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  • Publication . Article . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Maryam Kakovan; Samaneh Ghorbani Shirkouhi; Mojtaba Zarei; Sasan Andalib;
    Country: Denmark

    Objectives: Development of safe and effective vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains the cornerstone of controlling this pandemic. However, there are increasing reports of various types of stroke including ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke, as well as cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) after COVID-19 vaccination. This paper aims to review reports of stroke associated with COVID-19 vaccines and provide a coherent clinical picture of this condition. Materials and methods: A literature review was performed with a focus on data from recent studies. Results: Most of such patients are women under 60 years of age and who had received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. Most studies reported CVST with or without secondary ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, and some with Vaccine-induced Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia (VITT). The most common clinical symptom of CVST seen after COVID-19 vaccination was headache. The clinical course of CVST after COVID-19 vaccination may be more severe than CVST not associated with COVID vaccination. Management of CVST following COVID-19 vaccination is challenging and may differ from the standard treatment of CVST. Low molecular weight heparin is commonly used in the treatment of CVST; however, it may worsen outcomes in CVST associated with VITT. Furthermore, administration of intravenous immunoglobulin and high-dose glucocorticoids have been recommended with various success rates. Conclusion: These contradictory observations are a source of confusion in clinical decision-making and warrant further study and development of clinical guidelines. Clinicians should be aware of clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of stroke associated with COVID-19 vaccination.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ole J. Hamming; Ewa Terczyńska-Dyla; Gabrielle Vieyres; Ronald Dijkman; Sanne Jørgensen; Hashaam Akhtar; Piotr Siupka; Thomas Pietschmann; Volker Thiel; Rune Hartmann;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Project: SNSF | Impact of RNA modificatio... (132898)

    The IFNL4 gene is a recently discovered type III interferon, which in a significant fraction of the human population harbours a frameshift mutation abolishing the IFNk4 ORF. The expression of IFNk4 is correlated with both poor spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and poor response to treatment with type I interferon. Here, we show that the IFNL4 gene encodes an active type III interferon, named IFNk4, which signals through the IFNkR1 and IL-10R2 receptor chains. Recombinant IFNk4 is antiviral against both HCV and coronaviruses at levels comparable to IFNk3. However, the secretion of IFNk4 is impaired compared to that of IFNk3, and this impairment is not due to a weak signal peptide, which was previously believed. We found that IFNk4 gets N-linked glycosylated and that this glycosylation is required for secretion. Nevertheless, this glycosylation is not required for activity. Together, these findings result in the paradox that IFNk4 is strongly antiviral but a disadvantage during HCV infection. The IFNL4 gene is a recently discovered type III interferon, which in a significant fraction of the human population harbours a frameshift mutation abolishing the IFNλ4 ORF. The expression of IFNλ4 is correlated with both poor spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and poor response to treatment with type I interferon. Here, we show that the IFNL4 gene encodes an active type III interferon, named IFNλ4, which signals through the IFNλR1 and IL-10R2 receptor chains. Recombinant IFNλ4 is antiviral against both HCV and coronaviruses at levels comparable to IFNλ3. However, the secretion of IFNλ4 is impaired compared to that of IFNλ3, and this impairment is not due to a weak signal peptide, which was previously believed. We found that IFNλ4 gets N-linked glycosylated and that this glycosylation is required for secretion. Nevertheless, this glycosylation is not required for activity. Together, these findings result in the paradox that IFNλ4 is strongly antiviral but a disadvantage during HCV infection

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2013
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Angela M. Caliendo; David N. Gilbert; Christine C. Ginocchio; Kimberly E. Hanson; Larissa S May; Thomas C. Quinn; Fred C. Tenover; David Alland; Anne J. Blaschke; Robert A. Bonomo; +8 more
    Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP)

    In this IDSA policy paper, we review the current diagnostic landscape, including unmet needs and emerging technologies, and assess the challenges to the development and clinical integration of improved tests. To fulfill the promise of emerging diagnostics, IDSA presents recommendations that address a host of identified barriers. Achieving these goals will require the engagement and coordination of a number of stakeholders, including Congress, funding and regulatory bodies, public health agencies, the diagnostics industry, healthcare systems, professional societies, and individual clinicians.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Manuel Fernández Cruz; José Álvarez Rodríguez; Inmaculada Ávalos Ruiz; Mercedes Cuevas López; Claudia de Barros Camargo; Francisco Díaz Rosas; Esther González Castellón; Daniel González González; Antonio Hernández Fernández; Pilar Ibáñez Cubillas; +1 more
    Publisher: FRONTIERS MEDIA SA
    Country: Spain

    Background: In a situation of compulsory home isolation enacted by governments at the spreading of the Covid-19 pandemic, the emotional health and well-being of students became a key factor in the successful implementation of distance teaching methodologies in face-to-face education universities. Psychological well-being, an essential factor in preventing academic failure, has been threatened in this serious situation of unprecedented and stressful isolation. The aim of this study is to analyze the students’ cognitive-emotional regulation as well as their beliefs and perceptions about the pandemic and this lockdown situation. With this extensive study we are carrying out, want to describe the extent to which the lockdown situation is a risk factor, and, in the future, make proposals for preventive and palliative actions, if necessary, to minimize this potential risk. Method: We applied the CERQ Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire by means of an online application together with a questionnaire, CC/covid-19, of objective description and subjective perception of the lockdown situation of the students, their conditions to study, general opinions about the pandemic and specific opinions about the real possibilities of implementing online education in the middle of the academic year at the university. 1910 valid responses from more than 80 universities in 13 different Spanish-speaking countries were obtained and submitted to descriptive analysis and modeling using structural equations. Results: Most of them consider that the lockdown decision is correct, that health systems are not prepared to deal with the pandemic, and that although the universities have adequate means, the teaching staff is not competent to implement online teaching methodologies. They have a good perception of the conditions of isolation, however, the time devoted to studying has not increased. One of the results of our study is the students’ self-evaluation about their digital competence and their capacity to perform in online interactive communication. This is key to rejecting a feeling of loneliness or social isolation, even if there is momentary physical separation with friends and classmates which is consistent with the results of emotional well-being the surveyed students present. The cognitive strategies used by the students surveyed have allowed them coping with events arising from the pandemic, mandatory isolation and university closure, certainly adaptive and functional, while maintaining a positive perception of their new living and learning situation. FEDER/Junta de AndaluciaConsejeria de Economia y Conocimiento/Proyecto B-SEJ-516-UGR18

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Maria Skaalum Petersen; Cecilie Bo Hansen; Marnar Fríðheim Kristiansen; Jógvan Páll Fjallsbak; Sólrun Larsen; Jóhanna Ljósá Hansen; Ida Jarlhelt; Laura Pérez-Alós; Bjarni á Steig; Debes Hammershaimb Christiansen; +6 more
    Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

    AbstractOnly a few studies have assessed the long-term duration of the humoral immune response against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).In this nationwide longitudinal study from the Faroe Islands with close to full participation of all individuals on the Islands with PCR confirmed COVID-19 during the two waves of infections in the spring and autumn 2020 (n=172 & n=233), samples were drawn at three longitudinal time points (3, 7 and 12 months and 1, 3 and 7 months after disease onset, respectively).Serum was analyzed with a direct quantitative IgG antibody binding ELISA to detect anti–SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD antibodies and a commercially available qualitative sandwich RBD ELISA kit measuring total antibody binding.The seropositive rate in the convalescent individuals was above 95 % at all sampling time points for both assays. There was an overall decline in IgG titers over time in both waves (p < 0.001). Pairwise comparison showed that IgG declined significantly from the first sample until approximately 7 months in both waves (p < 0.001). After that, the antibody level still declined significantly (p < 0.001), but decelerated with an altered slope remaining fairly stable from 7 months to 12 months after infection. Interestingly, the IgG titers followed a U-shaped curve with higher antibody levels among the oldest (67+) and the youngest (0– 17) age groups compared to intermediate groups (p < 0.001).Our results indicate that COVID-19 convalescent individuals are likely to be protected from reinfection up to 12 months after symptom onset and maybe even longer. We believe our results can add to the understanding of natural immunity and the expected durability of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immune responses.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kenneth Lundstrom; Debmalya Barh; Bruce D. Uhal; Kazuo Takayama; Alaa A. A. Aljabali; Tarek Mohamed Abd El-Aziz; Amos Lal; Elrashdy M. Redwan; Parise Adadi; Gaurav Chauhan; +16 more
    Publisher: Uppsala universitet, Materialteori
    Countries: Denmark, Sweden

    Two adenovirus-based vaccines, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and Ad26.COV2.S, and two mRNA-based vaccines, BNT162b2 and mRNA.1273, have been approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA), and are invaluable in preventing and reducing the incidence of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Recent reports have pointed to thrombosis with associated thrombocytopenia as an adverse effect occurring at a low frequency in some individuals after vaccination. The causes of such events may be related to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein interactions with different C-type lectin receptors, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and the CD147 receptor, or to different soluble splice variants of the spike protein, adenovirus vector interactions with the CD46 receptor or platelet factor 4 antibodies. Similar findings have been reported for several viral diseases after vaccine administration. In addition, immunological mechanisms elicited by viral vectors related to cellular delivery could play a relevant role in individuals with certain genetic backgrounds. Although rare, the potential COVID-19 vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) requires immediate validation, especially in risk groups, such as the elderly, chronic smokers, and individuals with pre-existing incidences of thrombocytopenia; and if necessary, a reformulation of existing vaccines.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    McLean, K A; Kamarajah, S K; Chaudhry, D; Gujjuri, R R; Raubenheimer, K; Trout, I; Al Ameer, E; Creagh-Brown, B; Harrison, E M; Nepogodiev, D; +202 more
    Publisher: Oxford University Press
    Countries: Netherlands, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, Denmark, Italy, Italy, Italy, Italy, Italy, Finland ...

    Association of Surgeons in Training Surgical Summit, online, 17 Oct 2020 - 17 Oct 2020 2021 Virtual Annual Meeting / Surgical Research Society, online, 24 Mar 2021 - 25 Mar 2021, National Research Collaborative Meeting, online, 10 Dec 2020 - 10 Dec 2020, Royal Australasian College of Surgeons Annual Academic Surgery Conference, online, 5 Nov 2020 - 5 Nov 2020; The British journal of surgery : BJS 108(12), 1448-1464 (2021). doi:10.1093/bjs/znab336 Published by Wiley, New York, NY [u.a.]

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Heimbürger, Balder Nehring;
    Country: Denmark

    Coral reefs across the world are at imminent risk of irreversible degradation due to warming climate, ocean acidification, and nutrient pollution. Recently, dissolved inorganic nitrogen has been determined to be a key stressor of coral reefs and has been directly associated with and linked to bleaching in stony corals. However, as stony corals bleach, die and disappear on the reefs, soft corals have been observed to remain present and thriving on even the most eutrophic reefs. This thesis sets out to investigate the background for the observed phase shift in community composure from hard coral dominated reefs to soft coral dominated, by first investigating the scientific literature on coral physiology and the effects of elevated nitrogen concentrations on corals in laboratory experiments, and later by conducting a similar and representable experiment on soft corals, in the order Alcyonacea. The thesis continues with a thorough description of the pilot experiment that came to be as a consequence of the initial experiment being stopped due to a variety of factors, including COVID-19 lockdowns. The data from the pilot experiment is reflected upon and used to improve the final experiment that was resumed after lockdown restrictions were eased. The final experiment is thus written as a draft for a publishable scientific article. The experiment investigated the impact on the growth rates of six species of soft corals to severely elevated levels of nitrogen, 10 and 20 times higher than what similar experiments on stony corals have tested, as well as testing the photosynthetic yield and maximum electron transfer rate of their symbiotic zooxanthellae, under these conditions. The study found that five out of six species of soft corals showed no changes in growth rates attributable to the elevated nitrogen levels, and that the photosynthetic yield and maximum electron transfer rate of the zooxanthellae did not change across treatments. Based on these findings, it is argued that important distinctions are made when correlating nitrogen enrichment to soft coral health. The study concludes that the data presented can contribute to a better understanding of soft coral resistance to nitrogen enrichment and serve as the base of future research into this scientifically underrepresented family of corals. Koralrev verden over er i overhængende risiko for uoprettelig tilbagegang, grundet global opvarmning, forsuring af havet og forurening med næringsstoffer. For nylig er opløst uorganisk nitrogen blevet bekræftet som værende en primær stresskilde for koralrev, og er blevet direkte forbundet med “blegning” hos stenkoraller. Trods dette, når disse stenkoraller blegner, dør og forsvinder, er det imidlertid observeret, at blødkoraller forbliver tilstede og trives, på selv de mest eutrofiske rev.Denne afhandling forsøger således at undersøge baggrunden for det observerede faseskift i disse koralrevs biodiversitet fra rev domineret af stenkoraller, til rev domineret af blødkoraller, ved først at undersøge den eksisterende videnskabelige litteratur om virkningerne af forhøjede nitrogenkoncentrationer på stenkoraller i laboratorieforsøg, og senere ved at udføre et lignende og repræsentativt eksperiment på blødkoraller i ordenen Alcyonacea. Specialet indeholder et afsnit om et pilotforsøg, der opstod som en konsekvens af, at det første forsøg måtte standses på grund af COVID-19-nedlukninger. Dataen fra pilotforsøget reflekteres over og bruges til at forbedre det sidste eksperiment, der blev genoptaget efter at restriktionerne og nedlukningen af universitetet blev lettet. Det sidste eksperiment er således skrevet som et udkast til en videnskabelig artikel, der kan udgives. Forsøget undersøgte seks arter af blødkorallers resistens over for ekstreme niveauer af opløst nitrogen, 10 og 20 gange højere end lignende eksperimenter på stenkoraller, samt testede det fotosyntetiske udbytte og den maksimale elektronoverførselshastighed for deres symbiotiske zooxantheller, under disse betingelser. Experimentet viste, at fem ud af de seks testede arter af blødkoraller ikke oplevede nogen ændringer i vækstrate, fotosyntetisk udbytte, eller maksimale elektronoverførselshastighed, på tværs af nitrogenniveauer. Undersøgelsen konkluderer, at de præsenterede data kan bidrage til en bedre forståelse af blødkorallers resistens overfor nitrogenberigelse og fortsatte tilstedeværelse på eutrofiske rev, og tjene som grundlag for fremtidig forskning i denne videnskabeligt underrepræsenterede orden af koraller.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sofie Rosenlund Lau; Nanna Hauge Kristensen; Bjarke Oxlund;
    Country: Denmark

    n/a

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Eva Havers-Borgersen; Emil L. Fosbøl; Jawad H. Butt; Jeppe Kofoed Petersen; Andreas Engelbredt Dalsgaard; Frederik Kyhl; Morten Schou; Matthew Phelps; Kristian Kragholm; Gunnar Gislason; +3 more
    Country: Denmark

    Background The incidence of infective endocarditis (IE) has increased in recent decades. Societal lockdown including reorganization of the healthcare system during the COVID-19 pandemic may influence the incidence of IE. This study sets out to investigate the incidence of IE during the Danish national lockdown. Methods In this nationwide cohort study, patients admitted with IE in either one of two periods A) A combined period of 1 January to 7 May for 2018 and 2019, or B) 1 January to 6 May 2020, were identified using Danish nationwide registries. Weekly incidence rates of IE admissions for the 2018/2019-period and 2020-period were computed and incidence rate ratios (IRR) for 2020-incidence vs 2018/2019-incidence were calculated using Poisson regression analysis. Results In total, 208 (67.3% men, median age 74.1 years) and 429 (64.1% men, median age 72.7 years) patients were admitted with IE in 2020 and 2018/2019, respectively. No significant difference in incidence rates were found comparing the 2020-period and 2018/2019-period (IRR: 0.96 (95% CI: 0.82–1.14). The overall incidence rate pre-lockdown (week 1–10: 1 January to 11 March 2020) was 14.2 IE cases per 100,000 person years (95% CI: 12.0–16.9) as compared with 11.4 IE cases per 100,000 person years (95% CI: 9.1–14.1) during lockdown (week 11–18: 12 March to 6 May 2020) corresponding to an IRR of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.60–1.06) and thus no significant difference pre- versus post-lockdown. Conclusion In this nationwide cohort study, no significant difference in the incidence of IE admissions during the national lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic was found. Highlights • The incidence of IE during lockdown was 11.1 IE cases per 100,000 PY. • No reduction in the incidence of IE during the lockdown compared to preceding years. • No difference in the incidence of IE pre- versus post-lockdown in 2020.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
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The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
3,117 Research products, page 1 of 312
  • Publication . Article . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Maryam Kakovan; Samaneh Ghorbani Shirkouhi; Mojtaba Zarei; Sasan Andalib;
    Country: Denmark

    Objectives: Development of safe and effective vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains the cornerstone of controlling this pandemic. However, there are increasing reports of various types of stroke including ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke, as well as cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) after COVID-19 vaccination. This paper aims to review reports of stroke associated with COVID-19 vaccines and provide a coherent clinical picture of this condition. Materials and methods: A literature review was performed with a focus on data from recent studies. Results: Most of such patients are women under 60 years of age and who had received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. Most studies reported CVST with or without secondary ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, and some with Vaccine-induced Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia (VITT). The most common clinical symptom of CVST seen after COVID-19 vaccination was headache. The clinical course of CVST after COVID-19 vaccination may be more severe than CVST not associated with COVID vaccination. Management of CVST following COVID-19 vaccination is challenging and may differ from the standard treatment of CVST. Low molecular weight heparin is commonly used in the treatment of CVST; however, it may worsen outcomes in CVST associated with VITT. Furthermore, administration of intravenous immunoglobulin and high-dose glucocorticoids have been recommended with various success rates. Conclusion: These contradictory observations are a source of confusion in clinical decision-making and warrant further study and development of clinical guidelines. Clinicians should be aware of clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of stroke associated with COVID-19 vaccination.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ole J. Hamming; Ewa Terczyńska-Dyla; Gabrielle Vieyres; Ronald Dijkman; Sanne Jørgensen; Hashaam Akhtar; Piotr Siupka; Thomas Pietschmann; Volker Thiel; Rune Hartmann;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Project: SNSF | Impact of RNA modificatio... (132898)

    The IFNL4 gene is a recently discovered type III interferon, which in a significant fraction of the human population harbours a frameshift mutation abolishing the IFNk4 ORF. The expression of IFNk4 is correlated with both poor spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and poor response to treatment with type I interferon. Here, we show that the IFNL4 gene encodes an active type III interferon, named IFNk4, which signals through the IFNkR1 and IL-10R2 receptor chains. Recombinant IFNk4 is antiviral against both HCV and coronaviruses at levels comparable to IFNk3. However, the secretion of IFNk4 is impaired compared to that of IFNk3, and this impairment is not due to a weak signal peptide, which was previously believed. We found that IFNk4 gets N-linked glycosylated and that this glycosylation is required for secretion. Nevertheless, this glycosylation is not required for activity. Together, these findings result in the paradox that IFNk4 is strongly antiviral but a disadvantage during HCV infection. The IFNL4 gene is a recently discovered type III interferon, which in a significant fraction of the human population harbours a frameshift mutation abolishing the IFNλ4 ORF. The expression of IFNλ4 is correlated with both poor spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and poor response to treatment with type I interferon. Here, we show that the IFNL4 gene encodes an active type III interferon, named IFNλ4, which signals through the IFNλR1 and IL-10R2 receptor chains. Recombinant IFNλ4 is antiviral against both HCV and coronaviruses at levels comparable to IFNλ3. However, the secretion of IFNλ4 is impaired compared to that of IFNλ3, and this impairment is not due to a weak signal peptide, which was previously believed. We found that IFNλ4 gets N-linked glycosylated and that this glycosylation is required for secretion. Nevertheless, this glycosylation is not required for activity. Together, these findings result in the paradox that IFNλ4 is strongly antiviral but a disadvantage during HCV infection

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2013
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Angela M. Caliendo; David N. Gilbert; Christine C. Ginocchio; Kimberly E. Hanson; Larissa S May; Thomas C. Quinn; Fred C. Tenover; David Alland; Anne J. Blaschke; Robert A. Bonomo; +8 more
    Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP)

    In this IDSA policy paper, we review the current diagnostic landscape, including unmet needs and emerging technologies, and assess the challenges to the development and clinical integration of improved tests. To fulfill the promise of emerging diagnostics, IDSA presents recommendations that address a host of identified barriers. Achieving these goals will require the engagement and coordination of a number of stakeholders, including Congress, funding and regulatory bodies, public health agencies, the diagnostics industry, healthcare systems, professional societies, and individual clinicians.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Manuel Fernández Cruz; José Álvarez Rodríguez; Inmaculada Ávalos Ruiz; Mercedes Cuevas López; Claudia de Barros Camargo; Francisco Díaz Rosas; Esther González Castellón; Daniel González González; Antonio Hernández Fernández; Pilar Ibáñez Cubillas; +1 more
    Publisher: FRONTIERS MEDIA SA
    Country: Spain

    Background: In a situation of compulsory home isolation enacted by governments at the spreading of the Covid-19 pandemic, the emotional health and well-being of students became a key factor in the successful implementation of distance teaching methodologies in face-to-face education universities. Psychological well-being, an essential factor in preventing academic failure, has been threatened in this serious situation of unprecedented and stressful isolation. The aim of this study is to analyze the students’ cognitive-emotional regulation as well as their beliefs and perceptions about the pandemic and this lockdown situation. With this extensive study we are carrying out, want to describe the extent to which the lockdown situation is a risk factor, and, in the future, make proposals for preventive and palliative actions, if necessary, to minimize this potential risk. Method: We applied the CERQ Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire by means of an online application together with a questionnaire, CC/covid-19, of objective description and subjective perception of the lockdown situation of the students, their conditions to study, general opinions about the pandemic and specific opinions about the real possibilities of implementing online education in the middle of the academic year at the university. 1910 valid responses from more than 80 universities in 13 different Spanish-speaking countries were obtained and submitted to descriptive analysis and modeling using structural equations. Results: Most of them consider that the lockdown decision is correct, that health systems are not prepared to deal with the pandemic, and that although the universities have adequate means, the teaching staff is not competent to implement online teaching methodologies. They have a good perception of the conditions of isolation, however, the time devoted to studying has not increased. One of the results of our study is the students’ self-evaluation about their digital competence and their capacity to perform in online interactive communication. This is key to rejecting a feeling of loneliness or social isolation, even if there is momentary physical separation with friends and classmates which is consistent with the results of emotional well-being the surveyed students present. The cognitive strategies used by the students surveyed have allowed them coping with events arising from the pandemic, mandatory isolation and university closure, certainly adaptive and functional, while maintaining a positive perception of their new living and learning situation. FEDER/Junta de AndaluciaConsejeria de Economia y Conocimiento/Proyecto B-SEJ-516-UGR18

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Maria Skaalum Petersen; Cecilie Bo Hansen; Marnar Fríðheim Kristiansen; Jógvan Páll Fjallsbak; Sólrun Larsen; Jóhanna Ljósá Hansen; Ida Jarlhelt; Laura Pérez-Alós; Bjarni á Steig; Debes Hammershaimb Christiansen; +6 more
    Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

    AbstractOnly a few studies have assessed the long-term duration of the humoral immune response against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).In this nationwide longitudinal study from the Faroe Islands with close to full participation of all individuals on the Islands with PCR confirmed COVID-19 during the two waves of infections in the spring and autumn 2020 (n=172 & n=233), samples were drawn at three longitudinal time points (3, 7 and 12 months and 1, 3 and 7 months after disease onset, respectively).Serum was analyzed with a direct quantitative IgG antibody binding ELISA to detect anti–SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD antibodies and a commercially available qualitative sandwich RBD ELISA kit measuring total antibody binding.The seropositive rate in the convalescent individuals was above 95 % at all sampling time points for both assays. There was an overall decline in IgG titers over time in both waves (p < 0.001). Pairwise comparison showed that IgG declined significantly from the first sample until approximately 7 months in both waves (p < 0.001). After that, the antibody level still declined significantly (p < 0.001), but decelerated with an altered slope remaining fairly stable from 7 months to 12 months after infection. Interestingly, the IgG titers followed a U-shaped curve with higher antibody levels among the oldest (67+) and the youngest (0– 17) age groups compared to intermediate groups (p < 0.001).Our results indicate that COVID-19 convalescent individuals are likely to be protected from reinfection up to 12 months after symptom onset and maybe even longer. We believe our results can add to the understanding of natural immunity and the expected durability of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immune responses.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kenneth Lundstrom; Debmalya Barh; Bruce D. Uhal; Kazuo Takayama; Alaa A. A. Aljabali; Tarek Mohamed Abd El-Aziz; Amos Lal; Elrashdy M. Redwan; Parise Adadi; Gaurav Chauhan; +16 more
    Publisher: Uppsala universitet, Materialteori
    Countries: Denmark, Sweden

    Two adenovirus-based vaccines, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and Ad26.COV2.S, and two mRNA-based vaccines, BNT162b2 and mRNA.1273, have been approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA), and are invaluable in preventing and reducing the incidence of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Recent reports have pointed to thrombosis with associated thrombocytopenia as an adverse effect occurring at a low frequency in some individuals after vaccination. The causes of such events may be related to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein interactions with different C-type lectin receptors, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and the CD147 receptor, or to different soluble splice variants of the spike protein, adenovirus vector interactions with the CD46 receptor or platelet factor 4 antibodies. Similar findings have been reported for several viral diseases after vaccine administration. In addition, immunological mechanisms elicited by viral vectors related to cellular delivery could play a relevant role in individuals with certain genetic backgrounds. Although rare, the potential COVID-19 vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) requires immediate validation, especially in risk groups, such as the elderly, chronic smokers, and individuals with pre-existing incidences of thrombocytopenia; and if necessary, a reformulation of existing vaccines.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    McLean, K A; Kamarajah, S K; Chaudhry, D; Gujjuri, R R; Raubenheimer, K; Trout, I; Al Ameer, E; Creagh-Brown, B; Harrison, E M; Nepogodiev, D; +202 more
    Publisher: Oxford University Press
    Countries: Netherlands, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, Denmark, Italy, Italy, Italy, Italy, Italy, Finland ...

    Association of Surgeons in Training Surgical Summit, online, 17 Oct 2020 - 17 Oct 2020 2021 Virtual Annual Meeting / Surgical Research Society, online, 24 Mar 2021 - 25 Mar 2021, National Research Collaborative Meeting, online, 10 Dec 2020 - 10 Dec 2020, Royal Australasian College of Surgeons Annual Academic Surgery Conference, online, 5 Nov 2020 - 5 Nov 2020; The British journal of surgery : BJS 108(12), 1448-1464 (2021). doi:10.1093/bjs/znab336 Published by Wiley, New York, NY [u.a.]

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Heimbürger, Balder Nehring;
    Country: Denmark

    Coral reefs across the world are at imminent risk of irreversible degradation due to warming climate, ocean acidification, and nutrient pollution. Recently, dissolved inorganic nitrogen has been determined to be a key stressor of coral reefs and has been directly associated with and linked to bleaching in stony corals. However, as stony corals bleach, die and disappear on the reefs, soft corals have been observed to remain present and thriving on even the most eutrophic reefs. This thesis sets out to investigate the background for the observed phase shift in community composure from hard coral dominated reefs to soft coral dominated, by first investigating the scientific literature on coral physiology and the effects of elevated nitrogen concentrations on corals in laboratory experiments, and later by conducting a similar and representable experiment on soft corals, in the order Alcyonacea. The thesis continues with a thorough description of the pilot experiment that came to be as a consequence of the initial experiment being stopped due to a variety of factors, including COVID-19 lockdowns. The data from the pilot experiment is reflected upon and used to improve the final experiment that was resumed after lockdown restrictions were eased. The final experiment is thus written as a draft for a publishable scientific article. The experiment investigated the impact on the growth rates of six species of soft corals to severely elevated levels of nitrogen, 10 and 20 times higher than what similar experiments on stony corals have tested, as well as testing the photosynthetic yield and maximum electron transfer rate of their symbiotic zooxanthellae, under these conditions. The study found that five out of six species of soft corals showed no changes in growth rates attributable to the elevated nitrogen levels, and that the photosynthetic yield and maximum electron transfer rate of the zooxanthellae did not change across treatments. Based on these findings, it is argued that important distinctions are made when correlating nitrogen enrichment to soft coral health. The study concludes that the data presented can contribute to a better understanding of soft coral resistance to nitrogen enrichment and serve as the base of future research into this scientifically underrepresented family of corals. Koralrev verden over er i overhængende risiko for uoprettelig tilbagegang, grundet global opvarmning, forsuring af havet og forurening med næringsstoffer. For nylig er opløst uorganisk nitrogen blevet bekræftet som værende en primær stresskilde for koralrev, og er blevet direkte forbundet med “blegning” hos stenkoraller. Trods dette, når disse stenkoraller blegner, dør og forsvinder, er det imidlertid observeret, at blødkoraller forbliver tilstede og trives, på selv de mest eutrofiske rev.Denne afhandling forsøger således at undersøge baggrunden for det observerede faseskift i disse koralrevs biodiversitet fra rev domineret af stenkoraller, til rev domineret af blødkoraller, ved først at undersøge den eksisterende videnskabelige litteratur om virkningerne af forhøjede nitrogenkoncentrationer på stenkoraller i laboratorieforsøg, og senere ved at udføre et lignende og repræsentativt eksperiment på blødkoraller i ordenen Alcyonacea. Specialet indeholder et afsnit om et pilotforsøg, der opstod som en konsekvens af, at det første forsøg måtte standses på grund af COVID-19-nedlukninger. Dataen fra pilotforsøget reflekteres over og bruges til at forbedre det sidste eksperiment, der blev genoptaget efter at restriktionerne og nedlukningen af universitetet blev lettet. Det sidste eksperiment er således skrevet som et udkast til en videnskabelig artikel, der kan udgives. Forsøget undersøgte seks arter af blødkorallers resistens over for ekstreme niveauer af opløst nitrogen, 10 og 20 gange højere end lignende eksperimenter på stenkoraller, samt testede det fotosyntetiske udbytte og den maksimale elektronoverførselshastighed for deres symbiotiske zooxantheller, under disse betingelser. Experimentet viste, at fem ud af de seks testede arter af blødkoraller ikke oplevede nogen ændringer i vækstrate, fotosyntetisk udbytte, eller maksimale elektronoverførselshastighed, på tværs af nitrogenniveauer. Undersøgelsen konkluderer, at de præsenterede data kan bidrage til en bedre forståelse af blødkorallers resistens overfor nitrogenberigelse og fortsatte tilstedeværelse på eutrofiske rev, og tjene som grundlag for fremtidig forskning i denne videnskabeligt underrepræsenterede orden af koraller.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sofie Rosenlund Lau; Nanna Hauge Kristensen; Bjarke Oxlund;
    Country: Denmark

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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Eva Havers-Borgersen; Emil L. Fosbøl; Jawad H. Butt; Jeppe Kofoed Petersen; Andreas Engelbredt Dalsgaard; Frederik Kyhl; Morten Schou; Matthew Phelps; Kristian Kragholm; Gunnar Gislason; +3 more
    Country: Denmark

    Background The incidence of infective endocarditis (IE) has increased in recent decades. Societal lockdown including reorganization of the healthcare system during the COVID-19 pandemic may influence the incidence of IE. This study sets out to investigate the incidence of IE during the Danish national lockdown. Methods In this nationwide cohort study, patients admitted with IE in either one of two periods A) A combined period of 1 January to 7 May for 2018 and 2019, or B) 1 January to 6 May 2020, were identified using Danish nationwide registries. Weekly incidence rates of IE admissions for the 2018/2019-period and 2020-period were computed and incidence rate ratios (IRR) for 2020-incidence vs 2018/2019-incidence were calculated using Poisson regression analysis. Results In total, 208 (67.3% men, median age 74.1 years) and 429 (64.1% men, median age 72.7 years) patients were admitted with IE in 2020 and 2018/2019, respectively. No significant difference in incidence rates were found comparing the 2020-period and 2018/2019-period (IRR: 0.96 (95% CI: 0.82–1.14). The overall incidence rate pre-lockdown (week 1–10: 1 January to 11 March 2020) was 14.2 IE cases per 100,000 person years (95% CI: 12.0–16.9) as compared with 11.4 IE cases per 100,000 person years (95% CI: 9.1–14.1) during lockdown (week 11–18: 12 March to 6 May 2020) corresponding to an IRR of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.60–1.06) and thus no significant difference pre- versus post-lockdown. Conclusion In this nationwide cohort study, no significant difference in the incidence of IE admissions during the national lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic was found. Highlights • The incidence of IE during lockdown was 11.1 IE cases per 100,000 PY. • No reduction in the incidence of IE during the lockdown compared to preceding years. • No difference in the incidence of IE pre- versus post-lockdown in 2020.