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The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
8 Research products, page 1 of 1

  • COVID-19
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  • 2022-2022
  • Open Access
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  • COVID-19

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Paez Maggio, M.; Rossi, M.; Fazzito, L.; Merello, M.;
    Country: Argentina

    Abstract: Most of the validated ‘events exposure’ questionnaires are focused on lifetime burden and are hardly applicable to Argentina owing to its sociocultural and natural conditions, where corruption and economic crises have been hitting middle-class people’s lives in a cyclic manner. This prompted us to develop a new questionnaire, validated in Argentina, to assess the occurrence of exposure to events and their severity over a limited period. Deductive (bibliographic search) and inductive (by a Delphi group) selection was used to create an initial group of 24 questions, which were condensed into a final 14-item questionnaire. After administration to 512 inhabitants of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires and other major cities in Argentina, the questionnaire was shown to have an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.996 and an internal consistency, measured by the omega coefficient, of 0.86. Because this study was conducted during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, an additional question on how this situation affected individuals was included. The time span used to measure event exposure was 1 year prior to the study. In the case of an affirmative event exposure, the responder selected the severity of the stress perception generated on a Likert-like scale, ranging from 0 (nothing) to 5 (severe). Fifty-eight per cent of the responders were women, and the mean age was 47.14 years (SD: 13.97). The average annual event incidence per person was 2.5 events (SD: 1.88). Thirty-two per cent (164/512) reported at least one 5-point event on the severity scale. Ten per cent (51/512) responded that the COVID-19 pandemic affected them in a different manner than events related to personal or family disease, or the death of a close family member or friend.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Murillo, Ana Gabriela; Gómez, Georgina; Durán Agüero, Samuel; Parra Soto, Solange Liliana; Araneda, Jacqueline; Morales, Gladys; Ríos Castillo, Israel; Carpio Arias, Valeria; Cavagnari, Brian M.; Nava González, Edna J.; +6 more
    Country: Argentina

    Abstract: This study aimed to compare the diet quality of different dietary patterns among college students from Latin American countries, including vegetarians, vegans, and omnivores during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional, observational, multicenter study was conducted including a non- probabilistic sample of university students from 10 countries. University students were invited to participate in the study through social network platforms. Participants were self-reported to have followed a specific dietary pattern; either the Prudent diet, Western diet, Ovo-dairy-vegetarian diet, Fish-vegetarian diet, Strict vegetarian diet (vegan) or other. The last three patterns (vegetarians and vegans) were grouped as following a plant-based diet. A self-assessment survey was used to evaluate healthy eating habits using a questionnaire with values between 1 (do not consume) and 5 (consume) for a total of 9–45 points (higher values represent better eating habits). Unhealthy habits were assessed with nine questions. A total of 4,809 students filled out the questionnaire, and the majority of them were females (73.7%). A high percentage have been in lockdown for more than 5 months and were in lockdown when the survey was released. 74.3% were self-reported to follow a prudent diet, while 11.4% reported following a western dietary pattern and 8.8% a plant-based diet. When compliance with healthy and unhealthy dietary habits was analyzed, although all groups had low compliance, the plant-based diet group (56.09 ±6.11) performed better than the Western diet group (48.03 ± 5.99). The total diet quality score was significantly higher for plant-based diet followers, who also tended to better achieve the recommendations than omnivorous students, especially the ones following a western diet. These results present evidence that young adults such as college-aged students have unhealthy dietary habits. However, the ones who follow a plant-based diet such as vegetarians and vegans exhibit better scores and healthier dietary conducts.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Barrantes, Francisco José;
    Country: Argentina

    Abstract: The role of cholesterol in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and other coronavirus-host cell interactions is currently being discussed in the context of two main scenarios: i) the presence of the neutral lipid in cholesterol-rich lipid domains involved in different steps of the viral infection and ii) the alteration of metabolic pathways by the virus over the course of infection. Cholesterol-enriched lipid domains have been reported to occur in the lipid envelope membrane of the virus, in the host-cell plasma membrane, as well as in endosomal and other intracellular membrane cellular compartments. These membrane subdomains, whose chemical and physical properties distinguish them from the bulk lipid bilayer, have been purported to participate in diverse phenomena, from virus-host cell fusion to intracellular trafficking and exit of the virions from the infected cell. SARS-CoV-2 recruits many key proteins that participate under physiological conditions in cholesterol and lipid metabolism in general. This review analyses the status of cholesterol and lipidome proteins in SARS-CoV-2 infection and the new horizons they open for therapeutic intervention.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Reiter, R.; Sharma, Ramaswamy; Simko, Fedor; Domínguez Rodriguez, Alberto; Tesarik, Jan; Neel, Richard L.; Slominski, Andrzej T.; Kleszczynsk, Konrad; Martin‑Gimenez, Verna M.; Manucha, Walter; +1 more
    Country: Argentina

    Abstract: Numerous pharmaceutical drugs have been repurposed for use as treatments for COVID-19 disease. These drugs have not consistently demonstrated high efcacy in preventing or treating this serious condition and all have side efects to difering degrees. We encourage the continued consideration of the use of the antioxidant and anti-infammatory agent, melatonin, as a countermeasure to a SARS-CoV-2 infection. More than 140 scientifc publications have identifed melatonin as a likely useful agent to treat this disease. Moreover, the publications cited provide the rationale for the use of melatonin as a prophylactic agent against this condition. Melatonin has pan-antiviral efects and it diminishes the severity of viral infections and reduces the death of animals infected with numerous diferent viruses, including three diferent coronaviruses. Network analyses, which compared drugs used to treat SARS-CoV-2 in humans, also predicted that melatonin would be the most efective agent for preventing/treating COVID-19. Finally, when seriously infected COVID-19 patients were treated with melatonin, either alone or in combination with other medications, these treatments reduced the severity of infection, lowered the death rate, and shortened the duration of hospitalization. Melatonin’s ability to arrest SARS-CoV-2 infections may reduce health care exhaustion by limiting the need for hospitalization. Importantly, melatonin has a high safety profle over a wide range of doses and lacks signifcant toxicity. Some molecular processes by which melatonin resists a SARS-CoV-2 infection are summarized. The authors believe that all available, potentially benefcial drugs, including melatonin, that lack toxicity should be used in pandemics such as that caused by SARS-CoV-2.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Menéndez, Sebastián García; Martín Giménez, Virna Margarita; Holick, Michael F.; Barrantes, Francisco José; Manucha, Walter;
    Country: Argentina

    Abstract: SARS-CoV-2, the etiological agent of the current COVID-19 pandemic, belongs to a broad family of coronaviruses that also affect humans. SARS-CoV-2 infection usually leads to bilateral atypical pneumonia with significant impairment of respiratory function. However, the infectious capacity of SARS-CoV-2 is not limited to the respiratory system, but may also affect other vital organs such as the brain. The central nervous system is vulnerable to cell damage via direct invasion or indirect virus-related effects leading to a neuroinflammatory response, processes possibly associated with a decrease in the activity of angiotensin II converting enzyme (ACE2), the canonical cell-surface receptor for SARS-CoV-2. This enzyme regulates neuroprotective and neuroimmunomodulatory functions and can neutralize both inflammation and oxidative stress generated at the cellular level. Furthermore, there is evidence of an association between vitamin D deficiency and predisposition to the development of severe forms of COVID-19, with its possible neurological and neuropsychiatric sequelae: vitamin D has the ability to down-modulate the effects of neuroinflammatory cytokines, among other anti-inflammatory/immunomodulatory effects, thus attenuating harmful consequences of COVID-19. This review critically analyzes current evidence supporting the notion that vitamin D may act as a neuroprotective and neuroreparative agent against the neurological sequelae of COVID-19.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rodríguez, Mariela E.; Boixader, Francesc; Wong, Alvaro; Rexachs del Rosario, Dolores; Luque, Emilio;
    Country: Argentina

    Simulation, in health services, has become an important tool that has made it possible to replicate real scenarios that have a critical degree and thus have reliable information to obtain knowledge about the variables managed in an emergency. In the activity of a Hospital Emergency Service (HED), we can find active agents such as doctors, nurses, patients and passive ones such as medical rooms, beds, among others, interacting between them. HEDs have been overwhelmed by catastrophic events, such as those induced by COVID 19, in the last two years. In these situations, the availability of resources, due to the considerable reduction in health personnel and the excessive arrival of patients for care, implies that the emergency service has become inoperative. The recovery of this essential service is fundamental and a priority. For this reason, it is necessary to analyze the period of time for departments, after a catastrophe, to reach a stable state that allows them to adapt to the new workload, that is, to analyze how resilient the ED is. The present work shows the proposal of a research project for the modeling and simulation of an ED that supports the design and evaluation of a resilient service considering the infrastructures, resources and services that occur in an ED. The model must consider the organization and infrastructure capacity to support and recover from extreme situations, in order to provide and maintain its operation and services in an adequate manner. To achieve this objective, the normal service index and the ability to resist, restore and evolve in the face of future risks and threats will be measured. The design of the model will be integrated and participatory, and it will focus on people and communities, governed by the principles of sustainable development goals regarding Health and Wellbeing, Gender Equality, Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure. Instituto de Investigación en Informática

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Alami, Abdallah; Krewski, Daniel; Mattison, Donald; Wilson, Kumanan; Gravel, Christopher A.; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Farrell, Patrick J.; Pérez Lloret, Santiago;
    Country: Argentina

    Abstract: There have been reports of cases of myocarditis and pericarditis as rare complications following mRNA COVID-19 vaccinations among young adults. While most reported cases are mild, this potential vaccine safety signal should be closely monitored. Using data from the CDC and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), we calculated the combined reporting rate of myocarditis and pericarditis stratified by age group, sex, vaccine dose, and manufacturer, and compared these rates to the crude background incidence rates. Compared to the general population prior to the administration of the first COVID-19 vaccines in December 2020, we identified a higherthan- expected reporting rate of myocarditis and pericarditis following mRNA vaccination; the risk was higher after a second vaccine dose, higher in males than in females, and decreased with age. The highest risk was seen in males 12–17 years of age with approximately 6 cases per 100,000 second doses. Our findings suggest an increased risk of myocarditis and pericarditis in young males following a second dose of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Since these findings are based on safety signals derived from passive surveillance data, confirmatory epidemiological studies should be undertaken.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Brenlla, María Elena; Germano, Guadalupe; Seivane, Mariana Soledad; Fernández Da Lama, Rocío Giselle; Ogden, Ruth;
    Country: Argentina

    Abstract: The Coronavirus-19 global pandemic has forced many governments around the world to enforce “lockdowns” to curtail the spread of the virus. Studies conducted in the UK, France, Italy and Brazil have demonstrated that one consequence of these lockdowns is significant distortion to the speed of the passage of time. The current study sought to establish how the passage of time was experienced during the Argentinian lockdown. An online questionnaire was used to measure passage of time judgments for the day and the week, physical activity, satisfaction with social interaction, the extent to which daily routines had changed due to covid and demographic data. The results show that distortions to the passage of time were widely experienced during the lockdown in Argentina. There was a tendency for participants to report time passing more quickly than normal. A faster passage of time was associated with being a woman, of younger age and more physically active. A slower passage of time was therefore associated with being a man, of older age and less physically active. The results indicate that whilst distortions to the passage of time during the covid-19 crisis appear to be a global phenomenon, cross-cultural differences are apparent in the factors which influence temporal experience.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
8 Research products, page 1 of 1
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Paez Maggio, M.; Rossi, M.; Fazzito, L.; Merello, M.;
    Country: Argentina

    Abstract: Most of the validated ‘events exposure’ questionnaires are focused on lifetime burden and are hardly applicable to Argentina owing to its sociocultural and natural conditions, where corruption and economic crises have been hitting middle-class people’s lives in a cyclic manner. This prompted us to develop a new questionnaire, validated in Argentina, to assess the occurrence of exposure to events and their severity over a limited period. Deductive (bibliographic search) and inductive (by a Delphi group) selection was used to create an initial group of 24 questions, which were condensed into a final 14-item questionnaire. After administration to 512 inhabitants of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires and other major cities in Argentina, the questionnaire was shown to have an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.996 and an internal consistency, measured by the omega coefficient, of 0.86. Because this study was conducted during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, an additional question on how this situation affected individuals was included. The time span used to measure event exposure was 1 year prior to the study. In the case of an affirmative event exposure, the responder selected the severity of the stress perception generated on a Likert-like scale, ranging from 0 (nothing) to 5 (severe). Fifty-eight per cent of the responders were women, and the mean age was 47.14 years (SD: 13.97). The average annual event incidence per person was 2.5 events (SD: 1.88). Thirty-two per cent (164/512) reported at least one 5-point event on the severity scale. Ten per cent (51/512) responded that the COVID-19 pandemic affected them in a different manner than events related to personal or family disease, or the death of a close family member or friend.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Murillo, Ana Gabriela; Gómez, Georgina; Durán Agüero, Samuel; Parra Soto, Solange Liliana; Araneda, Jacqueline; Morales, Gladys; Ríos Castillo, Israel; Carpio Arias, Valeria; Cavagnari, Brian M.; Nava González, Edna J.; +6 more
    Country: Argentina

    Abstract: This study aimed to compare the diet quality of different dietary patterns among college students from Latin American countries, including vegetarians, vegans, and omnivores during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional, observational, multicenter study was conducted including a non- probabilistic sample of university students from 10 countries. University students were invited to participate in the study through social network platforms. Participants were self-reported to have followed a specific dietary pattern; either the Prudent diet, Western diet, Ovo-dairy-vegetarian diet, Fish-vegetarian diet, Strict vegetarian diet (vegan) or other. The last three patterns (vegetarians and vegans) were grouped as following a plant-based diet. A self-assessment survey was used to evaluate healthy eating habits using a questionnaire with values between 1 (do not consume) and 5 (consume) for a total of 9–45 points (higher values represent better eating habits). Unhealthy habits were assessed with nine questions. A total of 4,809 students filled out the questionnaire, and the majority of them were females (73.7%). A high percentage have been in lockdown for more than 5 months and were in lockdown when the survey was released. 74.3% were self-reported to follow a prudent diet, while 11.4% reported following a western dietary pattern and 8.8% a plant-based diet. When compliance with healthy and unhealthy dietary habits was analyzed, although all groups had low compliance, the plant-based diet group (56.09 ±6.11) performed better than the Western diet group (48.03 ± 5.99). The total diet quality score was significantly higher for plant-based diet followers, who also tended to better achieve the recommendations than omnivorous students, especially the ones following a western diet. These results present evidence that young adults such as college-aged students have unhealthy dietary habits. However, the ones who follow a plant-based diet such as vegetarians and vegans exhibit better scores and healthier dietary conducts.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Barrantes, Francisco José;
    Country: Argentina

    Abstract: The role of cholesterol in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and other coronavirus-host cell interactions is currently being discussed in the context of two main scenarios: i) the presence of the neutral lipid in cholesterol-rich lipid domains involved in different steps of the viral infection and ii) the alteration of metabolic pathways by the virus over the course of infection. Cholesterol-enriched lipid domains have been reported to occur in the lipid envelope membrane of the virus, in the host-cell plasma membrane, as well as in endosomal and other intracellular membrane cellular compartments. These membrane subdomains, whose chemical and physical properties distinguish them from the bulk lipid bilayer, have been purported to participate in diverse phenomena, from virus-host cell fusion to intracellular trafficking and exit of the virions from the infected cell. SARS-CoV-2 recruits many key proteins that participate under physiological conditions in cholesterol and lipid metabolism in general. This review analyses the status of cholesterol and lipidome proteins in SARS-CoV-2 infection and the new horizons they open for therapeutic intervention.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Reiter, R.; Sharma, Ramaswamy; Simko, Fedor; Domínguez Rodriguez, Alberto; Tesarik, Jan; Neel, Richard L.; Slominski, Andrzej T.; Kleszczynsk, Konrad; Martin‑Gimenez, Verna M.; Manucha, Walter; +1 more
    Country: Argentina

    Abstract: Numerous pharmaceutical drugs have been repurposed for use as treatments for COVID-19 disease. These drugs have not consistently demonstrated high efcacy in preventing or treating this serious condition and all have side efects to difering degrees. We encourage the continued consideration of the use of the antioxidant and anti-infammatory agent, melatonin, as a countermeasure to a SARS-CoV-2 infection. More than 140 scientifc publications have identifed melatonin as a likely useful agent to treat this disease. Moreover, the publications cited provide the rationale for the use of melatonin as a prophylactic agent against this condition. Melatonin has pan-antiviral efects and it diminishes the severity of viral infections and reduces the death of animals infected with numerous diferent viruses, including three diferent coronaviruses. Network analyses, which compared drugs used to treat SARS-CoV-2 in humans, also predicted that melatonin would be the most efective agent for preventing/treating COVID-19. Finally, when seriously infected COVID-19 patients were treated with melatonin, either alone or in combination with other medications, these treatments reduced the severity of infection, lowered the death rate, and shortened the duration of hospitalization. Melatonin’s ability to arrest SARS-CoV-2 infections may reduce health care exhaustion by limiting the need for hospitalization. Importantly, melatonin has a high safety profle over a wide range of doses and lacks signifcant toxicity. Some molecular processes by which melatonin resists a SARS-CoV-2 infection are summarized. The authors believe that all available, potentially benefcial drugs, including melatonin, that lack toxicity should be used in pandemics such as that caused by SARS-CoV-2.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Menéndez, Sebastián García; Martín Giménez, Virna Margarita; Holick, Michael F.; Barrantes, Francisco José; Manucha, Walter;
    Country: Argentina

    Abstract: SARS-CoV-2, the etiological agent of the current COVID-19 pandemic, belongs to a broad family of coronaviruses that also affect humans. SARS-CoV-2 infection usually leads to bilateral atypical pneumonia with significant impairment of respiratory function. However, the infectious capacity of SARS-CoV-2 is not limited to the respiratory system, but may also affect other vital organs such as the brain. The central nervous system is vulnerable to cell damage via direct invasion or indirect virus-related effects leading to a neuroinflammatory response, processes possibly associated with a decrease in the activity of angiotensin II converting enzyme (ACE2), the canonical cell-surface receptor for SARS-CoV-2. This enzyme regulates neuroprotective and neuroimmunomodulatory functions and can neutralize both inflammation and oxidative stress generated at the cellular level. Furthermore, there is evidence of an association between vitamin D deficiency and predisposition to the development of severe forms of COVID-19, with its possible neurological and neuropsychiatric sequelae: vitamin D has the ability to down-modulate the effects of neuroinflammatory cytokines, among other anti-inflammatory/immunomodulatory effects, thus attenuating harmful consequences of COVID-19. This review critically analyzes current evidence supporting the notion that vitamin D may act as a neuroprotective and neuroreparative agent against the neurological sequelae of COVID-19.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rodríguez, Mariela E.; Boixader, Francesc; Wong, Alvaro; Rexachs del Rosario, Dolores; Luque, Emilio;
    Country: Argentina

    Simulation, in health services, has become an important tool that has made it possible to replicate real scenarios that have a critical degree and thus have reliable information to obtain knowledge about the variables managed in an emergency. In the activity of a Hospital Emergency Service (HED), we can find active agents such as doctors, nurses, patients and passive ones such as medical rooms, beds, among others, interacting between them. HEDs have been overwhelmed by catastrophic events, such as those induced by COVID 19, in the last two years. In these situations, the availability of resources, due to the considerable reduction in health personnel and the excessive arrival of patients for care, implies that the emergency service has become inoperative. The recovery of this essential service is fundamental and a priority. For this reason, it is necessary to analyze the period of time for departments, after a catastrophe, to reach a stable state that allows them to adapt to the new workload, that is, to analyze how resilient the ED is. The present work shows the proposal of a research project for the modeling and simulation of an ED that supports the design and evaluation of a resilient service considering the infrastructures, resources and services that occur in an ED. The model must consider the organization and infrastructure capacity to support and recover from extreme situations, in order to provide and maintain its operation and services in an adequate manner. To achieve this objective, the normal service index and the ability to resist, restore and evolve in the face of future risks and threats will be measured. The design of the model will be integrated and participatory, and it will focus on people and communities, governed by the principles of sustainable development goals regarding Health and Wellbeing, Gender Equality, Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure. Instituto de Investigación en Informática

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Alami, Abdallah; Krewski, Daniel; Mattison, Donald; Wilson, Kumanan; Gravel, Christopher A.; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Farrell, Patrick J.; Pérez Lloret, Santiago;
    Country: Argentina

    Abstract: There have been reports of cases of myocarditis and pericarditis as rare complications following mRNA COVID-19 vaccinations among young adults. While most reported cases are mild, this potential vaccine safety signal should be closely monitored. Using data from the CDC and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), we calculated the combined reporting rate of myocarditis and pericarditis stratified by age group, sex, vaccine dose, and manufacturer, and compared these rates to the crude background incidence rates. Compared to the general population prior to the administration of the first COVID-19 vaccines in December 2020, we identified a higherthan- expected reporting rate of myocarditis and pericarditis following mRNA vaccination; the risk was higher after a second vaccine dose, higher in males than in females, and decreased with age. The highest risk was seen in males 12–17 years of age with approximately 6 cases per 100,000 second doses. Our findings suggest an increased risk of myocarditis and pericarditis in young males following a second dose of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Since these findings are based on safety signals derived from passive surveillance data, confirmatory epidemiological studies should be undertaken.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Brenlla, María Elena; Germano, Guadalupe; Seivane, Mariana Soledad; Fernández Da Lama, Rocío Giselle; Ogden, Ruth;
    Country: Argentina

    Abstract: The Coronavirus-19 global pandemic has forced many governments around the world to enforce “lockdowns” to curtail the spread of the virus. Studies conducted in the UK, France, Italy and Brazil have demonstrated that one consequence of these lockdowns is significant distortion to the speed of the passage of time. The current study sought to establish how the passage of time was experienced during the Argentinian lockdown. An online questionnaire was used to measure passage of time judgments for the day and the week, physical activity, satisfaction with social interaction, the extent to which daily routines had changed due to covid and demographic data. The results show that distortions to the passage of time were widely experienced during the lockdown in Argentina. There was a tendency for participants to report time passing more quickly than normal. A faster passage of time was associated with being a woman, of younger age and more physically active. A slower passage of time was therefore associated with being a man, of older age and less physically active. The results indicate that whilst distortions to the passage of time during the covid-19 crisis appear to be a global phenomenon, cross-cultural differences are apparent in the factors which influence temporal experience.