Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
256 Research products, page 1 of 26

  • COVID-19
  • Publications
  • Other research products
  • Open Access
  • English
  • HAL - UPEC / UPEM
  • COVID-19

10
arrow_drop_down
Relevance
arrow_drop_down
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mathieu Bourgarel; Davies M. Pfukenyi; Vanina Boué; Loïc Talignani; Ngoni Chiweshe; Fodé Diop; Alexandre Caron; Gift Matope; Dorothée Missé; Florian Liegeois;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: ANR | TIMTAMDEN (ANR-14-CE14-0029)

    Bats carry a great diversity of zoonotic viruses with a high-impact on human health and livestock. Since the emergence of new coronaviruses and paramyxoviruses in humans (e.g. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Nipah virus), numerous studies clearly established that bats can maintain some of these viruses. Improving our understanding on the role of bats in the epidemiology of the pathogens they harbour is necessary to prevent cross-species spill over along the wild/domestic/human gradient. In this study, we screened bat faecal samples for the presence of Coronavirus and Paramyxovirus in two caves frequently visited by local people to collect manure and/or to hunt bats in Zimbabwe. We amplified partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes of Alpha and Betacoronavirus together with the partial polymerase gene of Paramyxovirus. Identified coronaviruses were related to pathogenic human strains and the paramyxovirus belonged to the recently described Jeilongvirus genus. Our results highlighted the importance of monitoring virus circulation in wildlife, especially bats, in the context of intense human-wildlife interfaces in order to strengthen prevention measures among local populations and to implement sentinel surveillance in sites with high zoonotic diseases transmission potential. Highlights • Coronavirus and Paramyxovirus circulate in Hipposideros bat species in Zimbabwe. • Importance of widening viral screening in under-investigated countries • Sentinel surveillance in sites with high zoonotic transmission potential

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rania Mabrouk; Ramzi MAHMOUDI; Nihed Yousfi; Mohamed Bedoui;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; Corona-Virus Disease (COVID-19), caused by the novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been spreading rapidly worldwide causing the world to face a global health crisis. Countries are experiencing a new wave of contamination and are witnessing spikes in the disease without being able to control its spread again. This paper aims to analyze the mortality rate related to the COVID-19 pandemic infection in Tunisia and to assess the effectiveness of health control policies. Data collection for this document was stopped on October, 31 st , 2020.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Young-Jun Park; Kaitlyn D. LaCourse; Christian Cambillau; Frank DiMaio; Joseph D. Mougous; David Veesler;
    Publisher: Nature Portfolio
    Country: France
    Project: NIH | Protein structure determi... (1R01GM123089-01)

    Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) translocate effectors into target cells and are made of a contractile sheath and a tube docked onto a multi-protein transmembrane complex via a baseplate. Although some information is available about the mechanisms of tail contraction leading to effector delivery, the detailed architecture and function of the baseplate remain unknown. Here, we report the 3.7 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of an enteroaggregative Escherichia coli baseplate subcomplex assembled from TssK, TssF and TssG. The structure reveals two TssK trimers interact with a locally pseudo-3-fold symmetrical complex comprising two copies of TssF and one copy of TssG. TssF and TssG are structurally related to each other and to components of the phage T4 baseplate and of the type IV secretion system, strengthening the evolutionary relationships among these macromolecular machines. These results, together with bacterial two-hybrid assays, provide a structural framework to understand the T6SS baseplate architecture. Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) translocate effector proteins into eukaryotic and bacterial recipient cells and are present in many Gram-negative bacteria. Here the authors present the 3.7 Å cryoEM structure of the E.coli T6SS baseplate wedge comprising TssK–TssF–TssG and propose a model for the T6SS baseplate and needle complex.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Izza Nasrullah; Azeem Mehmood Butt; Shifa Tahir; Muhammad Idrees; Yigang Tong;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Abstract Background The Marburg virus (MARV) has a negative-sense single-stranded RNA genome, belongs to the family Filoviridae, and is responsible for several outbreaks of highly fatal hemorrhagic fever. Codon usage patterns of viruses reflect a series of evolutionary changes that enable viruses to shape their survival rates and fitness toward the external environment and, most importantly, their hosts. To understand the evolution of MARV at the codon level, we report a comprehensive analysis of synonymous codon usage patterns in MARV genomes. Multiple codon analysis approaches and statistical methods were performed to determine overall codon usage patterns, biases in codon usage, and influence of various factors, including mutation pressure, natural selection, and its two hosts, Homo sapiens and Rousettus aegyptiacus. Results Nucleotide composition and relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) analysis revealed that MARV shows mutation bias and prefers U- and A-ended codons to code amino acids. Effective number of codons analysis indicated that overall codon usage among MARV genomes is slightly biased. The Parity Rule 2 plot analysis showed that GC and AU nucleotides were not used proportionally which accounts for the presence of natural selection. Codon usage patterns of MARV were also found to be influenced by its hosts. This indicates that MARV have evolved codon usage patterns that are specific to both of its hosts. Moreover, selection pressure from R. aegyptiacus on the MARV RSCU patterns was found to be dominant compared with that from H. sapiens. Overall, mutation pressure was found to be the most important and dominant force that shapes codon usage patterns in MARV. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first detailed codon usage analysis of MARV and extends our understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to codon usage and evolution of MARV.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lavillette, Dimitri; Barbouche, Rym; Yao, Yongxiu; Boson, Bertrand; François-Loïc, Cosset; Jones, Ian M; Fenouillet, Emmanuel;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    The capacity of the surface glycoproteins of enveloped viruses to mediate virus/cell binding and membrane fusion requires a proper thiol/disulfide balance. Chemical manipulation of their redox state using reducing agents or free sulfhydryl reagents affects virus/cell interaction. Conversely, natural thiol/disulfide rearrangements often occur during the cell interaction to trigger fusogenicity, hence the virus entry. We examined the relationship between the redox state of the 20 cysteine residues of the SARS-CoV (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus) Spike glycoprotein S1 subdomain and its functional properties. Mature S1 exhibited approximately 4 unpaired cysteines, and chemically reduced S1 displaying up to approximately 6 additional unpaired cysteines still bound ACE2 and enabled fusion. In addition, virus/cell membrane fusion occurred in the presence of sulfhydryl-blocking reagents and oxidoreductase inhibitors. Thus, in contrast to various viruses including HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) examined in parallel, the functions of the SARS-CoV Spike glycoprotein exhibit a significant and surprising independence of redox state, which may contribute to the wide host range of the virus. These data suggest clues for molecularly engineering vaccine immunogens.

  • Publication . Conference object . Preprint . Article . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hadrien Titeux; Rachid Riad; Xuan-Nga Cao; Nicolas Hamilakis; Kris Madden; Alejandrina Cristia; Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Lévi; Emmanuel Dupoux;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: ANR | ACLEW (ANR-16-DATA-0004), ANR | LangAge (ANR-17-CE28-0007), ANR | PSL (ANR-10-IDEX-0001), ANR | PRAIRIE (ANR-19-P3IA-0001), ANR | FrontCog (ANR-17-EURE-0017), ANR | MechELex (ANR-14-CE30-0003)

    International audience; We introduce Seshat, a new, simple and open-source software to efficiently manage annotations of speech corpora. The Seshat software allows users to easily customise and manage annotations of large audio corpora while ensuring compliance with the formatting and naming conventions of the annotated output files. In addition, it includes procedures for checking the content of annotations following specific rules that can be implemented in personalised parsers. Finally, we propose a double-annotation mode, for which Seshat computes automatically an associated inter-annotator agreement with the γ measure taking into account the categorisation and segmentation discrepancies.; Nous introduisons Seshat, un nouveau logiciel libre permettant d'efficacement gérer l'annotation de corpora de parole. Le logiciel Seshat permet aux utilisateurs de facilement spécifier et gérer l'annotation de corpora d'audio conséquents, tout en s'assurant que les fichiers des annotations respectent des conventions de formattage et de nommage prédéfinies. En outre, des procédures de vérification du contenu des annotations sont livrées dans Seshat, avec la possibilité d'inclure des parsers externes. Finalement, nous proposons un mode dit de "double annotation", dans lequel Seshat calcule automatiquement une mesure de la concordance inter-annotateur avec la mesure γ, qui prend en compte les différences de catégorisation et de segmentation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Robin Ohannessian; Tu Anh Duong; Anna Odone;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak as a pandemic, with over 720,000 cases reported in more than 203 countries as of 31 March. The response strategy included early diagnosis, patient isolation, symptomatic monitoring of contacts as well as suspected and confirmed cases, and public health quarantine. In this context, telemedicine, particularly video consultations, has been promoted and scaled up to reduce the risk of transmission, especially in the United Kingdom and the United States of America. Based on a literature review, the first conceptual framework for telemedicine implementation during outbreaks was published in 2015. An updated framework for telemedicine in the COVID-19 pandemic has been defined. This framework could be applied at a large scale to improve the national public health response. Most countries, however, lack a regulatory framework to authorize, integrate, and reimburse telemedicine services, including in emergency and outbreak situations. In this context, Italy does not include telemedicine in the essential levels of care granted to all citizens within the National Health Service, while France authorized, reimbursed, and actively promoted the use of telemedicine. Several challenges remain for the global use and integration of telemedicine into the public health response to COVID-19 and future outbreaks. All stakeholders are encouraged to address the challenges and collaborate to promote the safe and evidence-based use of telemedicine during the current pandemic and future outbreaks. For countries without integrated telemedicine in their national health care system, the COVID-19 pandemic is a call to adopt the necessary regulatory frameworks for supporting wide adoption of telemedicine.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Changqing Li; Jaime Guillén; Nadia Rabah; Alexandre Blanjoie; Françoise Debart; Jean-Jacques Vasseur; Bruno Canard; Etienne Decroly; Bruno Coutard;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    ABSTRACT Alphaviruses are known to possess a unique viral mRNA capping mechanism involving the viral nonstructural protein nsP1. This enzyme harbors methyltransferase (MTase) and nsP1 guanylylation (GT) activities catalyzing the transfer of the methyl group from S -adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) to the N7 position of a GTP molecule followed by the formation of an m 7 GMP-nsP1 adduct. Subsequent transfer of m 7 GMP onto the 5′ end of the viral mRNA has not been demonstrated in vitro yet. Here we report the biochemical characterization of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) nsP1. We have developed enzymatic assays uncoupling the different reactions steps catalyzed by nsP1. The MTase and GT reaction activities were followed using a nonhydrolyzable GTP (GIDP) substrate and an original Western blot assay using anti-m 3 G/m 7 G-cap monoclonal antibody, respectively. The GT reaction is stimulated by S -adenosyl- l -homocysteine (Ado-Hcy), the product of the preceding MTase reaction, and metallic ions. The covalent linking between nsP1 and m 7 GMP involves a phosphamide bond between the nucleotide and a histidine residue. Final guanylyltransfer onto RNA was observed for the first time with an alphavirus nsP1 using a 5′-diphosphate RNA oligonucleotide whose sequence corresponds to the 5′ end of the viral genome. Alanine scanning mutagenesis of residues H37, H45, D63, E118, Y285, D354, R365, N369, and N375 revealed their respective roles in MT and GT reactions. Finally, the inhibitory effects of sinefungin, aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA), and ribavirin triphosphate on MTase and capping reactions were investigated, providing possible avenues for antiviral research. IMPORTANCE Emergence or reemergence of alphaviruses represents a serious health concern, and the elucidation of their replication mechanisms is a prerequisite for the development of specific inhibitors targeting viral enzymes. In particular, alphaviruses are able, through an original reaction sequence, to add to their mRNA a cap required for their protection against cellular nucleases and initiation of viral proteins translation. In this study, the capping of a 5′ diphosphate synthetic RNA mimicking the 5′ end of an alphavirus mRNA was observed in vitro for the first time. The different steps for this capping are performed by the nonstructural protein 1 (nsP1). Reference compounds known to target the viral capping inhibited nsP1 enzymatic functions, highlighting the value of this enzyme in antiviral development.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bérengère Dequéant; Quentin Pascal; Héloïse Bilbault; Elie Dagher; Maria-Laura Boschiroli; Nathalie Cordonnier; Edouard Reyes-Gomez;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; A 6-y-old neutered male ferret (Mustela putorius furo) was presented because of a 1-mo history of progressive weight loss, chronic cough, and hair loss. On clinical examination, the animal was coughing, slightly depressed, moderately hypothermic, and had bilateral epiphora. Thoracic radiography was suggestive of severe multinodular interstitial pneumonia. Abdominal ultrasound examination revealed hepatosplenomegaly and mesenteric and pancreaticoduodenal lymphadenopathy. Fine-needle aspiration of the pancreaticoduodenal lymph node, followed by routine Romanowsky and Ziehl-Neelsen stains, revealed numerous macrophages containing myriad acid-fast bacilli, leading to identification of mycobacteriosis. Autopsy and histologic examination confirmed the presence of disseminated, poorly defined, acid-fast, bacilli-rich granulomas in the pancreaticoduodenal and mesenteric lymph nodes, intestines, and lungs. Destaining of May-Grunwald/Giemsa-stained slides with alcohol, and then restaining with Ziehl-Neelsen, revealed acid-fast rods and avoided repeat tissue sampling without affecting the Ziehl-Neelsen stain quality and cytologic features. Tissue samples were submitted for a PCR assay targeting the heat shock protein gene (hsp65) and revealed 100% homology with Mycobacterium genavense. We emphasize the use of special stains and PCR for identification of this potential zoonotic agent.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Laurent Menut; Bertrand Bessagnet; Guillaume Siour; Sylvain Mailler; Romain Pennel; Arineh Cholakian;
    Publisher: The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Country: France

    Recent studies based on observations have shown the impact of lockdown measures taken in various European countries to contain the Covid-19 pandemic on air quality. However, these studies are often limited to compare situations without and with lockdown measures, which correspond to different time periods and then under different meteorological conditions. We propose a modelling study with the WRF-CHIMERE modelling suite for March 2020, an approach allowing to compare atmospheric composition with and without lockdown measures without the biases of meteorological conditions. This study shows that the lockdown effect on atmospheric composition, in particular through massive traffic reductions, has been important for several short-lived atmospheric trace species, with a large reduction in NO2 concentrations, a lower reduction in Particulate Matter (PM) concentrations and a mitigated effect on ozone concentrations due to non-linear chemical effects. Highlights • Air pollution modelling • COVID19 epidemy • Regional modelling • Anthropogenic emissions scenario • Impact of emissions reduction Graphical abstract Unlabelled Image

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
256 Research products, page 1 of 26
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mathieu Bourgarel; Davies M. Pfukenyi; Vanina Boué; Loïc Talignani; Ngoni Chiweshe; Fodé Diop; Alexandre Caron; Gift Matope; Dorothée Missé; Florian Liegeois;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: ANR | TIMTAMDEN (ANR-14-CE14-0029)

    Bats carry a great diversity of zoonotic viruses with a high-impact on human health and livestock. Since the emergence of new coronaviruses and paramyxoviruses in humans (e.g. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Nipah virus), numerous studies clearly established that bats can maintain some of these viruses. Improving our understanding on the role of bats in the epidemiology of the pathogens they harbour is necessary to prevent cross-species spill over along the wild/domestic/human gradient. In this study, we screened bat faecal samples for the presence of Coronavirus and Paramyxovirus in two caves frequently visited by local people to collect manure and/or to hunt bats in Zimbabwe. We amplified partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes of Alpha and Betacoronavirus together with the partial polymerase gene of Paramyxovirus. Identified coronaviruses were related to pathogenic human strains and the paramyxovirus belonged to the recently described Jeilongvirus genus. Our results highlighted the importance of monitoring virus circulation in wildlife, especially bats, in the context of intense human-wildlife interfaces in order to strengthen prevention measures among local populations and to implement sentinel surveillance in sites with high zoonotic diseases transmission potential. Highlights • Coronavirus and Paramyxovirus circulate in Hipposideros bat species in Zimbabwe. • Importance of widening viral screening in under-investigated countries • Sentinel surveillance in sites with high zoonotic transmission potential

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rania Mabrouk; Ramzi MAHMOUDI; Nihed Yousfi; Mohamed Bedoui;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; Corona-Virus Disease (COVID-19), caused by the novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been spreading rapidly worldwide causing the world to face a global health crisis. Countries are experiencing a new wave of contamination and are witnessing spikes in the disease without being able to control its spread again. This paper aims to analyze the mortality rate related to the COVID-19 pandemic infection in Tunisia and to assess the effectiveness of health control policies. Data collection for this document was stopped on October, 31 st , 2020.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Young-Jun Park; Kaitlyn D. LaCourse; Christian Cambillau; Frank DiMaio; Joseph D. Mougous; David Veesler;
    Publisher: Nature Portfolio
    Country: France
    Project: NIH | Protein structure determi... (1R01GM123089-01)

    Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) translocate effectors into target cells and are made of a contractile sheath and a tube docked onto a multi-protein transmembrane complex via a baseplate. Although some information is available about the mechanisms of tail contraction leading to effector delivery, the detailed architecture and function of the baseplate remain unknown. Here, we report the 3.7 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of an enteroaggregative Escherichia coli baseplate subcomplex assembled from TssK, TssF and TssG. The structure reveals two TssK trimers interact with a locally pseudo-3-fold symmetrical complex comprising two copies of TssF and one copy of TssG. TssF and TssG are structurally related to each other and to components of the phage T4 baseplate and of the type IV secretion system, strengthening the evolutionary relationships among these macromolecular machines. These results, together with bacterial two-hybrid assays, provide a structural framework to understand the T6SS baseplate architecture. Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) translocate effector proteins into eukaryotic and bacterial recipient cells and are present in many Gram-negative bacteria. Here the authors present the 3.7 Å cryoEM structure of the E.coli T6SS baseplate wedge comprising TssK–TssF–TssG and propose a model for the T6SS baseplate and needle complex.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Izza Nasrullah; Azeem Mehmood Butt; Shifa Tahir; Muhammad Idrees; Yigang Tong;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Abstract Background The Marburg virus (MARV) has a negative-sense single-stranded RNA genome, belongs to the family Filoviridae, and is responsible for several outbreaks of highly fatal hemorrhagic fever. Codon usage patterns of viruses reflect a series of evolutionary changes that enable viruses to shape their survival rates and fitness toward the external environment and, most importantly, their hosts. To understand the evolution of MARV at the codon level, we report a comprehensive analysis of synonymous codon usage patterns in MARV genomes. Multiple codon analysis approaches and statistical methods were performed to determine overall codon usage patterns, biases in codon usage, and influence of various factors, including mutation pressure, natural selection, and its two hosts, Homo sapiens and Rousettus aegyptiacus. Results Nucleotide composition and relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) analysis revealed that MARV shows mutation bias and prefers U- and A-ended codons to code amino acids. Effective number of codons analysis indicated that overall codon usage among MARV genomes is slightly biased. The Parity Rule 2 plot analysis showed that GC and AU nucleotides were not used proportionally which accounts for the presence of natural selection. Codon usage patterns of MARV were also found to be influenced by its hosts. This indicates that MARV have evolved codon usage patterns that are specific to both of its hosts. Moreover, selection pressure from R. aegyptiacus on the MARV RSCU patterns was found to be dominant compared with that from H. sapiens. Overall, mutation pressure was found to be the most important and dominant force that shapes codon usage patterns in MARV. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first detailed codon usage analysis of MARV and extends our understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to codon usage and evolution of MARV.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lavillette, Dimitri; Barbouche, Rym; Yao, Yongxiu; Boson, Bertrand; François-Loïc, Cosset; Jones, Ian M; Fenouillet, Emmanuel;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    The capacity of the surface glycoproteins of enveloped viruses to mediate virus/cell binding and membrane fusion requires a proper thiol/disulfide balance. Chemical manipulation of their redox state using reducing agents or free sulfhydryl reagents affects virus/cell interaction. Conversely, natural thiol/disulfide rearrangements often occur during the cell interaction to trigger fusogenicity, hence the virus entry. We examined the relationship between the redox state of the 20 cysteine residues of the SARS-CoV (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus) Spike glycoprotein S1 subdomain and its functional properties. Mature S1 exhibited approximately 4 unpaired cysteines, and chemically reduced S1 displaying up to approximately 6 additional unpaired cysteines still bound ACE2 and enabled fusion. In addition, virus/cell membrane fusion occurred in the presence of sulfhydryl-blocking reagents and oxidoreductase inhibitors. Thus, in contrast to various viruses including HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) examined in parallel, the functions of the SARS-CoV Spike glycoprotein exhibit a significant and surprising independence of redox state, which may contribute to the wide host range of the virus. These data suggest clues for molecularly engineering vaccine immunogens.

  • Publication . Conference object . Preprint . Article . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hadrien Titeux; Rachid Riad; Xuan-Nga Cao; Nicolas Hamilakis; Kris Madden; Alejandrina Cristia; Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Lévi; Emmanuel Dupoux;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: ANR | ACLEW (ANR-16-DATA-0004), ANR | LangAge (ANR-17-CE28-0007), ANR | PSL (ANR-10-IDEX-0001), ANR | PRAIRIE (ANR-19-P3IA-0001), ANR | FrontCog (ANR-17-EURE-0017), ANR | MechELex (ANR-14-CE30-0003)

    International audience; We introduce Seshat, a new, simple and open-source software to efficiently manage annotations of speech corpora. The Seshat software allows users to easily customise and manage annotations of large audio corpora while ensuring compliance with the formatting and naming conventions of the annotated output files. In addition, it includes procedures for checking the content of annotations following specific rules that can be implemented in personalised parsers. Finally, we propose a double-annotation mode, for which Seshat computes automatically an associated inter-annotator agreement with the γ measure taking into account the categorisation and segmentation discrepancies.; Nous introduisons Seshat, un nouveau logiciel libre permettant d'efficacement gérer l'annotation de corpora de parole. Le logiciel Seshat permet aux utilisateurs de facilement spécifier et gérer l'annotation de corpora d'audio conséquents, tout en s'assurant que les fichiers des annotations respectent des conventions de formattage et de nommage prédéfinies. En outre, des procédures de vérification du contenu des annotations sont livrées dans Seshat, avec la possibilité d'inclure des parsers externes. Finalement, nous proposons un mode dit de "double annotation", dans lequel Seshat calcule automatiquement une mesure de la concordance inter-annotateur avec la mesure γ, qui prend en compte les différences de catégorisation et de segmentation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Robin Ohannessian; Tu Anh Duong; Anna Odone;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak as a pandemic, with over 720,000 cases reported in more than 203 countries as of 31 March. The response strategy included early diagnosis, patient isolation, symptomatic monitoring of contacts as well as suspected and confirmed cases, and public health quarantine. In this context, telemedicine, particularly video consultations, has been promoted and scaled up to reduce the risk of transmission, especially in the United Kingdom and the United States of America. Based on a literature review, the first conceptual framework for telemedicine implementation during outbreaks was published in 2015. An updated framework for telemedicine in the COVID-19 pandemic has been defined. This framework could be applied at a large scale to improve the national public health response. Most countries, however, lack a regulatory framework to authorize, integrate, and reimburse telemedicine services, including in emergency and outbreak situations. In this context, Italy does not include telemedicine in the essential levels of care granted to all citizens within the National Health Service, while France authorized, reimbursed, and actively promoted the use of telemedicine. Several challenges remain for the global use and integration of telemedicine into the public health response to COVID-19 and future outbreaks. All stakeholders are encouraged to address the challenges and collaborate to promote the safe and evidence-based use of telemedicine during the current pandemic and future outbreaks. For countries without integrated telemedicine in their national health care system, the COVID-19 pandemic is a call to adopt the necessary regulatory frameworks for supporting wide adoption of telemedicine.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Changqing Li; Jaime Guillén; Nadia Rabah; Alexandre Blanjoie; Françoise Debart; Jean-Jacques Vasseur; Bruno Canard; Etienne Decroly; Bruno Coutard;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    ABSTRACT Alphaviruses are known to possess a unique viral mRNA capping mechanism involving the viral nonstructural protein nsP1. This enzyme harbors methyltransferase (MTase) and nsP1 guanylylation (GT) activities catalyzing the transfer of the methyl group from S -adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) to the N7 position of a GTP molecule followed by the formation of an m 7 GMP-nsP1 adduct. Subsequent transfer of m 7 GMP onto the 5′ end of the viral mRNA has not been demonstrated in vitro yet. Here we report the biochemical characterization of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) nsP1. We have developed enzymatic assays uncoupling the different reactions steps catalyzed by nsP1. The MTase and GT reaction activities were followed using a nonhydrolyzable GTP (GIDP) substrate and an original Western blot assay using anti-m 3 G/m 7 G-cap monoclonal antibody, respectively. The GT reaction is stimulated by S -adenosyl- l -homocysteine (Ado-Hcy), the product of the preceding MTase reaction, and metallic ions. The covalent linking between nsP1 and m 7 GMP involves a phosphamide bond between the nucleotide and a histidine residue. Final guanylyltransfer onto RNA was observed for the first time with an alphavirus nsP1 using a 5′-diphosphate RNA oligonucleotide whose sequence corresponds to the 5′ end of the viral genome. Alanine scanning mutagenesis of residues H37, H45, D63, E118, Y285, D354, R365, N369, and N375 revealed their respective roles in MT and GT reactions. Finally, the inhibitory effects of sinefungin, aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA), and ribavirin triphosphate on MTase and capping reactions were investigated, providing possible avenues for antiviral research. IMPORTANCE Emergence or reemergence of alphaviruses represents a serious health concern, and the elucidation of their replication mechanisms is a prerequisite for the development of specific inhibitors targeting viral enzymes. In particular, alphaviruses are able, through an original reaction sequence, to add to their mRNA a cap required for their protection against cellular nucleases and initiation of viral proteins translation. In this study, the capping of a 5′ diphosphate synthetic RNA mimicking the 5′ end of an alphavirus mRNA was observed in vitro for the first time. The different steps for this capping are performed by the nonstructural protein 1 (nsP1). Reference compounds known to target the viral capping inhibited nsP1 enzymatic functions, highlighting the value of this enzyme in antiviral development.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bérengère Dequéant; Quentin Pascal; Héloïse Bilbault; Elie Dagher; Maria-Laura Boschiroli; Nathalie Cordonnier; Edouard Reyes-Gomez;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; A 6-y-old neutered male ferret (Mustela putorius furo) was presented because of a 1-mo history of progressive weight loss, chronic cough, and hair loss. On clinical examination, the animal was coughing, slightly depressed, moderately hypothermic, and had bilateral epiphora. Thoracic radiography was suggestive of severe multinodular interstitial pneumonia. Abdominal ultrasound examination revealed hepatosplenomegaly and mesenteric and pancreaticoduodenal lymphadenopathy. Fine-needle aspiration of the pancreaticoduodenal lymph node, followed by routine Romanowsky and Ziehl-Neelsen stains, revealed numerous macrophages containing myriad acid-fast bacilli, leading to identification of mycobacteriosis. Autopsy and histologic examination confirmed the presence of disseminated, poorly defined, acid-fast, bacilli-rich granulomas in the pancreaticoduodenal and mesenteric lymph nodes, intestines, and lungs. Destaining of May-Grunwald/Giemsa-stained slides with alcohol, and then restaining with Ziehl-Neelsen, revealed acid-fast rods and avoided repeat tissue sampling without affecting the Ziehl-Neelsen stain quality and cytologic features. Tissue samples were submitted for a PCR assay targeting the heat shock protein gene (hsp65) and revealed 100% homology with Mycobacterium genavense. We emphasize the use of special stains and PCR for identification of this potential zoonotic agent.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Laurent Menut; Bertrand Bessagnet; Guillaume Siour; Sylvain Mailler; Romain Pennel; Arineh Cholakian;
    Publisher: The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Country: France

    Recent studies based on observations have shown the impact of lockdown measures taken in various European countries to contain the Covid-19 pandemic on air quality. However, these studies are often limited to compare situations without and with lockdown measures, which correspond to different time periods and then under different meteorological conditions. We propose a modelling study with the WRF-CHIMERE modelling suite for March 2020, an approach allowing to compare atmospheric composition with and without lockdown measures without the biases of meteorological conditions. This study shows that the lockdown effect on atmospheric composition, in particular through massive traffic reductions, has been important for several short-lived atmospheric trace species, with a large reduction in NO2 concentrations, a lower reduction in Particulate Matter (PM) concentrations and a mitigated effect on ozone concentrations due to non-linear chemical effects. Highlights • Air pollution modelling • COVID19 epidemy • Regional modelling • Anthropogenic emissions scenario • Impact of emissions reduction Graphical abstract Unlabelled Image