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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Gregory Eady; Anne Rasmussen;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Project: EC | ADVODID (864648)

    AbstractThe COVID-19 pandemic is viewed by many as the biggest global crisis since WWII and had profound effects on the daily lives of people and decision-making worldwide. Using the pandemic as a system-wide agenda shock, we employ a difference-in-differences design to estimate its causal effects on inequalities in political access, and social media prominence among business interests and NGOs. Our argument is twofold. First, the urgency and uncertainty of crises incentivized decision-makers to privilege providing access to business groups over securing inclusivity in the types of interests consulted. Second, NGOs compensated by increasing prominence in public communications. Our analysis of data from over 10,000 interest groups from over 100 countries registered in the European Union supports these hypotheses. Business interests successfully capitalized on the crisis in insider access, while NGOs increased prominence on social media. The results have wider implications for understanding how large-scale crises affect inequalities in representation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nina Breinholt Stærke; Joanne Reekie; Isik S Johansen; Henrik Nielsen; Thomas Benfield; Lothar Wiese; Ole S Søgaard; Martin Tolstrup; Kasper Karmark Iversen; Britta Tarp; +11 more
    Country: Denmark

    PurposeThe ENFORCE cohort is a national Danish prospective cohort of adults who received a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine as part of the Danish National SARS-CoV-2 vaccination programme. It was designed to investigate the long-term effectiveness, safety and durability of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines used in Denmark.ParticipantsA total of 6943 adults scheduled to receive a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in the Danish COVID-19 vaccination programme were enrolled in the study prior to their first vaccination. Participants will be followed for a total of 2 years with five predetermined follow-up visits and additional visits in relation to any booster vaccination. Serology measurements are performed after each study visit. T-cell immunity is evaluated at each study visit for a subgroup of 699 participants. Safety information is collected from participants at visits following each vaccination. Data on hospital admissions, diagnoses, deaths and SARS-CoV-2 PCR results are collected from national registries throughout the study period. The median age of participants was 64 years (IQR 53–75), 56.6% were women and 23% were individuals with an increased risk of a serious course of COVID-19. A total of 340 (4.9%) participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG at baseline.Findings to dateResults have been published on risk factors for humoral hyporesponsiveness and non-durable response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, the risk of breakthrough infections at different levels of SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG by viral variant and on the antibody neutralising capacity against different SARS-CoV-2 variants following primary and booster vaccinations.Future plansThe ENFORCE cohort will continuously generate studies investigating immunological response, effectiveness, safety and durability of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.Trial registration numberNCT04760132.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    César Fernández-de-las-Peñas; Lars Arendt-Nielsen; Gema Díaz-Gil; Antonio Gil-Crujera; Stella M. Gómez-Sánchez; Silvia Ambite-Quesada; Maria A. Palomar-Gallego; Oscar J. Pellicer-Valero; Rocco Giordano;
    Country: Denmark
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Maarten van Wijhe; Kamille Fogh; Steen Ethelberg; Kasper Karmark Iversen; Henrik Nielsen; Lars Østergaard; Berit Andersen; Henning Bundgaard; Charlotte S Jørgensen; Bibi FSS Scharff; +19 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Denmark

    ABSTRACT Background SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with persistent symptoms (long-COVID). We assessed the burden of long-COVID among non-hospitalized PCR-confirmed adults. Methods In the fall of 2020, a cross-sectional survey was performed in the adult Danish general population. This included a self-administered point-of-care test for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12), and COVID-19 associated symptom questions. Non-hospitalized respondents with a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR-test 12 or more weeks before the survey (cases) were matched (1:10) to seronegative controls on age, sex, and BMI. Propensity score weighted odds ratios (OR) and ORs for risk factors were estimated for each health outcome. Findings In total, 742 cases and 7420 controls were included. The attributable risk of at least one long-COVID symptom was 25·0 per 100 cases (95% confidence interval (CI): 22·2, 27·4). Compared to controls, cases reported worse general health (OR: 5·9, CI: 5·0, 7·0) and had higher odds for a broad range of symptoms, particularly loss of taste (OR: 11·8, CI: 9·5, 14·6) and smell (OR: 11·2, CI: 9·1, 13·9). Physical and Mental Component Summary scores were also significantly reduced with differences of -2·5 (CI: -3·1, -1·8) and -2·0 (CI: -2·7, -1·2) respectively. Female sex and severity of initial infection were major risk factors for long-COVID. Interpretation Non-hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive individuals had significantly reduced physical and mental health, and one in four reported persistence of at least one long-COVID symptom.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nelda Andersone; Giulia Nardelli; Christine Ipsen; Kasper Edwards;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Country: Denmark

    Organizations worldwide have shifted to working from home, requiring managers to engage in distance management using information and communication technologies (ICT). Studies show that managers experience high job demands and inadequate guidance during COVID-19; therefore, the transition to distance management raises questions about the increase in managerial job demands and the impact on managers’ well-being. This study aims to explore first-line managers’ perceptions of job demands and available resources during the first year of the pandemic and understand the implications for first-line managers’ well-being. First-line managers face complex and conflicting demands, making them more challenged in their management task than other management levels. We used the job demands–resources model in this qualitative, longitudinal empirical study. The study draws on 49 semi-structured interviews with seven first-line managers from a large pharmaceutical company in Denmark, whom we followed throughout the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, from May 2020 to May 2021. Our findings suggest that the first-line managers perceived increased emotional and practical demands. While the managers appreciated the initial guidance provided by the organization, they perceived the organizational support as outdated and superficial. As a result, to cope with the uncertainty caused by the pandemic and the shift to distance management, the managers relied on work engagement enablers such as social support. Even though the COVID-19 pandemic portrays unique circumstances in transitioning to distance management that require further exploration outside the COVID-19 context, the insights from this study can assist organizations in developing awareness about transitions to better support first-line management to embrace changes in the future.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Louise Lohse; Anette Bøtner; Thomas Bruun Rasmussen; Graham Belsham; Christina Lazov;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Country: Denmark

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), belonging to the genus Alphacoronavirus, can cause serious disease in pigs of all ages, especially in suckling pigs. Differences in virulence have been observed between various strains of this virus. In this study, four pigs were inoculated with PEDV from Germany (intestine/intestinal content collected from pigs in 2016) and four pigs with PEDV from Italy (intestine/intestinal material collected from pigs in 2016). The pigs were re-inoculated with the same virus on multiple occasions to create a more robust infection and enhance the antibody responses. The clinical signs and pathological changes observed were generally mild. Two distinct peaks of virus excretion were seen in the group of pigs inoculated with the PEDV from Germany, while only one strong peak was seen for the group of pigs that received the virus from Italy. Seroconversion was seen by days 18 and 10 post-inoculation with PEDV in all surviving pigs from the groups that received the inoculums from Germany and Italy, respectively. Attempts to infect pigs with a swine enteric coronavirus (SeCoV) from Slovakia were unsuccessful, and no signs of infection were observed in the inoculated animals.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Signe de Place Knudsen; Caroline Borup Roland; Saud Abdulaziz Alomairah; Anne Dsane Jessen; Stig Molsted; Tine D. Clausen; Ellen Løkkegaard; Bente Stallknecht; Julie Bønnelycke; Jane M. Bendix; +1 more
    Country: Denmark

    Abstract Background Physical activity (PA) at moderate intensity is recommended for healthy pregnant women. The three-arm FitMum randomised controlled trial showed that it was possible to increase PA level during pregnancy with structured supervised exercise training (EXE) compared to standard care. Motivational counselling on PA (MOT) did not increase PA. This process evaluation aims to understand the implementation and mechanisms of impact of EXE and MOT. Methods A mixed methods process evaluation was conducted using the UK Medical Research Council’s process evaluation framework by assessing implementation (reach, fidelity, and dose) and mechanisms of impact of the two interventions provided to pregnant women in FitMum. Data was collected both quantitatively (n = 220) and qualitatively (n = 20). Results The FitMum trial reached educated pregnant women (80% having an educational level ≥ bachelor’s degree) with high autonomy of everyday life. Most participants (58%) were recruited at their first-trimester ultrasonic scan. Reasons to participate were personal (91%) and altruistic (56%). The intervention dose was delivered as intended with high fidelity in the original physical intervention setup and in the altered online setup during the COVID-19 restrictions. A low dose received in EXE (1.3 [95% CI, 1.1; 1.5] sessions/week) was partly explained by the pre-scheduled EXE sessions favouring participants with a flexible everyday life and a supportive social network. Dose received in EXE increased during online intervention delivery. Participants in MOT received 5.2 [4.7; 5.7] of 7 sessions. Mechanisms of impact comprised a perception of intervention commitment among participants in EXE due to the scheduled EXE sessions, whereas participants in MOT considered themselves as PA self-determined. PA was considered as constrained activities in EXE and included in daily activities in MOT. Conclusion The FitMum interventions was delivered with high fidelity. During COVID-19, the dose received in EXE increased compared to the previous physical setup. Mechanisms of impact as commitment, perception of empowerment and perception of PA as well as the paradox between prioritising PA and family and the need of a flexible everyday life need to be considered when offering pregnant women PA interventions. Future interventions should consider a combination of physical and online exercise training for pregnant women.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Christian M. Jensen; Junia C. Costa; Jens C. Nørgaard; Adrian G. Zucco; Bastian Neesgaard; Carsten U. Niemann; Sisse R. Ostrowski; Joanne Reekie; Birgit Holten; Anna Kalhauge; +4 more
    Country: Denmark

    AbstractSpatial resolution in existing chest x-ray (CXR)-based scoring systems for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia is low, and should be increased for better representation of anatomy, and severity of lung involvement. An existing CXR-based system, the Brixia score, was modified to increase the spatial resolution, creating the MBrixia score. The MBrixia score is the sum, of a rule-based quantification of CXR severity on a scale of 0 to 3 in 12 anatomical zones in the lungs. The MBrixia score was applied to CXR images from COVID-19 patients at a single tertiary hospital in the period May 4th–June 5th, 2020. The relationship between MBrixia score, and level of respiratory support at the time of performed CXR imaging was investigated. 37 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with 290 CXRs were identified, 22 (59.5%) were admitted to the intensive care unit and 10 (27%) died during follow-up. In a Poisson regression using all 290 MBrixia scored CXRs, a higher MBrixia score was associated with a higher level of respiratory support at the time of performed CXR. The MBrixia score could potentially be valuable as a quantitative surrogate measurement of COVID-19 pneumonia severity, and future studies should investigate the score’s validity and capabilities of predicting clinical outcomes.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Allahabadi, Himanshi; Amann, Julia; Balot, Isabelle; Beretta, Andrea; Binkley, Charles; Bozenhard, Jonas; Bruneault, Frederick; Brusseau, James; Candemir, Sema; Cappellini, Luca Alessandro; +48 more
    Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Countries: Italy, Denmark

    The paper’s main contributions are twofold: to demonstrate how to apply the general European Union’s High-Level Expert Group’s (EU HLEG) guidelines for trustworthy AI in practice for the domain of healthcare; and to investigate the research question of what does “trustworthy AI” mean at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. To this end, we present the results of a post-hoc self-assessment to evaluate the trustworthiness of an AI system for predicting a multi-regional score conveying the degree of lung compromise in COVID-19 patients, developed and verified by an interdisciplinary team with members from academia, public hospitals, and industry in time of pandemic. The AI system aims to help radiologists to estimate and communicate the severity of damage in a patient’s lung from Chest X-rays. It has been experimentally deployed in the radiology department of the ASST Spedali Civili clinic in Brescia (Italy) since December 2020 during pandemic time. The methodology we have applied for our post-hoc assessment, called Z-Inspection, uses socio-technical scenarios to identify ethical, technical and domain-specific issues in the use of the AI system in the context of the pandemic.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Luke J Harrington; Piotr Wolski; Izidine Pinto; Anzelà Mamiarisoa Ramarosandratana; Rondrotiana Barimalala; Robert Vautard; Sjoukje Philip; Sarah Kew; Roop Singh; Dorothy Heinrich; +10 more
    Publisher: IOP Publishing
    Country: Denmark

    Abstract Southern Madagascar recently experienced a severe food security crisis, made significantly worse by well below average rainfall from July 2019 to June 2021. This exceptional drought has affected a region with high pre-existing levels of vulnerability to food insecurity (subsistence agriculture and pastoralism in the region is rain-fed only), while impacts have been compounded further by COVID-19 restrictions and pest infestations. The rainy seasons of both 2019/20 and 2020/21 saw just 60% of normal rainfall across the Grand South region and was estimated as a 1-in-135 year dry event, only surpassed in severity by the devastating drought of 1990–92. Based on a combination of observations and climate modelling, the likelihood of experiencing such poor rains in the region was not significantly increased due to human-caused climate change: while the observations and models combine to indicate a small shift toward more droughts like the 2019–2021 event as a consequence of climate change, these trends remain overwhelmed by natural variability. This result is consistent with previous research, with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)’s Sixth Assessment Report concluding that any perceptible changes in drought will only emerge in this region if global mean temperatures exceed 2 °C above pre-industrial levels.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
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Searching FieldsTerms
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arrow_drop_down
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Include:
The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
2,622 Research products, page 1 of 263
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Gregory Eady; Anne Rasmussen;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Project: EC | ADVODID (864648)

    AbstractThe COVID-19 pandemic is viewed by many as the biggest global crisis since WWII and had profound effects on the daily lives of people and decision-making worldwide. Using the pandemic as a system-wide agenda shock, we employ a difference-in-differences design to estimate its causal effects on inequalities in political access, and social media prominence among business interests and NGOs. Our argument is twofold. First, the urgency and uncertainty of crises incentivized decision-makers to privilege providing access to business groups over securing inclusivity in the types of interests consulted. Second, NGOs compensated by increasing prominence in public communications. Our analysis of data from over 10,000 interest groups from over 100 countries registered in the European Union supports these hypotheses. Business interests successfully capitalized on the crisis in insider access, while NGOs increased prominence on social media. The results have wider implications for understanding how large-scale crises affect inequalities in representation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nina Breinholt Stærke; Joanne Reekie; Isik S Johansen; Henrik Nielsen; Thomas Benfield; Lothar Wiese; Ole S Søgaard; Martin Tolstrup; Kasper Karmark Iversen; Britta Tarp; +11 more
    Country: Denmark

    PurposeThe ENFORCE cohort is a national Danish prospective cohort of adults who received a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine as part of the Danish National SARS-CoV-2 vaccination programme. It was designed to investigate the long-term effectiveness, safety and durability of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines used in Denmark.ParticipantsA total of 6943 adults scheduled to receive a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in the Danish COVID-19 vaccination programme were enrolled in the study prior to their first vaccination. Participants will be followed for a total of 2 years with five predetermined follow-up visits and additional visits in relation to any booster vaccination. Serology measurements are performed after each study visit. T-cell immunity is evaluated at each study visit for a subgroup of 699 participants. Safety information is collected from participants at visits following each vaccination. Data on hospital admissions, diagnoses, deaths and SARS-CoV-2 PCR results are collected from national registries throughout the study period. The median age of participants was 64 years (IQR 53–75), 56.6% were women and 23% were individuals with an increased risk of a serious course of COVID-19. A total of 340 (4.9%) participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG at baseline.Findings to dateResults have been published on risk factors for humoral hyporesponsiveness and non-durable response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, the risk of breakthrough infections at different levels of SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG by viral variant and on the antibody neutralising capacity against different SARS-CoV-2 variants following primary and booster vaccinations.Future plansThe ENFORCE cohort will continuously generate studies investigating immunological response, effectiveness, safety and durability of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.Trial registration numberNCT04760132.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    César Fernández-de-las-Peñas; Lars Arendt-Nielsen; Gema Díaz-Gil; Antonio Gil-Crujera; Stella M. Gómez-Sánchez; Silvia Ambite-Quesada; Maria A. Palomar-Gallego; Oscar J. Pellicer-Valero; Rocco Giordano;
    Country: Denmark
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Maarten van Wijhe; Kamille Fogh; Steen Ethelberg; Kasper Karmark Iversen; Henrik Nielsen; Lars Østergaard; Berit Andersen; Henning Bundgaard; Charlotte S Jørgensen; Bibi FSS Scharff; +19 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Denmark

    ABSTRACT Background SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with persistent symptoms (long-COVID). We assessed the burden of long-COVID among non-hospitalized PCR-confirmed adults. Methods In the fall of 2020, a cross-sectional survey was performed in the adult Danish general population. This included a self-administered point-of-care test for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12), and COVID-19 associated symptom questions. Non-hospitalized respondents with a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR-test 12 or more weeks before the survey (cases) were matched (1:10) to seronegative controls on age, sex, and BMI. Propensity score weighted odds ratios (OR) and ORs for risk factors were estimated for each health outcome. Findings In total, 742 cases and 7420 controls were included. The attributable risk of at least one long-COVID symptom was 25·0 per 100 cases (95% confidence interval (CI): 22·2, 27·4). Compared to controls, cases reported worse general health (OR: 5·9, CI: 5·0, 7·0) and had higher odds for a broad range of symptoms, particularly loss of taste (OR: 11·8, CI: 9·5, 14·6) and smell (OR: 11·2, CI: 9·1, 13·9). Physical and Mental Component Summary scores were also significantly reduced with differences of -2·5 (CI: -3·1, -1·8) and -2·0 (CI: -2·7, -1·2) respectively. Female sex and severity of initial infection were major risk factors for long-COVID. Interpretation Non-hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive individuals had significantly reduced physical and mental health, and one in four reported persistence of at least one long-COVID symptom.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nelda Andersone; Giulia Nardelli; Christine Ipsen; Kasper Edwards;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Country: Denmark

    Organizations worldwide have shifted to working from home, requiring managers to engage in distance management using information and communication technologies (ICT). Studies show that managers experience high job demands and inadequate guidance during COVID-19; therefore, the transition to distance management raises questions about the increase in managerial job demands and the impact on managers’ well-being. This study aims to explore first-line managers’ perceptions of job demands and available resources during the first year of the pandemic and understand the implications for first-line managers’ well-being. First-line managers face complex and conflicting demands, making them more challenged in their management task than other management levels. We used the job demands–resources model in this qualitative, longitudinal empirical study. The study draws on 49 semi-structured interviews with seven first-line managers from a large pharmaceutical company in Denmark, whom we followed throughout the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, from May 2020 to May 2021. Our findings suggest that the first-line managers perceived increased emotional and practical demands. While the managers appreciated the initial guidance provided by the organization, they perceived the organizational support as outdated and superficial. As a result, to cope with the uncertainty caused by the pandemic and the shift to distance management, the managers relied on work engagement enablers such as social support. Even though the COVID-19 pandemic portrays unique circumstances in transitioning to distance management that require further exploration outside the COVID-19 context, the insights from this study can assist organizations in developing awareness about transitions to better support first-line management to embrace changes in the future.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Louise Lohse; Anette Bøtner; Thomas Bruun Rasmussen; Graham Belsham; Christina Lazov;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Country: Denmark

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), belonging to the genus Alphacoronavirus, can cause serious disease in pigs of all ages, especially in suckling pigs. Differences in virulence have been observed between various strains of this virus. In this study, four pigs were inoculated with PEDV from Germany (intestine/intestinal content collected from pigs in 2016) and four pigs with PEDV from Italy (intestine/intestinal material collected from pigs in 2016). The pigs were re-inoculated with the same virus on multiple occasions to create a more robust infection and enhance the antibody responses. The clinical signs and pathological changes observed were generally mild. Two distinct peaks of virus excretion were seen in the group of pigs inoculated with the PEDV from Germany, while only one strong peak was seen for the group of pigs that received the virus from Italy. Seroconversion was seen by days 18 and 10 post-inoculation with PEDV in all surviving pigs from the groups that received the inoculums from Germany and Italy, respectively. Attempts to infect pigs with a swine enteric coronavirus (SeCoV) from Slovakia were unsuccessful, and no signs of infection were observed in the inoculated animals.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Signe de Place Knudsen; Caroline Borup Roland; Saud Abdulaziz Alomairah; Anne Dsane Jessen; Stig Molsted; Tine D. Clausen; Ellen Løkkegaard; Bente Stallknecht; Julie Bønnelycke; Jane M. Bendix; +1 more
    Country: Denmark

    Abstract Background Physical activity (PA) at moderate intensity is recommended for healthy pregnant women. The three-arm FitMum randomised controlled trial showed that it was possible to increase PA level during pregnancy with structured supervised exercise training (EXE) compared to standard care. Motivational counselling on PA (MOT) did not increase PA. This process evaluation aims to understand the implementation and mechanisms of impact of EXE and MOT. Methods A mixed methods process evaluation was conducted using the UK Medical Research Council’s process evaluation framework by assessing implementation (reach, fidelity, and dose) and mechanisms of impact of the two interventions provided to pregnant women in FitMum. Data was collected both quantitatively (n = 220) and qualitatively (n = 20). Results The FitMum trial reached educated pregnant women (80% having an educational level ≥ bachelor’s degree) with high autonomy of everyday life. Most participants (58%) were recruited at their first-trimester ultrasonic scan. Reasons to participate were personal (91%) and altruistic (56%). The intervention dose was delivered as intended with high fidelity in the original physical intervention setup and in the altered online setup during the COVID-19 restrictions. A low dose received in EXE (1.3 [95% CI, 1.1; 1.5] sessions/week) was partly explained by the pre-scheduled EXE sessions favouring participants with a flexible everyday life and a supportive social network. Dose received in EXE increased during online intervention delivery. Participants in MOT received 5.2 [4.7; 5.7] of 7 sessions. Mechanisms of impact comprised a perception of intervention commitment among participants in EXE due to the scheduled EXE sessions, whereas participants in MOT considered themselves as PA self-determined. PA was considered as constrained activities in EXE and included in daily activities in MOT. Conclusion The FitMum interventions was delivered with high fidelity. During COVID-19, the dose received in EXE increased compared to the previous physical setup. Mechanisms of impact as commitment, perception of empowerment and perception of PA as well as the paradox between prioritising PA and family and the need of a flexible everyday life need to be considered when offering pregnant women PA interventions. Future interventions should consider a combination of physical and online exercise training for pregnant women.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Christian M. Jensen; Junia C. Costa; Jens C. Nørgaard; Adrian G. Zucco; Bastian Neesgaard; Carsten U. Niemann; Sisse R. Ostrowski; Joanne Reekie; Birgit Holten; Anna Kalhauge; +4 more
    Country: Denmark

    AbstractSpatial resolution in existing chest x-ray (CXR)-based scoring systems for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia is low, and should be increased for better representation of anatomy, and severity of lung involvement. An existing CXR-based system, the Brixia score, was modified to increase the spatial resolution, creating the MBrixia score. The MBrixia score is the sum, of a rule-based quantification of CXR severity on a scale of 0 to 3 in 12 anatomical zones in the lungs. The MBrixia score was applied to CXR images from COVID-19 patients at a single tertiary hospital in the period May 4th–June 5th, 2020. The relationship between MBrixia score, and level of respiratory support at the time of performed CXR imaging was investigated. 37 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with 290 CXRs were identified, 22 (59.5%) were admitted to the intensive care unit and 10 (27%) died during follow-up. In a Poisson regression using all 290 MBrixia scored CXRs, a higher MBrixia score was associated with a higher level of respiratory support at the time of performed CXR. The MBrixia score could potentially be valuable as a quantitative surrogate measurement of COVID-19 pneumonia severity, and future studies should investigate the score’s validity and capabilities of predicting clinical outcomes.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Allahabadi, Himanshi; Amann, Julia; Balot, Isabelle; Beretta, Andrea; Binkley, Charles; Bozenhard, Jonas; Bruneault, Frederick; Brusseau, James; Candemir, Sema; Cappellini, Luca Alessandro; +48 more
    Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Countries: Italy, Denmark

    The paper’s main contributions are twofold: to demonstrate how to apply the general European Union’s High-Level Expert Group’s (EU HLEG) guidelines for trustworthy AI in practice for the domain of healthcare; and to investigate the research question of what does “trustworthy AI” mean at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. To this end, we present the results of a post-hoc self-assessment to evaluate the trustworthiness of an AI system for predicting a multi-regional score conveying the degree of lung compromise in COVID-19 patients, developed and verified by an interdisciplinary team with members from academia, public hospitals, and industry in time of pandemic. The AI system aims to help radiologists to estimate and communicate the severity of damage in a patient’s lung from Chest X-rays. It has been experimentally deployed in the radiology department of the ASST Spedali Civili clinic in Brescia (Italy) since December 2020 during pandemic time. The methodology we have applied for our post-hoc assessment, called Z-Inspection, uses socio-technical scenarios to identify ethical, technical and domain-specific issues in the use of the AI system in the context of the pandemic.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Luke J Harrington; Piotr Wolski; Izidine Pinto; Anzelà Mamiarisoa Ramarosandratana; Rondrotiana Barimalala; Robert Vautard; Sjoukje Philip; Sarah Kew; Roop Singh; Dorothy Heinrich; +10 more
    Publisher: IOP Publishing
    Country: Denmark

    Abstract Southern Madagascar recently experienced a severe food security crisis, made significantly worse by well below average rainfall from July 2019 to June 2021. This exceptional drought has affected a region with high pre-existing levels of vulnerability to food insecurity (subsistence agriculture and pastoralism in the region is rain-fed only), while impacts have been compounded further by COVID-19 restrictions and pest infestations. The rainy seasons of both 2019/20 and 2020/21 saw just 60% of normal rainfall across the Grand South region and was estimated as a 1-in-135 year dry event, only surpassed in severity by the devastating drought of 1990–92. Based on a combination of observations and climate modelling, the likelihood of experiencing such poor rains in the region was not significantly increased due to human-caused climate change: while the observations and models combine to indicate a small shift toward more droughts like the 2019–2021 event as a consequence of climate change, these trends remain overwhelmed by natural variability. This result is consistent with previous research, with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)’s Sixth Assessment Report concluding that any perceptible changes in drought will only emerge in this region if global mean temperatures exceed 2 °C above pre-industrial levels.