Recent studies indicate that detecting radiographic patterns on CT scans can yield high sensitivity and specificity for Covid-19 localization. In this paper, we investigate the appropriateness of deep learning models transferability, for semantic segmentation of pneumonia-infected areas in CT images. Transfer learning allows for the fast initialization/reutilization of detection models, given that large volumes of training data are not available. Our work explores the efficacy of using pre-trained U-Net architectures, on a specific CT data set, for identifying Covid-19 side-effects over images from different datasets. Experimental results indicate improvement in the segmentation accuracy of identifying Covid-19 infected regions.
Rationale: SARS-CoV-19 (COVID-19) and its associated lung physiology, most notably its role in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), is an evolving medical illness. Clinical management is still being studied, however, it is well documented that pronated patients with non-COVID ARDS can improve oxygenation and V/Q mismatch, as well as increase lung volume and recruitment of collapsed alveoli. We hypothesized that proning patients with COVID-19 pneumonia will have similar pathophysiologic advantages and lead to less need for mechanical ventilation, lower mortality, and shorter hospitalization time. Methods: We conducted a large retrospective, single-institution cohort analysis of adult patients with diagnosed SARS-CoV-19 pneumonia who were admitted to our medical intensive care unit (ICU) between 3/11/2020 and 8/19/2020. We categorized patients into proning (at least 4 hours daily) versus non-proning cohorts. The primary outcome of our study was progression to mechanical ventilation while secondary outcomes compared in-hospital mortality rates, ICU and hospital length of stay (HLOS). We used the quick-COVID Severity Index (qCSI) to assign baseline severity scores to all patients. Results: A total of 270 patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia were admitted to the ICU. Nine patients were excluded due to unrelated illness confounders, leaving a total of 261 patients (including 9 patients who were intubated before their first proning session). Of the patients who proned for 4 or more hours daily, 38.99% (23/59) required mechanical ventilation after proning compared with 41.97% (81/193) who were not proned (pvalue = .68). Secondary outcomes for those proned vs not proned include;in-hospital mortality of 22.06% (15/68) vs 33.12% (62/193) a p-value of .12, median HLOS 14 days vs 13 days, ICU LOS 6 days vs 4 days. The qCSI score for the proned group was 6.77 vs 6.68 for those not proned. Conclusions: Based on our analysis, there was not a statistically significant reduction in the progression to MV in patients with severe SARS-CoV-19 pneumonia who proned compared to those who did not prone. However, there was a positive correlation associated with proning and reduction in the in-hospital mortality rate of these patients, a difference of 11%. Additionally, there was no significant difference in ICU LOS or HLOS.
La presente comunicación detalla un proyecto conjunto y educativo que se lleva a cabo en la barriada de Los Asperones (Málaga), coordinado por la Asociación Chavorrillos, entidad que realiza su labor en dicha barriada, y la Universidad de Málaga, financiadora de dicho proyecto. Un proyecto que nace en los tiempos actuales derivado del Covid-19 y que intenta dar respuesta a una de las demandas de dicha situación pandémica: reducir la pobreza digital en contextos marginales. El proyecto se desarrolla en la barriada de Los Asperones, uno de los barrios de Málaga donde se concentra un alto porcentaje de familias que viven en situación de extrema pobreza (Ruiz-Román, Molina y Alcaide, 2019). Si a esta situación de extrema pobreza le sumamos las consecuencias acaecidas por el Covid-19 (Juárez, De Oña y Molina, 2020; Ruiz-Román et al., 2020), observamos como parte de la población infantil y juvenil no tiene recursos digitales; y tal y como nos ha enseñado esta pandemia, sin acceso digital, no hay comunicación y, por ende, no existen procesos relacionales ni educativos, por lo que impide el progreso y éxito de muchos de estos niños y niñas. Referencias Ruiz-Román, C., Molina, L. y Alcaide, R. (2019) `We Have a Common Goal: Support Networks For the Educational and Social Development of Children in Disadvantaged Areas. British Journal of Social Work. Ruiz-Román, C., Juárez, J., Molina, L., De Oña, J. M. y Herrera-Pastor, D. (2020). Confinados en una chabola: supervivencia al COVID-19 y a la pobreza extrema. Informe para el Call for input: COVID-19 and the right to housing of Special Rapporteur on adequate housing as a component of the right to an adequate standard of living. NU. Juárez, J., De Oña, J. M. y Molina, L. (2020). Vivir el Covid-19 en una chabola: Resiliencia en Situaciones de Desigualdad Social. REIJS, 9(3e), pp. 1-5. Universidad de Málaga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional Andalucía Tech.
Publisher: German Medical Science GMS Publishing House
Background: Healthcare professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic are providing care under challenging circumstances with nurses experiencing higher subjective stress than other professional groups. In delivering palliative care, nurses serve the psychosocial needs of patients and relatives in desperate [for full text, please go to the a.m. URL]
Рассмотрены визуальные коммуникации в обществе на примере взаимодействия культурных институций со зрителями. Показана деятельность театров и музеев в период пандемии. Делается вывод, что развитие онлайн-коммуникации приведет к появлению новых форматов работы в культурной сфере. Visual communication in society is considered on the example of interaction of cultural institutions with spectators. The activity of theaters and museums during the pandemic is considered. It is concluded that the development of online communication will lead to the emergence of new formats of work in the cultural sphere.
Abstract As the COVID-19 storms the globe, there are many efforts to battle it. This paper looks at the development of one such an effort in a form of a mobile game. The game is a 2D arcade game called Unus Terra. It is intended to be entertaining but aims to influence people to partake in social distancing through several mechanics. An early version of the game is evaluated by five usability and user experience experts using heuristics and a few other selected methods. In this paper, we present the results from these evaluations along with our findings from using this type of evaluation method. The use of heuristics is considered from the perspectives of academics and practitioners.
Aim/Purpose: The objective of the research was to study the relationship of seven independent factors: administrative support, course content, course design, instructor characteristics, learner characteristics, social support, and technical support on quality of e-learning in higher education during the COVID-19 pandemic. Further, the study analyzes the moderating effect(s) of gender and level of the course on the quality of e-learning in higher education during the COVID-19 pandemic. objective of the research was to study the relationship of seven independent factors: administrative support, course content, course design, instructor characteristics, learner characteristics, social support, and technical support on quality of e-learning in higher education during COVID-19 pandemic. Background: The COVID-19 pandemic situation has impacted the entire education system, especially universities, and brought a new phase in education “e-learning.” The learning supported with electronic technology like online classes and portals to access the courses outside the classroom is known as e-learning. This study aimed to point out the variables influencing the quality of e-learning, such as administrative support, course content, course design, instructor characteristics, learner characteristics, social support, and technological support. Methodology: An inferential statistics cross-sectional study was conducted of the students of higher education institutions in India and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with a self-administered questionnaire to learn the students’ perception of e-learning. All levels of undergraduate and postgraduate students took part in the study with a sample size of 784. Ultimately, this study used a Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) approach to find the positive relationship between the quality of e-learning and the seven independent variables and two moderating variables in the higher education sector. Contribution: The study aims to explore the quality of e-learning in higher education from the students’ perspective. The study was analyzed based on the student’s data collected from the higher educational institutions of India and Saudi Arabia. The study will support the top management and administrators of higher educational institutions in decision making. Findings: The findings revealed that there is a positive relationship between the set of variables and the quality of e-learning in the higher education sector. Also, there is a significant difference in the perception of the students between gender, level of the course, and quality of e-learning in the higher education sector during the COVID-19 pandemic. Recommendations for Practitioners: The results of the study can help top management and administrators of higher educational institutions to improve their actions. Higher educational institutions need to concentrate on the study outcomes related to administrative support, course content, course design, instructor characteristics, learner characteristics, social support, and technological support to enhance the quality of e-learning. The study revealed that there should be a difference in the procedure of providing e-learning based on the level of the course and gender of the students. Recommendation for Researchers: The results were examined and interpreted in detail, based on the perspective of the students, and concluded with a view for future research. The study will be beneficial for academic researchers from different countries with a different set of students and framework. Impact on Society: The study revealed that the positive results of the students’ perspective on the quality of e-learning would help the policy-makers of the country in providing the learning process during the COVID-19 pandemic. Also, the result explored the importance of the quality aspects of e-learning for improvement. Future Research: There is a need for future studies to expose the quality of e-learning in higher education in the post-COVID-19 pandemic. Further researchers will bring the performance level of e-learning during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Introduction/Background* The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of postponed screening examinations and lockdown measures on gynecological and breast cancer detection rate throughout the year 2020 in a gynecological oncological center in Austria. Methodology Data of 889 patients with either newly diagnosed gynecological or breast cancer between January 2019 and December 2020 were collected. Clinical parameters including symptoms, performance status, comorbidities and referral status were compared in patients, who were newly diagnosed with cancer in the period of the first lockdown from March 2020 – April 2020 and the second lockdown from November 2020 – December 2020 and compared to the same period in 2019. Result(s)* Our results showed a strong decline in newly diagnosed cancers during the lockdown periods: -45% in gynecological cancer and -52% in breast cancer compared to the same period in 2019. Compared to the analogue period of 2019, breast cancer patients reported significantly more tumor-associated symptoms (55% versus 31%, p=0.013) during and in between (48% versus 32%, p=0.022) the lockdowns. During the lockdown periods breast cancer patients were diagnosed with a significantly higher tumor-stage (T2-T4; p=0.047). Conclusion* Both lockdowns led to a strong decrease in newly diagnosed gynecological and breast cancers. Treatment delays in potentially curable disease could lead to inferior clinical outcomes, with the risk of missing the optimal treatment window. As the COVID-19 pandemic will be a challenge for some time to come, new strategies in patient care are needed to optimize cancer screening and management during the pandemic.