returned to their previous jobs over time at similar rates as others.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ebrahimi, Ali; Sayad, Babak; Rahimi, Zohreh;

    Background: There is concern about susceptibility of psoriatic patients on biologics to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its clinical course. Purpose: The aims of present review were to determine whether the biologic treatment of psoriasis increases the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and if biologics affect the clinical course of COVID-19 in these patients. Methods: We searched database of MEDLINE (PubMed) for key term of psoriasis biologic and COVID-19 until June 9, 2020 and all published 14 papers and an experience from Iran (10509 cases) related to the psoriatic patients on biologics and COVID-19 along with relevant papers were summarized. In spite of limitation in some reports, due to some of strengths that will be discussed, all papers were included in this review. Results: According to 8769 medical reports around 0.3% of psoriatic patients had COVID-19 and the rate of hospitalization was 0.1%. No death due to COVID-19 was reported among 10509 patients. Reports indicated psoriatic patients on biologics were not more susceptible to COVID-19 and the severe clinical course of disease. Conclusion: While there is not definitive controlled trial data, the available evidence suggests that patients with psoriasis without COVID-19 can continue the biologic therapy for psoriasis.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nguyen, Duc Minh Luong;
    Country: Finland

    The COVID-19 pandemic has been causing devastating impacts on the well-being of people around the world as well as the global economy. Motivated by the effort of the open source community on collecting the COVID-19 dataset and the success of Deep Learning on previous studies with chest radiography, this thesis builds a Deep Convolutional Neural Network in order to detect COVID-19 using only chest X-Ray images. This project uses modern Deep Learning techniques such as using pretrained networks and fine-tuning as well as regularizations such as data augmentation and dropout to fight overfitting. The re-sulting model achieves an overall accuracy of 93% on the most realistic task of detecting COVID-19 patients among healthy normal people despite being trained on a dataset of only 115 images for each class. Out of 100 patients who do have COVID-19, the model accurately identifies 96 patients and misses out 4 patients. Out of 100 normal patients who do not have COVID-19, the model accurately identifies 91 patients as healthy and misclassifies 9 patients as COVID-19 positive. Overall, the model did a decent job as a COVID-19 detector but still has limitations and is far from being production-ready.

  • Other research product . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hemila, Harri; Chalker, Elizabeth;
    Country: Australia
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rotar, Olga;
    Country: United Kingdom

    During the COVID-19 pandemic, massive open online courses (MOOCs) assisted HEIs in delivering remote teaching in the situations where university could not provide it in a traditional setting. Even before the pandemic there has been an interest in the MOOCs usage in different national contexts, with an expansion of research on the use of MOOCs in non-Western countries (see Altalhi, 2021; Fianu et al. 2018; Hamdan et al. 2018; Roshchina, Roshchin, & Rudakov, 2018). Building on the previous research, this study aims to analyse MOOCs acceptance and usage among academics in Russian higher education by applying the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model (Venkatesh et al., 2003) to answer the following research question: What factors affect academics’ acceptance and usage of MOOCs in Russian Tertiary Education? By doing so, the study intends to explore factors that influence MOOCs usage among academics in Russia and provide insights on how to support the adoption and the usage of MOOCs within higher educational institutions. Furthermore, the study can contribute to the methodological discussion on the research of MOOCs using UTAUT model and test the model in the context of Russian higher education.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
9,876 Research products, page 1 of 988
  • English
    Authors: 
    Donadelli, Flavia;
    Publisher: London School of Economics and Political Science
    Country: United Kingdom

    An underlying assumption of modern political states is that they are rational systems that ‘follow the science’ to achieve optimal outcomes for their citizens. Whilst COVID-19 continues to foreground the strengths and weaknesses of different national scientific advice systems, Flavia Donadelli draws on evidence from Brazilian policymaking to argue that evidence informed policymaking is a far more ephemeral process and heavily dependent on institutional and political contexts for it to operate effectively.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Garcia-Beyaert, Sofia; Suades Vall, Anna; Carbó, Marta; Fatjó, Georgina; Martínez, Claudia; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Grup de Recerca MIRAS;
    Country: Spain

    Terminología: ecografía - venir de nalgas - PCR - consultas externas - ingresar - romper aguas - parto vaginal - trabajo de parto - facilitadores para la inducción al parto - epidural - coronar - ambulatorio - sutura continua - dar el pechos - anemia Con la colaboracíón de: Marian Román Caro, Irene Ruiz Abad, Ferran Sánchez Rodríguez, Abraham Dámaso Sánchez Kate está en el tercer trimestre de su primer embarazo. Después de hacerse una analítica y otras pruebas, acude a una visita con su ginecóloga para hablar de la necesidad de hacer una cesárea. Esta visita tiene lugar durante la pandemia de la COVID-19.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lièvre, Astrid; Turpin, Anthony; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Le Malicot, Karine; Thariat, Juliette; Ahle, Guido; Neuzillet, Cindy; Paoletti, Xavier; Bouché, Olivier; Aldabbagh, Kais; +18 more
    Country: France

    BACKGROUND: Cancer patients are thought to have an increased risk of developing severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and of dying from the disease. In this work, predictive factors for COVID-19 severity and mortality in cancer patients were investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this large nationwide retro-prospective cohort study, we collected data on patients with solid tumours and COVID-19 diagnosed between March 1 and 11th June 2020. The primary end-point was all-cause mortality and COVID-19 severity, defined as admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) and/or mechanical ventilation and/or death, was one of the secondary end-points. RESULTS: From April 4 to 11th June 2020, 1289 patients were analysed. The most frequent cancers were digestive and thoracic. Altogether, 424 (33%) patients had a severe form of COVID-19 and 370 (29%) patients died. In multivariate analysis, independent factors associated with death were male sex (odds ratio 1.73, 95%CI: 1.18-2.52), The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Scale (ECOG PS) ≥ 2 (OR 3.23, 95%CI: 2.27-4.61), updated Charlson comorbidity index (OR 1.08, 95%CI: 1.01-1.16) and admission to ICU (OR 3.62, 95%CI 2.14-6.11). The same factors, age along with corticosteroids before COVID-19 diagnosis, and thoracic primary tumour site were independently associated with COVID-19 severity. None of the anticancer treatments administered within the previous 3 months had any effect on mortality or COVID-19 severity, except for cytotoxic chemotherapy in the subgroup of patients with detectable severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), which was associated with a slight increase of the risk of death (OR 1.53; 95%CI: 1.00-2.34; p = 0.05). A total of 431 (39%) patients had their systemic anticancer treatment (such as chemotherapy, targeted or immune therapy) interrupted or stopped following diagnosis of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality and COVID-19 severity in cancer patients are high and are associated with general characteristics of patients. We found no deleterious effects of recent anticancer treatments, except for cytotoxic chemotherapy in the RT-PCR-confirmed subgroup of patients. In almost 40% of patients, the systemic anticancer therapy was interrupted or stopped after COVID-19 diagnosis.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Elfiky, Abdo A.;

    Aims: A newly emerged Human Coronavirus (HCoV) is reported two months ago in Wuhan, China (COVID-19). Until today >2700 deaths from the 80,000 confirmed cases reported mainly in China and 40 other countries. Human to human transmission is confirmed for COVID-19 by China a month ago. Based on the World Health Organization (WHO) reports, SARS HCoV is responsible for >8000 cases with confirmed 774 deaths. Additionally, MERS HCoV is responsible for 858 deaths out of about 2500 reported cases. The current study aims to test anti-HCV drugs against COVID-19 RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Materials and methods: In this study, sequence analysis, modeling, and docking are used to build a model for Wuhan COVID-19 RdRp. Additionally, the newly emerged Wuhan HCoV RdRp model is targeted by anti-polymerase drugs, including the approved drugs Sofosbuvir and Ribavirin. Key findings: The results suggest the effectiveness of Sofosbuvir, IDX-184, Ribavirin, and Remidisvir as potent drugs against the newly emerged HCoV disease. Significance: The present study presents a perfect model for COVID-19 RdRp enabling its testing in silico against anti-polymerase drugs. Besides, the study presents some drugs that previously proved its efficiency against the newly emerged viral infection.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jue, Erik; Ismagilov, Rustem F.;
    Country: United States

    In response to the rapidly evolving COVID-19 pandemic, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has rapidly issued 49 emergency use authorizations (EUAs) for SARS-CoV-2 in vitro diagnostic test-kits. A critical metric in the performance evaluation for a diagnostic test kit is the analytical sensitivity, which is measured by the limit of detection (LOD). Commercial RNA stocks with known titers are used to determine LOD. We identified a problem with the titer reported for the commercial stocks when examining the analytical sensitivity of the reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) protocol that is recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) using plasmid DNA from Integrated DNA Technologies (IDT), synthetic RNA from BEI Resources (BEI), and extracted genomic RNA from BEI. We detected 3/3 positives for reactions containing synthetic RNA at a concentration of 0.1 copies/reaction (based on the supplier's label concentration). The apparent better-than-single-molecule performance is a statistically highly unlikely event, indicating a potential inaccuracy in the supplier's quantification of the stock material. Using an ultrasensitive and precise assay, reverse transcription digital PCR (RT-dPCR), we independently quantified concentrations of commercial SARS-CoV-2 plasmid DNA and SARS-CoV-2 RNA stocks. For plasmid DNA, the actual concentration measured by RT-dPCR was 11% of the nominal label concentration. For synthetic RNA, the actual concentration measured by RT-dPCR for one lot was 770% of the label concentration and for a different lot was 57% of the label concentration. For genomic RNA, the concentration measured by RT-dPCR for one lot was 240% of the label concentration and for a different lot it was 300% of the label concentration. This SARS-CoV-2 genomic RNA from BEI Resources has been used in at least 11 approved FDA Emergency Use Authorizations as of April 27, 2020. Such deviations of reported RNA or DNA stock concentrations from true concentrations can result in inaccurate quantification and calculation of LOD. Precise and accurate reporting of DNA and RNA stock concentrations by commercial suppliers will enable accurate quantification of assay performance, which is urgently needed to improve evaluation of different assays by diagnostic developers and regulatory bodies.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Scott, Dana; Finamor, Lucas;
    Country: Germany

    In response to the Covid-19 pandemic, the United States enacted the CARES Act, which expanded unemployment insurance (UI) benefits by providing a $600 weekly payment in addition to state unemployment benefits. We test whether changes in UI benefit generosity are associated with decreased employment, both at the onset of the benefits expansion and as businesses began to reopen. We use data from Homebase, a private firm that provides scheduling and time clock software to small businesses, which allows us to exploit high-frequency observations to understand how firms and workers respond to policy changes in real time. While our results show that relative declines in employment and hours occurred in mid-March, we find that the workers with higher post-CARES replacement rates did not experience larger declines in employment or hours of work when the benefits expansion went into effect. They have also returned to their previous jobs over time at similar rates as others.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ebrahimi, Ali; Sayad, Babak; Rahimi, Zohreh;

    Background: There is concern about susceptibility of psoriatic patients on biologics to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its clinical course. Purpose: The aims of present review were to determine whether the biologic treatment of psoriasis increases the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and if biologics affect the clinical course of COVID-19 in these patients. Methods: We searched database of MEDLINE (PubMed) for key term of psoriasis biologic and COVID-19 until June 9, 2020 and all published 14 papers and an experience from Iran (10509 cases) related to the psoriatic patients on biologics and COVID-19 along with relevant papers were summarized. In spite of limitation in some reports, due to some of strengths that will be discussed, all papers were included in this review. Results: According to 8769 medical reports around 0.3% of psoriatic patients had COVID-19 and the rate of hospitalization was 0.1%. No death due to COVID-19 was reported among 10509 patients. Reports indicated psoriatic patients on biologics were not more susceptible to COVID-19 and the severe clinical course of disease. Conclusion: While there is not definitive controlled trial data, the available evidence suggests that patients with psoriasis without COVID-19 can continue the biologic therapy for psoriasis.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nguyen, Duc Minh Luong;
    Country: Finland

    The COVID-19 pandemic has been causing devastating impacts on the well-being of people around the world as well as the global economy. Motivated by the effort of the open source community on collecting the COVID-19 dataset and the success of Deep Learning on previous studies with chest radiography, this thesis builds a Deep Convolutional Neural Network in order to detect COVID-19 using only chest X-Ray images. This project uses modern Deep Learning techniques such as using pretrained networks and fine-tuning as well as regularizations such as data augmentation and dropout to fight overfitting. The re-sulting model achieves an overall accuracy of 93% on the most realistic task of detecting COVID-19 patients among healthy normal people despite being trained on a dataset of only 115 images for each class. Out of 100 patients who do have COVID-19, the model accurately identifies 96 patients and misses out 4 patients. Out of 100 normal patients who do not have COVID-19, the model accurately identifies 91 patients as healthy and misclassifies 9 patients as COVID-19 positive. Overall, the model did a decent job as a COVID-19 detector but still has limitations and is far from being production-ready.

  • Other research product . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hemila, Harri; Chalker, Elizabeth;
    Country: Australia
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rotar, Olga;
    Country: United Kingdom

    During the COVID-19 pandemic, massive open online courses (MOOCs) assisted HEIs in delivering remote teaching in the situations where university could not provide it in a traditional setting. Even before the pandemic there has been an interest in the MOOCs usage in different national contexts, with an expansion of research on the use of MOOCs in non-Western countries (see Altalhi, 2021; Fianu et al. 2018; Hamdan et al. 2018; Roshchina, Roshchin, & Rudakov, 2018). Building on the previous research, this study aims to analyse MOOCs acceptance and usage among academics in Russian higher education by applying the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model (Venkatesh et al., 2003) to answer the following research question: What factors affect academics’ acceptance and usage of MOOCs in Russian Tertiary Education? By doing so, the study intends to explore factors that influence MOOCs usage among academics in Russia and provide insights on how to support the adoption and the usage of MOOCs within higher educational institutions. Furthermore, the study can contribute to the methodological discussion on the research of MOOCs using UTAUT model and test the model in the context of Russian higher education.