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The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
749 Research products, page 1 of 75

  • COVID-19
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  • 2013-2022
  • Article
  • Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada
  • COVID-19

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  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Zheng Wang; Chunjiang An; Kenneth Lee; Xiujuan Chen; Baiyu Zhang; Jianan Yin; Qi Feng;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: NSERC

    The explosive growth of disposable gloves usage in cities around the world has posed a considerable risk to municipal solid management and disposal during the COVID-19 pandemic. The lack of the environmental awareness leads to glove waste being discarded randomly and ending up in the soil and/or the ocean ecosystem. To explore the physicochemical changes and environmental behaviors of disposable glove wastes in the aqueous environment, three kinds of glove (latex, nitrile and vinyl) were investigated. The results showed that the physicochemical characteristics of disposable gloves made of different materials were altered to different degrees by UV weathering. Nitrile gloves were more stable than latex and vinyl gloves after being exposed to weathering conditions. Although the chemical structures were not clearly demonstrated through FTIR after weathering, the SEM results showed significant microscopic changes on the surfaces of the gloves. Analysis of the leachate results showed that UV weathered gloves released leachable substances, including microparticles, organic matter, and heavy metals. Latex gloves were more likely to release microparticles and other substances into the water after UV weathering. The release of microparticles from gloves can also be impacted by sand abrasion. The appropriate strategy needs to be developed to mitigate the environmental impact caused by the discarded gloves.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Frédéric LeTourneux; Thierry Grandmont; Frédéric Dulude-de Broin; Marie-Claude Martin; Josée Lefebvre; Akiko Kato; Joël Bêty; Gilles Gauthier; Pierre Legagneux;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: NSERC

    International audience; Overabundant species can have major impacts on their habitat and induce trophic cascades within ecosystems. In North America, the overabundant greater snow goose (Anser caerulescens atlanticus) has been successfully controlled through special spring hunting regulations since 1999. Hunting is a source of mortality but also of disturbance, which affects the behavior and nutrient storage dynamics of staging snow geese. In 2020, the lockdown imposed by the COVID19 pandemic reduced hunting activity during their migratory stopover in Québec by at least 31%. This provided a unique opportunity to assess the effects of a sudden reduction in hunting disturbance on geese. We used long-term data on body mass combined with movement data from GPS-tracked birds in 2019 and 2020 to assess the effects of the 2020 lockdown on the spring body condition and behavior of greater snow geese. Body condition was higher in 2020 than in all years since the inception of spring hunting in 1999, except for 2019. However, in 2020 geese reached maximal body condition earlier during the staging period than in any other year and reduced by half time spent feeding in highly profitable but risky agricultural habitat in late spring compared to 2019. Although our study was not designed to evaluate the effects of the lockdown, the associated reduction in disturbance in 2020 supports the hypothesis that hunting-related disturbance negatively affects foraging efficiency and body condition in geese. Since spring body condition is related to subsequent breeding success, the lockdown could increase productivity in this overabundant population.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Maedot S. Andargie; Marianne F. Touchie; William O'Brien;
    Publisher: SAGE Publications
    Project: NSERC

    Trends of urbanization, densification, and telework all point to increasing exposure to ambient noise for workers. With the lockdown policies implemented in response to COVID-19, a research opportunity to study perceived noise exposure for teleworking arose. This paper presents the results of a survey on noise issues in multi-unit residential buildings (MURBs) and the consequent effects on occupants' well-being and productivity during the lockdown. Responses were collected from 471 MURB occupants across Canada. The results show that, despite the decrease in environmental noise, many are annoyed by outdoor noise, particularly from traffic and construction activities, and indicated that it affects their ability to work. Effects on ability to work from home were more frequently reported for indoor noise sources particularly airborne and impact noises coming from neighboring suites. Our findings, however, show that noise coming from occupants in the same suite (i.e. roommates and family) present the biggest issue. The findings indicate that existing noise conditions in MURBs might not be suitable for a permanent large-scale implementation of teleworking.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Kailyn J. Wanhella; Carlos Fernandez-Patron;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: NSERC

    Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the novel coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) - the culprit of an ongoing pandemic responsible for the loss of over 3 million lives worldwide within a year and a half. While the majority of SARS-CoV-2 infected people develop no or mild symptoms, some become severely ill and may die from COVID-19-related complications. In this review, we compile and comment on a number of biomarkers that have been identified and are expected to enhance the detection, protection and treatment of individuals at high risk of developing severe illnesses, as well as enable the monitoring of COVID-19 prognosis and responsiveness to therapeutic interventions. Consistent with the emerging notion that the majority of COVID-19 deaths occur in older and frail individuals, we researched the scientific literature and report the identification of a subset of COVID-19 biomarkers indicative of increased vulnerability to developing severe COVID-19 in older and frail patients. Mechanistically, increased frailty results from reduced disease tolerance, a phenomenon aggravated by ageing and comorbidities. While biomarkers of ageing and frailty may predict COVID-19 severity, biomarkers of disease tolerance may predict resistance to COVID-19 with socio-economic factors such as access to adequate health care remaining as major non-biomolecular influencers of COVID-19 outcomes. Graphical Abstract Figure: Biomarkers of ageing and frailty may predict COVID-19 severity as both conditions are associated with reduced disease tolerance - the host’s defense mechanisms to limit tissue damage or reduce immunopathology induced by the infection with a pathogen. While these biomolecular markers inform about the baseline ground for exacerbated viral infection, inflammaging and pre-existing comorbidities, which are common at advanced ages, as well as socio-economic conditions that affect people in underdeveloped nations and underserved communities of developed nations appear to be strong influencers of COVID-19 trajectory - particularly in older and frail individuals.ga1

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Juan Carlos Abrego-Martinez; Maziar Jafari; Siham Chergui; Catalin Pavel; Diping Che; Mohamed Siaj;
    Project: NSERC

    Rapid, mass diagnosis of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is critical to stop the ongoing infection spread. The two standard screening methods to confirm the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are polymerase chain reaction (PCR), through the RNA of the virus, and serology by detecting antibodies produced as a response to the viral infection. However, given the detection complexity, cost and relatively long analysis times of these techniques, novel technologies are urgently needed. Here, we report an aptamer-based biosensor developed on a screen-printed carbon electrode platform for rapid, sensitive, and user-friendly detection of SARS-CoV-2. The aptasensor relies on an aptamer targeting the receptor-binding domain (RBD) in the spike protein (S-protein) of the SARS-CoV-2. The aptamer immobilization on gold nanoparticles, and the presence of S-protein in the aptamer-target complex, investigated for the first time by photo-induced force microscopy mapping between 770 and 1910 cm-1 of the electromagnetic spectrum, revealed abundant S-protein homogeneously distributed on the sensing probe. The detection of SARS-CoV-2 S-protein was achieved by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy after 40 min incubation with several analyte concentrations, yielding a limit of detection of 1.30 pM (66 pg/mL). Moreover, the aptasensor was successfully applied for the detection of a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus, thus suggesting it is a promising tool for the diagnosis of COVID-19.

  • Publication . Article . Conference object . Preprint . 2022 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2022
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Dong Chu; Wael Jaafar; Halim Yanikomeroglu;
    Publisher: arXiv
    Project: NSERC

    With the booming deployment of Internet of Things, health monitoring applications have gradually prospered. Within the recent COVID-19 pandemic situation, interest in permanent remote health monitoring solutions has raised, targeting to reduce contact and preserve the limited medical resources. Among the technological methods to realize efficient remote health monitoring, federated learning (FL) has drawn particular attention due to its robustness in preserving data privacy. However, FL can yield to high communication costs, due to frequent transmissions between the FL server and clients. To tackle this problem, we propose in this paper a communication-efficient federated learning (CEFL) framework that involves clients clustering and transfer learning. First, we propose to group clients through the calculation of similarity factors, based on the neural networks characteristics. Then, a representative client in each cluster is selected to be the leader of the cluster. Differently from the conventional FL, our method performs FL training only among the cluster leaders. Subsequently, transfer learning is adopted by the leader to update its cluster members with the trained FL model. Finally, each member fine-tunes the received model with its own data. To further reduce the communication costs, we opt for a partial-layer FL aggregation approach. This method suggests partially updating the neural network model rather than fully. Through experiments, we show that CEFL can save up to to 98.45% in communication costs while conceding less than 3% in accuracy loss, when compared to the conventional FL. Finally, CEFL demonstrates a high accuracy for clients with small or unbalanced datasets.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Divya Khandige Sharma; Kamiko R. Bressler; Harshil Patel; Nirujah Balasingam; Nehal Thakor;
    Publisher: Hindawi Limited
    Project: NSERC

    Protein synthesis can be segmented into distinct phases comprising mRNA translation initiation, elongation, and termination. Translation initiation is a highly regulated and rate-limiting step of protein synthesis that requires more than 12 eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs). Extensive evidence shows that the transcriptome and corresponding proteome do not invariably correlate with each other in a variety of contexts. In particular, translation of mRNAs specific to angiogenesis, tumor development, and apoptosis is altered during physiological and pathophysiological stress conditions. In cancer cells, the expression and functions of eIFs are hampered, resulting in the inhibition of global translation and enhancement of translation of subsets of mRNAs by alternative mechanisms. A precise understanding of mechanisms involving eukaryotic initiation factors leading to differential protein expression can help us to design better strategies to diagnose and treat cancer. The high spatial and temporal resolution of translation control can have an immediate effect on the microenvironment of the cell in comparison with changes in transcription. The dysregulation of mRNA translation mechanisms is increasingly being exploited as a target to treat cancer. In this review, we will focus on this context by describing both canonical and noncanonical roles of eIFs, which alter mRNA translation.

  • Authors: 
    F. Bichai; P. Smeets; S. Barrette; D. Deere; N. J. Ashbolt; G. Ferrero;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited
    Project: NSERC
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Fulian Yin; Xinyu Xia; Nan Song; Lingyao Zhu; Jianhong Wu;
    Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Project: NSERC

    BackgroudEffective communication of accurate information through social media constitutes an important component of public health interventions in modern time, when traditional public health approaches such as contact tracing, quarantine and isolation are among the few options for the containing the disease spread in the population. The success of control of COVID-19 outbreak started from Wuhan, the capital city of Hubei Province of China relies heavily on the resilience of residents to follow public health interventions which induce substantial interruption of social-economic activities, and evidence shows that opinion leaders have been playing significant roles in the propagation of epidemic information and public health policy and implementations.MethodsWe design a mathematical model to quantify the roles of information superspreaders in single specific information which outbreaks rapidly and usually has a short duration period, and to examine the information propagation dynamics in the Chinese Sina-microblog. Our opinion-leader susceptible-forwarding-immune (OL-SFI) model is formulated to track the temporal evolution of forwarding quantities generated by opinion leaders and normal users.ResultsData fitting from the real data of COVID-19 obtained from Chinese Sina-microblog can identify the different contact rates and forwarding probabilities (and hence calculate the basic information forwarding reproduction number of superspreaders), and can be used to evaluate the roles of opinion leaders in different stages of the information propagation and the outbreak unfolding.ConclusionsThe parameterized model can be used to nearcast the information propagation trend, and the model-based sensitivity analysis can help to explore important factors for the roles of opinion leaders.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    David Welch; Manuela Buonanno; Andrew G. Buchan; Liang Yang; Kirk D. Atkinson; Igor Shuryak; David J. Brenner;
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: NSERC

    Recent research using UV radiation with wavelengths in the 200–235 nm range, often referred to as far-UVC, suggests that the minimal health hazard associated with these wavelengths will allow direct use of far-UVC radiation within occupied indoor spaces to provide continuous disinfection. Earlier experimental studies estimated the susceptibility of airborne human coronavirus OC43 exposed to 222-nm radiation based on fitting an exponential dose–response curve to the data. The current study extends the results to a wider range of doses of 222 nm far-UVC radiation and uses a computational model coupling radiation transport and computational fluid dynamics to improve dosimetry estimates. The new results suggest that the inactivation of human coronavirus OC43 within our exposure system is better described using a bi-exponential dose–response relation, and the estimated susceptibility constant at low doses—the relevant parameter for realistic low dose rate exposures—was 12.4 ± 0.4 cm2/mJ, which described the behavior of 99.7% ± 0.05% of the virus population. This new estimate is more than double the earlier susceptibility constant estimates that were based on a single-exponential dose response. These new results offer further evidence as to the efficacy of far-UVC to inactivate airborne pathogens. EPSRC: EP/M022684/2 and Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC): IRCPJ 549979-19.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
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Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
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Include:
The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
749 Research products, page 1 of 75
  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Zheng Wang; Chunjiang An; Kenneth Lee; Xiujuan Chen; Baiyu Zhang; Jianan Yin; Qi Feng;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: NSERC

    The explosive growth of disposable gloves usage in cities around the world has posed a considerable risk to municipal solid management and disposal during the COVID-19 pandemic. The lack of the environmental awareness leads to glove waste being discarded randomly and ending up in the soil and/or the ocean ecosystem. To explore the physicochemical changes and environmental behaviors of disposable glove wastes in the aqueous environment, three kinds of glove (latex, nitrile and vinyl) were investigated. The results showed that the physicochemical characteristics of disposable gloves made of different materials were altered to different degrees by UV weathering. Nitrile gloves were more stable than latex and vinyl gloves after being exposed to weathering conditions. Although the chemical structures were not clearly demonstrated through FTIR after weathering, the SEM results showed significant microscopic changes on the surfaces of the gloves. Analysis of the leachate results showed that UV weathered gloves released leachable substances, including microparticles, organic matter, and heavy metals. Latex gloves were more likely to release microparticles and other substances into the water after UV weathering. The release of microparticles from gloves can also be impacted by sand abrasion. The appropriate strategy needs to be developed to mitigate the environmental impact caused by the discarded gloves.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Frédéric LeTourneux; Thierry Grandmont; Frédéric Dulude-de Broin; Marie-Claude Martin; Josée Lefebvre; Akiko Kato; Joël Bêty; Gilles Gauthier; Pierre Legagneux;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: NSERC

    International audience; Overabundant species can have major impacts on their habitat and induce trophic cascades within ecosystems. In North America, the overabundant greater snow goose (Anser caerulescens atlanticus) has been successfully controlled through special spring hunting regulations since 1999. Hunting is a source of mortality but also of disturbance, which affects the behavior and nutrient storage dynamics of staging snow geese. In 2020, the lockdown imposed by the COVID19 pandemic reduced hunting activity during their migratory stopover in Québec by at least 31%. This provided a unique opportunity to assess the effects of a sudden reduction in hunting disturbance on geese. We used long-term data on body mass combined with movement data from GPS-tracked birds in 2019 and 2020 to assess the effects of the 2020 lockdown on the spring body condition and behavior of greater snow geese. Body condition was higher in 2020 than in all years since the inception of spring hunting in 1999, except for 2019. However, in 2020 geese reached maximal body condition earlier during the staging period than in any other year and reduced by half time spent feeding in highly profitable but risky agricultural habitat in late spring compared to 2019. Although our study was not designed to evaluate the effects of the lockdown, the associated reduction in disturbance in 2020 supports the hypothesis that hunting-related disturbance negatively affects foraging efficiency and body condition in geese. Since spring body condition is related to subsequent breeding success, the lockdown could increase productivity in this overabundant population.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Maedot S. Andargie; Marianne F. Touchie; William O'Brien;
    Publisher: SAGE Publications
    Project: NSERC

    Trends of urbanization, densification, and telework all point to increasing exposure to ambient noise for workers. With the lockdown policies implemented in response to COVID-19, a research opportunity to study perceived noise exposure for teleworking arose. This paper presents the results of a survey on noise issues in multi-unit residential buildings (MURBs) and the consequent effects on occupants' well-being and productivity during the lockdown. Responses were collected from 471 MURB occupants across Canada. The results show that, despite the decrease in environmental noise, many are annoyed by outdoor noise, particularly from traffic and construction activities, and indicated that it affects their ability to work. Effects on ability to work from home were more frequently reported for indoor noise sources particularly airborne and impact noises coming from neighboring suites. Our findings, however, show that noise coming from occupants in the same suite (i.e. roommates and family) present the biggest issue. The findings indicate that existing noise conditions in MURBs might not be suitable for a permanent large-scale implementation of teleworking.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Kailyn J. Wanhella; Carlos Fernandez-Patron;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: NSERC

    Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the novel coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) - the culprit of an ongoing pandemic responsible for the loss of over 3 million lives worldwide within a year and a half. While the majority of SARS-CoV-2 infected people develop no or mild symptoms, some become severely ill and may die from COVID-19-related complications. In this review, we compile and comment on a number of biomarkers that have been identified and are expected to enhance the detection, protection and treatment of individuals at high risk of developing severe illnesses, as well as enable the monitoring of COVID-19 prognosis and responsiveness to therapeutic interventions. Consistent with the emerging notion that the majority of COVID-19 deaths occur in older and frail individuals, we researched the scientific literature and report the identification of a subset of COVID-19 biomarkers indicative of increased vulnerability to developing severe COVID-19 in older and frail patients. Mechanistically, increased frailty results from reduced disease tolerance, a phenomenon aggravated by ageing and comorbidities. While biomarkers of ageing and frailty may predict COVID-19 severity, biomarkers of disease tolerance may predict resistance to COVID-19 with socio-economic factors such as access to adequate health care remaining as major non-biomolecular influencers of COVID-19 outcomes. Graphical Abstract Figure: Biomarkers of ageing and frailty may predict COVID-19 severity as both conditions are associated with reduced disease tolerance - the host’s defense mechanisms to limit tissue damage or reduce immunopathology induced by the infection with a pathogen. While these biomolecular markers inform about the baseline ground for exacerbated viral infection, inflammaging and pre-existing comorbidities, which are common at advanced ages, as well as socio-economic conditions that affect people in underdeveloped nations and underserved communities of developed nations appear to be strong influencers of COVID-19 trajectory - particularly in older and frail individuals.ga1

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Juan Carlos Abrego-Martinez; Maziar Jafari; Siham Chergui; Catalin Pavel; Diping Che; Mohamed Siaj;
    Project: NSERC

    Rapid, mass diagnosis of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is critical to stop the ongoing infection spread. The two standard screening methods to confirm the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are polymerase chain reaction (PCR), through the RNA of the virus, and serology by detecting antibodies produced as a response to the viral infection. However, given the detection complexity, cost and relatively long analysis times of these techniques, novel technologies are urgently needed. Here, we report an aptamer-based biosensor developed on a screen-printed carbon electrode platform for rapid, sensitive, and user-friendly detection of SARS-CoV-2. The aptasensor relies on an aptamer targeting the receptor-binding domain (RBD) in the spike protein (S-protein) of the SARS-CoV-2. The aptamer immobilization on gold nanoparticles, and the presence of S-protein in the aptamer-target complex, investigated for the first time by photo-induced force microscopy mapping between 770 and 1910 cm-1 of the electromagnetic spectrum, revealed abundant S-protein homogeneously distributed on the sensing probe. The detection of SARS-CoV-2 S-protein was achieved by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy after 40 min incubation with several analyte concentrations, yielding a limit of detection of 1.30 pM (66 pg/mL). Moreover, the aptasensor was successfully applied for the detection of a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus, thus suggesting it is a promising tool for the diagnosis of COVID-19.

  • Publication . Article . Conference object . Preprint . 2022 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2022
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Dong Chu; Wael Jaafar; Halim Yanikomeroglu;
    Publisher: arXiv
    Project: NSERC

    With the booming deployment of Internet of Things, health monitoring applications have gradually prospered. Within the recent COVID-19 pandemic situation, interest in permanent remote health monitoring solutions has raised, targeting to reduce contact and preserve the limited medical resources. Among the technological methods to realize efficient remote health monitoring, federated learning (FL) has drawn particular attention due to its robustness in preserving data privacy. However, FL can yield to high communication costs, due to frequent transmissions between the FL server and clients. To tackle this problem, we propose in this paper a communication-efficient federated learning (CEFL) framework that involves clients clustering and transfer learning. First, we propose to group clients through the calculation of similarity factors, based on the neural networks characteristics. Then, a representative client in each cluster is selected to be the leader of the cluster. Differently from the conventional FL, our method performs FL training only among the cluster leaders. Subsequently, transfer learning is adopted by the leader to update its cluster members with the trained FL model. Finally, each member fine-tunes the received model with its own data. To further reduce the communication costs, we opt for a partial-layer FL aggregation approach. This method suggests partially updating the neural network model rather than fully. Through experiments, we show that CEFL can save up to to 98.45% in communication costs while conceding less than 3% in accuracy loss, when compared to the conventional FL. Finally, CEFL demonstrates a high accuracy for clients with small or unbalanced datasets.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Divya Khandige Sharma; Kamiko R. Bressler; Harshil Patel; Nirujah Balasingam; Nehal Thakor;
    Publisher: Hindawi Limited
    Project: NSERC

    Protein synthesis can be segmented into distinct phases comprising mRNA translation initiation, elongation, and termination. Translation initiation is a highly regulated and rate-limiting step of protein synthesis that requires more than 12 eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs). Extensive evidence shows that the transcriptome and corresponding proteome do not invariably correlate with each other in a variety of contexts. In particular, translation of mRNAs specific to angiogenesis, tumor development, and apoptosis is altered during physiological and pathophysiological stress conditions. In cancer cells, the expression and functions of eIFs are hampered, resulting in the inhibition of global translation and enhancement of translation of subsets of mRNAs by alternative mechanisms. A precise understanding of mechanisms involving eukaryotic initiation factors leading to differential protein expression can help us to design better strategies to diagnose and treat cancer. The high spatial and temporal resolution of translation control can have an immediate effect on the microenvironment of the cell in comparison with changes in transcription. The dysregulation of mRNA translation mechanisms is increasingly being exploited as a target to treat cancer. In this review, we will focus on this context by describing both canonical and noncanonical roles of eIFs, which alter mRNA translation.

  • Authors: 
    F. Bichai; P. Smeets; S. Barrette; D. Deere; N. J. Ashbolt; G. Ferrero;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited
    Project: NSERC
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Fulian Yin; Xinyu Xia; Nan Song; Lingyao Zhu; Jianhong Wu;
    Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Project: NSERC

    BackgroudEffective communication of accurate information through social media constitutes an important component of public health interventions in modern time, when traditional public health approaches such as contact tracing, quarantine and isolation are among the few options for the containing the disease spread in the population. The success of control of COVID-19 outbreak started from Wuhan, the capital city of Hubei Province of China relies heavily on the resilience of residents to follow public health interventions which induce substantial interruption of social-economic activities, and evidence shows that opinion leaders have been playing significant roles in the propagation of epidemic information and public health policy and implementations.MethodsWe design a mathematical model to quantify the roles of information superspreaders in single specific information which outbreaks rapidly and usually has a short duration period, and to examine the information propagation dynamics in the Chinese Sina-microblog. Our opinion-leader susceptible-forwarding-immune (OL-SFI) model is formulated to track the temporal evolution of forwarding quantities generated by opinion leaders and normal users.ResultsData fitting from the real data of COVID-19 obtained from Chinese Sina-microblog can identify the different contact rates and forwarding probabilities (and hence calculate the basic information forwarding reproduction number of superspreaders), and can be used to evaluate the roles of opinion leaders in different stages of the information propagation and the outbreak unfolding.ConclusionsThe parameterized model can be used to nearcast the information propagation trend, and the model-based sensitivity analysis can help to explore important factors for the roles of opinion leaders.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    David Welch; Manuela Buonanno; Andrew G. Buchan; Liang Yang; Kirk D. Atkinson; Igor Shuryak; David J. Brenner;
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: NSERC

    Recent research using UV radiation with wavelengths in the 200–235 nm range, often referred to as far-UVC, suggests that the minimal health hazard associated with these wavelengths will allow direct use of far-UVC radiation within occupied indoor spaces to provide continuous disinfection. Earlier experimental studies estimated the susceptibility of airborne human coronavirus OC43 exposed to 222-nm radiation based on fitting an exponential dose–response curve to the data. The current study extends the results to a wider range of doses of 222 nm far-UVC radiation and uses a computational model coupling radiation transport and computational fluid dynamics to improve dosimetry estimates. The new results suggest that the inactivation of human coronavirus OC43 within our exposure system is better described using a bi-exponential dose–response relation, and the estimated susceptibility constant at low doses—the relevant parameter for realistic low dose rate exposures—was 12.4 ± 0.4 cm2/mJ, which described the behavior of 99.7% ± 0.05% of the virus population. This new estimate is more than double the earlier susceptibility constant estimates that were based on a single-exponential dose response. These new results offer further evidence as to the efficacy of far-UVC to inactivate airborne pathogens. EPSRC: EP/M022684/2 and Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC): IRCPJ 549979-19.