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  • French National Research Agency (ANR)
  • Mémoires en Sciences de l'Information et de la Communication
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  • Authors: Boyer, Pierre, C; Gerschel, Elie; Raj, Anasuya;

    Approfondir l’intégration européenne? Résultats d’une enquête auprès des parlementaires nationaux allemands, français et italiens; L’Union économique européenne est incomplète, ce qui la rend vulnérable aux chocs macroéconomiques tels que la crise due à l’épidémie Covid-19. Des propositions de réforme étaient déjà débattues ces dernières années mais se sont constamment heurtées aux divergences de vues entre les pays et les groupes politiques. Nous présentons ici les résultats d’une enquête menée en 2018 auprès de membres des parlements nationaux en France, en Allemagne et en Italie sur l’intégration européenne dans des domaines liés au partage des risques et aux institutions budgétaires, en les invitant à exprimer leur opinion sur des propositions telles que la création d’une assurance-chômage européenne, d’euro-obligations (aussi appelées “eurobonds”) ou d’un impôt européen. Nous constatons que la nationalité et l’appartenance politique sont tous les deux des facteurs déterminants du soutien à ces propositions, le premier étant dominé par le second. Nous décrivons les lignes de fracture et tentons d’identifier les points de convergence où un accord politique serait envisageable. L’accord obtenu le 21 juillet 2020 au dernier sommet européen inclut une innovation notable avec des transferts financiers entre les États et l’émission d’obligations européennes : il représente donc un choix parmi les options que nous avions proposées aux parlementaires interrogés. Néanmoins, le plan de relance choisi lors de ce sommet reste ponctuel et laisse donc ouverte la question de l’avenir de l’intégration européenne.

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  • Authors: Gouëset, Vincent; Demoraes, Florent; Robert, Jérémy; Pereyra, Omar;

    International audience; This article presents the challenges of the ANR Modural programme initiated in January 2020 and entitled "Sustainable mobility practices in Latin American metropolises: a comparative study of Bogotá (Colombia) and Lima (Peru)". This research focuses on the specific situation of the inhabitants of low-income suburbs, whose levers and obstacles to the adoption of sustainable daily mobility practices are relatively little studied. Like many cities, the two metropolises of the project have been particularly struck by the covid-19 health crisis. In this article, we provide some results showing how this has affected the daily mobility of the inhabitants, particularly in the outskirts of the city. We also detail the restrictions and opportunities of the pandemic on the development of the Modural programme. Finally, we present the research strategies adopted by our team to deal with this particular context, including the adaptation of our information collecting tools.; En este artículo se presentan los retos del programa ANR Modural iniciado en enero de 2020 y titulado "Prácticas de movilidad sostenible en las metrópolis latinoamericanas: estudio comparativo de Bogotá (Colombia) y Lima (Perú)". Esta investigación se centra en la situación específica de los habitantes de los suburbios desfavorecidos, cuyas palancas y obstáculos para la adopción de prácticas de movilidad cotidiana sostenible se han estudiado relativamente poco. Como muchas ciudades, las dos metrópolis del proyecto se vieron particularmente impactadas por la crisis sanitaria de la covid-19. En este artículo, proporcionamos algunos resultados que muestran cómo esto ha afectado a la movilidad diaria de los habitantes, particularmente en las zonas periféricas. También detallamos las limitaciones y oportunidades de la pandemia en el desarrollo del programa Modural. Por último, presentamos las estrategias de investigación adoptadas por nuestro equipo para abordar este contexto particular, estrategias que incluyen la adaptación de nuestros sistemas de recopilación de información.; Cet article présente les enjeux du programme ANR Modural initié en janvier 2020 et intitulé « Les pratiques de la mobilité durable dans les métropoles d’Amérique latine : étude comparée de Bogotá (Colombie) et Lima (Pérou) ». Cette recherche met l’accent sur la situation spécifique des habitants des périphéries populaires, dont les leviers et freins à l’adoption de pratiques de mobilité quotidienne durables sont assez peu étudiées. Comme de nombreuses villes, les deux métropoles du projet ont été particulièrement touchées par la crise sanitaire de la covid-19. Dans cet article, nous livrons quelques résultats montrant en quoi cela a affecté la mobilité quotidienne des habitants, notamment dans les secteurs périphériques. Nous détaillons également les contraintes et opportunités de la pandémie sur le déroulement du programme Modural. Enfin, nous livrons les stratégies de recherche adoptées par notre équipe pour composer avec ce contexte si particulier, stratégies qui passent entre autres par l’adaptation de nos dispositifs de recueil d’information.

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  • Authors: Boyer, Pierre, C; Gerschel, Elie; Raj, Anasuya;

    Summary:The European economic union is incomplete, which makes it vulnerable to macroeconomic shocks. The opportunity to move forward in the integration process was highly debated even before the Covid-19 crisis.Yet the diverging views among countries and political groups are often considered as an obstacle on the path to required agreements for completing the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). We present the results of a survey conducted in 2018 among members of national parliaments (MPs) in France, Germany and Italy on European integration in policy fields related to risk-sharing and budgetary institutions, asking for their opinion on proposals such as the creation of a European Unemployment Insurance (EUI), Eurobonds, or an EU tax. We find that nationality and political groups are key determinants of support for such proposals, the latter being the strongest. We describe how opinions are divided and try to identify policy proposals which could gather enough political support. The agreement reached on July 21st, 2020 at the last European summit includes financial transfers between States and the creation of Eurobonds, thus representing an important institutional move and an application of some of the reforms suggested by our survey. Yet what has been decided upon is only temporary and leaves open the question of the future of European integration.Key points: At first glance, the answers show diverging opinions on most questions between countries with Italy supporting more integration, and Germany opposing it for most proposals. France has an intermediate position, leaning towards Italy. A breakdown of the results by party affiliation shows a more nuanced picture. For cross-country comparisons, we build a party indicator using the affiliation of national parties to European political groups. National MPs associated with the group of Socialists and Democrats (S&D) at the European level show strong support for the creation of new fiscal institutions and a new EU tax, and for risk sharing institutions (European Unemployment Insurance, Eurobonds). On the contrary, MPs associated with the European People’s Party (EPP) are mildly positive or against risk-sharing and fiscal institutions. National MPs affiliated to Renew Europe hold similar views to S&D MPs, but are less supportive of risk-sharing mechanisms. There is a substantial diversity of positions between the German AfD, the Italian Lega and the 5-star movement: the three parties have diverging views on the future of integration. Our econometric analysis shows that party affiliations have more explanatory power than nationality for all questions. This clearly shows that outcomes of national parliamentary elections could change the overall support for any issue.; Summary:The European economic union is incomplete, which makes it vulnerable to macroeconomic shocks. The opportunity to move forward in the integration process was highly debated even before the Covid-19 crisis.Yet the diverging views among countries and political groups are often considered as an obstacle on the path to required agreements for completing the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). We present the results of a survey conducted in 2018 among members of national parliaments (MPs) in France, Germany and Italy on European integration in policy fields related to risk-sharing and budgetary institutions, asking for their opinion on proposals such as the creation of a European Unemployment Insurance (EUI), Eurobonds, or an EU tax. We find that nationality and political groups are key determinants of support for such proposals, the latter being the strongest. We describe how opinions are divided and try to identify policy proposals which could gather enough political support. The agreement reached on July 21st, 2020 at the last European summit includes financial transfers between States and the creation of Eurobonds, thus representing an important institutional move and an application of some of the reforms suggested by our survey. Yet what has been decided upon is only temporary and leaves open the question of the future of European integration.Key points: At first glance, the answers show diverging opinions on most questions between countries with Italy supporting more integration, and Germany opposing it for most proposals. France has an intermediate position, leaning towards Italy. A breakdown of the results by party affiliation shows a more nuanced picture. For cross-country comparisons, we build a party indicator using the affiliation of national parties to European political groups. National MPs associated with the group of Socialists and Democrats (S&D) at the European level show strong support for the creation of new fiscal institutions and a new EU tax, and for risk sharing institutions (European Unemployment Insurance, Eurobonds). On the contrary, MPs associated with the European People’s Party (EPP) are mildly positive or against risk-sharing and fiscal institutions. National MPs affiliated to Renew Europe hold similar views to S&D MPs, but are less supportive of risk-sharing mechanisms. There is a substantial diversity of positions between the German AfD, the Italian Lega and the 5-star movement: the three parties have diverging views on the future of integration. Our econometric analysis shows that party affiliations have more explanatory power than nationality for all questions. This clearly shows that outcomes of national parliamentary elections could change the overall support for any issue.

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  • Authors: Gerschel, Elie; Martinez, Alejandra; Mejean, Isabelle;

    International audience; Before spreading globally, the Covid-19 epidemic was concentrated in the Hubei province. To contain the spread of the virus, the Chinese government has imposed quarantine measures and travel restrictions, entailing the slowdown of economic activity. We study the propagation of this geographically concentrated productivity slowdown to the global economy, through global value chains. Reliance on Chinese inputs has dramatically increased since the early 2000s. As a consequence, most countries are exposed to the Chinese productivity slowdown, both directly through their imports of Chinese inputs and indirectly, through other inputs themselves produced with some Chinese value added. This note aims at quantifying the total exposure of France compared to other countries. First, we compute the share of Chinese value added in French production. Then, we use data at the country and sector levels to quantify the impact of travel restrictions on French GDP.

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The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
4 Research products
  • Authors: Boyer, Pierre, C; Gerschel, Elie; Raj, Anasuya;

    Approfondir l’intégration européenne? Résultats d’une enquête auprès des parlementaires nationaux allemands, français et italiens; L’Union économique européenne est incomplète, ce qui la rend vulnérable aux chocs macroéconomiques tels que la crise due à l’épidémie Covid-19. Des propositions de réforme étaient déjà débattues ces dernières années mais se sont constamment heurtées aux divergences de vues entre les pays et les groupes politiques. Nous présentons ici les résultats d’une enquête menée en 2018 auprès de membres des parlements nationaux en France, en Allemagne et en Italie sur l’intégration européenne dans des domaines liés au partage des risques et aux institutions budgétaires, en les invitant à exprimer leur opinion sur des propositions telles que la création d’une assurance-chômage européenne, d’euro-obligations (aussi appelées “eurobonds”) ou d’un impôt européen. Nous constatons que la nationalité et l’appartenance politique sont tous les deux des facteurs déterminants du soutien à ces propositions, le premier étant dominé par le second. Nous décrivons les lignes de fracture et tentons d’identifier les points de convergence où un accord politique serait envisageable. L’accord obtenu le 21 juillet 2020 au dernier sommet européen inclut une innovation notable avec des transferts financiers entre les États et l’émission d’obligations européennes : il représente donc un choix parmi les options que nous avions proposées aux parlementaires interrogés. Néanmoins, le plan de relance choisi lors de ce sommet reste ponctuel et laisse donc ouverte la question de l’avenir de l’intégration européenne.

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    influenceAverage
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  • Authors: Gouëset, Vincent; Demoraes, Florent; Robert, Jérémy; Pereyra, Omar;

    International audience; This article presents the challenges of the ANR Modural programme initiated in January 2020 and entitled "Sustainable mobility practices in Latin American metropolises: a comparative study of Bogotá (Colombia) and Lima (Peru)". This research focuses on the specific situation of the inhabitants of low-income suburbs, whose levers and obstacles to the adoption of sustainable daily mobility practices are relatively little studied. Like many cities, the two metropolises of the project have been particularly struck by the covid-19 health crisis. In this article, we provide some results showing how this has affected the daily mobility of the inhabitants, particularly in the outskirts of the city. We also detail the restrictions and opportunities of the pandemic on the development of the Modural programme. Finally, we present the research strategies adopted by our team to deal with this particular context, including the adaptation of our information collecting tools.; En este artículo se presentan los retos del programa ANR Modural iniciado en enero de 2020 y titulado "Prácticas de movilidad sostenible en las metrópolis latinoamericanas: estudio comparativo de Bogotá (Colombia) y Lima (Perú)". Esta investigación se centra en la situación específica de los habitantes de los suburbios desfavorecidos, cuyas palancas y obstáculos para la adopción de prácticas de movilidad cotidiana sostenible se han estudiado relativamente poco. Como muchas ciudades, las dos metrópolis del proyecto se vieron particularmente impactadas por la crisis sanitaria de la covid-19. En este artículo, proporcionamos algunos resultados que muestran cómo esto ha afectado a la movilidad diaria de los habitantes, particularmente en las zonas periféricas. También detallamos las limitaciones y oportunidades de la pandemia en el desarrollo del programa Modural. Por último, presentamos las estrategias de investigación adoptadas por nuestro equipo para abordar este contexto particular, estrategias que incluyen la adaptación de nuestros sistemas de recopilación de información.; Cet article présente les enjeux du programme ANR Modural initié en janvier 2020 et intitulé « Les pratiques de la mobilité durable dans les métropoles d’Amérique latine : étude comparée de Bogotá (Colombie) et Lima (Pérou) ». Cette recherche met l’accent sur la situation spécifique des habitants des périphéries populaires, dont les leviers et freins à l’adoption de pratiques de mobilité quotidienne durables sont assez peu étudiées. Comme de nombreuses villes, les deux métropoles du projet ont été particulièrement touchées par la crise sanitaire de la covid-19. Dans cet article, nous livrons quelques résultats montrant en quoi cela a affecté la mobilité quotidienne des habitants, notamment dans les secteurs périphériques. Nous détaillons également les contraintes et opportunités de la pandémie sur le déroulement du programme Modural. Enfin, nous livrons les stratégies de recherche adoptées par notre équipe pour composer avec ce contexte si particulier, stratégies qui passent entre autres par l’adaptation de nos dispositifs de recueil d’information.

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  • Authors: Boyer, Pierre, C; Gerschel, Elie; Raj, Anasuya;

    Summary:The European economic union is incomplete, which makes it vulnerable to macroeconomic shocks. The opportunity to move forward in the integration process was highly debated even before the Covid-19 crisis.Yet the diverging views among countries and political groups are often considered as an obstacle on the path to required agreements for completing the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). We present the results of a survey conducted in 2018 among members of national parliaments (MPs) in France, Germany and Italy on European integration in policy fields related to risk-sharing and budgetary institutions, asking for their opinion on proposals such as the creation of a European Unemployment Insurance (EUI), Eurobonds, or an EU tax. We find that nationality and political groups are key determinants of support for such proposals, the latter being the strongest. We describe how opinions are divided and try to identify policy proposals which could gather enough political support. The agreement reached on July 21st, 2020 at the last European summit includes financial transfers between States and the creation of Eurobonds, thus representing an important institutional move and an application of some of the reforms suggested by our survey. Yet what has been decided upon is only temporary and leaves open the question of the future of European integration.Key points: At first glance, the answers show diverging opinions on most questions between countries with Italy supporting more integration, and Germany opposing it for most proposals. France has an intermediate position, leaning towards Italy. A breakdown of the results by party affiliation shows a more nuanced picture. For cross-country comparisons, we build a party indicator using the affiliation of national parties to European political groups. National MPs associated with the group of Socialists and Democrats (S&D) at the European level show strong support for the creation of new fiscal institutions and a new EU tax, and for risk sharing institutions (European Unemployment Insurance, Eurobonds). On the contrary, MPs associated with the European People’s Party (EPP) are mildly positive or against risk-sharing and fiscal institutions. National MPs affiliated to Renew Europe hold similar views to S&D MPs, but are less supportive of risk-sharing mechanisms. There is a substantial diversity of positions between the German AfD, the Italian Lega and the 5-star movement: the three parties have diverging views on the future of integration. Our econometric analysis shows that party affiliations have more explanatory power than nationality for all questions. This clearly shows that outcomes of national parliamentary elections could change the overall support for any issue.; Summary:The European economic union is incomplete, which makes it vulnerable to macroeconomic shocks. The opportunity to move forward in the integration process was highly debated even before the Covid-19 crisis.Yet the diverging views among countries and political groups are often considered as an obstacle on the path to required agreements for completing the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). We present the results of a survey conducted in 2018 among members of national parliaments (MPs) in France, Germany and Italy on European integration in policy fields related to risk-sharing and budgetary institutions, asking for their opinion on proposals such as the creation of a European Unemployment Insurance (EUI), Eurobonds, or an EU tax. We find that nationality and political groups are key determinants of support for such proposals, the latter being the strongest. We describe how opinions are divided and try to identify policy proposals which could gather enough political support. The agreement reached on July 21st, 2020 at the last European summit includes financial transfers between States and the creation of Eurobonds, thus representing an important institutional move and an application of some of the reforms suggested by our survey. Yet what has been decided upon is only temporary and leaves open the question of the future of European integration.Key points: At first glance, the answers show diverging opinions on most questions between countries with Italy supporting more integration, and Germany opposing it for most proposals. France has an intermediate position, leaning towards Italy. A breakdown of the results by party affiliation shows a more nuanced picture. For cross-country comparisons, we build a party indicator using the affiliation of national parties to European political groups. National MPs associated with the group of Socialists and Democrats (S&D) at the European level show strong support for the creation of new fiscal institutions and a new EU tax, and for risk sharing institutions (European Unemployment Insurance, Eurobonds). On the contrary, MPs associated with the European People’s Party (EPP) are mildly positive or against risk-sharing and fiscal institutions. National MPs affiliated to Renew Europe hold similar views to S&D MPs, but are less supportive of risk-sharing mechanisms. There is a substantial diversity of positions between the German AfD, the Italian Lega and the 5-star movement: the three parties have diverging views on the future of integration. Our econometric analysis shows that party affiliations have more explanatory power than nationality for all questions. This clearly shows that outcomes of national parliamentary elections could change the overall support for any issue.

    0
    citations0
    popularityAverage
    influenceAverage
    impulseAverage
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  • Authors: Gerschel, Elie; Martinez, Alejandra; Mejean, Isabelle;

    International audience; Before spreading globally, the Covid-19 epidemic was concentrated in the Hubei province. To contain the spread of the virus, the Chinese government has imposed quarantine measures and travel restrictions, entailing the slowdown of economic activity. We study the propagation of this geographically concentrated productivity slowdown to the global economy, through global value chains. Reliance on Chinese inputs has dramatically increased since the early 2000s. As a consequence, most countries are exposed to the Chinese productivity slowdown, both directly through their imports of Chinese inputs and indirectly, through other inputs themselves produced with some Chinese value added. This note aims at quantifying the total exposure of France compared to other countries. First, we compute the share of Chinese value added in French production. Then, we use data at the country and sector levels to quantify the impact of travel restrictions on French GDP.

    0
    citations0
    popularityAverage
    influenceAverage
    impulseAverage
    BIP!Powered by BIP!
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