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  • COVID-19
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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Buntu Karaeng, Desianti; Weny Anggraini Adhisty; Masniati;
    Publisher: Universitas Sulawesi Barat

    Latar Belakang: Covid-19 adalah penyakit yang disebabkan oleh Severe acute respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) yang ditandai dengan gangguan pernapasan akut yang parah. Wabah Covid-19 pertama kali terdeteksi di Wuhan, Cina, pada Desember 2019. Ibu hamil tergolong rentan terinfeksi Covid-19, hal ini disebabkan karena ibu hamil memiliki sistem imunitas tubuh yang rendah, sehingga lebih rentan untuk mengidap penyakit atau infeksi. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan pengetahuan ibu hamil dengan perilaku pencegahan Covid-19 di wilayah kerja Puskesmas Banggae-1 Majene. Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian observasional analitik dengan pendekatan cross-sectional dengan metode random sampling. Hasil: Dari 61 responden yang diperoleh, 41 (67,2%) orang berpengetahuan baik dengan berperilaku baik, 3 (4,9%) orang berpengetahuan kurang dengan berperilaku baik, 17 (27,9%) orang berpengetahuan kurang dan berperilaku kurang baik, tidak ada responden yang berpengetahuan baik dengan berperilaku kurang baik dalam pencegahan Covid-19. Kesimpulan: Hasil uji Chi-square (p=0,000<0,05) yang berarti terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara pengetahuan ibu hamil dengan perilaku pencegahan Covid-19 di wilayah kerja Puskesmas Banggae-1 Majene.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Seyyed Amir Yasin, Ahmadi; Mohammad, Moradi; Mitra, Elmi; Ehsan, Bitaraf; Ali, Kabir;
    Publisher: National Institute of Public Health NIH (National Research Institute)

    INTRODUCTION. How to reduce the fatality of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is still challenging. A proper nutritional support has been always a matter of attention in critically ill patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS. We assessed COVID-19 patients who had received intralipid infusion due to medical indications and compared them with those who did not receive it regarding fatality rate and prognosis. As a part of a data mining project using data of observational cohort of COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the educational centers of Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, an inferential case series was performed. A total of 19 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were selected from the cohort. Briefly, 13 patients survived and 6 patients died, and 12 patients were admitted in intensive care unit (ICU). All dead cases were ICU admitted. The association of intralipid infusion and survival rate was examined using Fisher exact test. No association was observed between intralipid infusion and survival. CONCLUSIONS. No significant protecting effect was observed for patients who received intralipid for medical indications. Since intralipid was administered according to medical indications, surviving of all the non-ICU admitted patients despite having underlying diseases was remarkable. Despite the fact, due to several bias factors that could not be controlled in such a retrospective study, the results might be accidental. We suggest to assess such an effect retrospectively in other centers as well.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Kiran Malbul; Srijana Katwal; Swojay Maharjan; Suraj Shrestha; Roman Dhital; Ashish Prasad Rajbhandari;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Background Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is an infectious respiratory disease caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Respiratory symptoms and flu-like presentation are the most defined clinical manifestations. However, gastrointestinal symptoms with acute abdomen have been reported in a small percentage, occasionally mimicking acute appendicitis. Hence, the diagnosis of COVID-19 should be suspected and investigated in every case of acute abdomen in the present situation. Case presentation We report a case of a 25-year-old male who presented with features of acute appendicitis. Despite the equivocal ultrasound results, he was scheduled for an emergency appendectomy for Alvarado's score 7 out of 10, who underwent a successful appendectomy. The patient had initially tested negative on an upper respiratory COVID-19 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with normal chest X-ray but few hours after the surgery patient developed a high-grade fever. An RT-PCR for COVID-19 was resent following a suspicion that came out to be positive. Clinical discussion Several case reports have suggested a probable association between COVID-19 and appendicitis. This case shows the limited effectiveness of clinical diagnosis for the surgical abdomen in COVID-19 patients as these two conditions share similar symptoms often needing a clinical vigilance. Conclusion This case reports acute appendicitis in a patient who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 subsequently following emergency appendectomy highlighting the acute gastrointestinal presentation of COVID-19. This case exemplifies the necessity to be familiar with the gastrointestinal symptoms of COVID-19 and maintain a high level of suspicion for COVID-19 infection in cases of abdominal pain. Highlights • Acute appendicitis can be one of the presentation of COVID-19. • Clinicians need to be familiar with the gastrointestinal symptoms of COVID-19. • Rapid diagnosis of COVID-19 in patients with acute abdominal pain should be done to prevent the virus from spreading. • A negative RT-PCR for COVID-19 can't totally exclude COVID-19.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Hanie Teki Tjendani; Retno Trimurtiningrum;
    Publisher: Universitas Mataram

    Status pandemi COVID 19 hingga saat ini belum dicabut oleh WHO, dampak pendemi terjadi pada berbagai sektor sehingga antisipasi terhadap masalah kesehatan fisik dan kesehatan psikologis harus senantiasa dijaga. Ibu rumah tangga adalah ujung tombak dalam penerapan kesehatan dari lingkungan masyarakat terkecil yaitu keluarga. Penyuluhan kesehatan dan bantuan psikologi awal (BPA) di kalangan ibu rumah tangga diharapkan mampu menghalau dampak buruk dari pandemi terhadap kehidupan suatu keluarga. Metode yang digunakan adalah Rekayasa Sosial karena masih dalam kondisi pandemi maka penyuluhan hanya dilakukan untuk pengurus RT dan ketua Dasa Wisma dan diharapkan dapat menyampaikan hasil penyuluhan kepada warganya secara merata. Pre-test diberikan kepada para peserta sebelum dilakukan penyuluhan dan post-test diberikan setelah selesai penyuluhan. Hasil yang didapat, warga harus senantiasa menjaga protokol kesehatan dan tidak mengasingkan warga yang terpapar melainkan harus memberikan dorongan moril untuk segera terlepas dari virus COVID 19 atau penyakit lainnya. BPA dapat dilakukan oleh pengurus RT dan Ketua Dasa Wisma kepada individu atau kelompok yang mengalami dampak pandemi COVID 19. Bila gangguan psikologis masih tidak teratasi maka dapat diserahkan kepada tenaga ahli yang berkompeten.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Joseph, Juliet Eileen;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    The coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic remains a global security threat, as the result of the emerging and exacerbated security challenges that have impacted on the national security policies of various regional economic communities (RECs). This study analyses SADC and ECOWAS' responses to the Covid-19 pandemic under their respective existing peace and security structures and explores if both RECs, SADC and ECOWAS have been efficient. This article discusses the Southern African and West African security setting, how its security architecture emerged and whether it has been successful in overcoming the security ramification in the region under the Covid-19 pandemic. Coincidentally, both SADC and ECOWAS have been confronted with existing and emerging human security threats, such as increased poverty, inequality, and the spread of diseases, such as Covid-19. The Covid-19 pandemic, a non-traditional security threat, has exposed how RECs, such as SADC and ECOWAS, respond to non-traditional and emerging security threats, suggesting for the transcendence of their security architecture that caters equally for non-military and emerging human security threats, alike military threats. This article explores the regional security experiences, challenges, and responses of both the SADC and ECOWAS under the Covid-19 pandemic.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Antonio Pujol de Castro;
    Publisher: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca

    espanolDurante la epidemia de polio de Estados Unidos durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, se cuenta la vivencia de la epidemia desde los ojos de un joven profesor de gimnasia en una comunidad judia. En el articulo describimos los aspectos principales de la epidemia. En primer lugar hablamos de las caracteristicas que se dan al inicio de una epidemia, cuando se intenta llamar a la calma y se recuerdan enfermedades pasadas. A continuacion se habla sobre el origen de la epidemia, las causas que se barajan y los sesgos racistas que pueden llegar a aparecer. Tambien hablamos del rol del medico como fuente de conocimiento y como agente humanizador de la enfermedad. Hablamos del gobierno y las medidas poblacionales que se toman y la proporcionalidad de estas, abriendo el debate de hasta cuando es responsable paralizar la vida cotidiana para controlar una enfermedad. Finalmente, hablamos del tratamiento de la polio, las grandes secuelas tanto fisicas como psicologicas y la situacion de la polio actualmente. Sin duda, la polio ha sido una epidemia ejemplar en cuanto a como combatir entre todos una amenaza comun. Conocer su historia nos puede dar herramientas para enfrentarnos a las nuevas epidemias como la COVID-19. EnglishDuring the United States’ polio epidemic during World War II, the experience of the epidemic is told from the point of view of a young gymnastics teacher in a Jewish community. Throughout the article we describe the main aspects of the epidemic. First, we talk about the characteristics that occur at the beginning of an epidemic, when you try to call to calm and remember past illnesses. It then discusses the origin of the epidemic, the causes that are being addressed and the racist biases that may emerge. We also talk about the role of the doctor as a source of knowledge and as a humanizing agent of the disease. We talk about the government and the population measures that are taken and the proportionality of them, opening the debate on how long it is responsible to paralyze daily life to control a disease. Finally, we talk about the treatment of polio, the great physical and psychological consequences and the situation of polio today. Without any doubt, polio has been an exemplary epidemic in terms of how to fight a common threat together. Knowing its history can give us tools to confront new epidemics such as COVID-19.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Abdul Fikri Angga Reksa; Ayu Nova Lissandhi; Choerunisa Noor Syahid;
    Publisher: Indonesian Institute of Sciences

    The COVID-19 pandemic has ravaged the global tourism industry, leaving millions of people unemployed without certainty when tourism bounces back. Small Island Developing States (SIDS) are amongst the worst hit by the novel coronavirus. The unprecedented crisis has severely aggravated the SIDS economic growth due to relying on foreign tourists heavily. In the absence of international tourism, small island residents have been grappling with alternative income sources. Despite its notorious impacts, many scholars look at this global pandemic as a discernible opportunity to reverse mass tourism in the SIDS. Therefore, this paper aims to elaborate on the current condition of small islands communities amid COVID-19, their coping strategies, and their reflection of the future tourism industry in the SIDS. Furthermore, this paper also aims to discuss a prevailing policy to contain health emergency and economic collapse in the SIDS. Based on the critical literature review, many SIDS were already faced complex predicaments before the pandemic, such as high vulnerability to the climate crisis, lack of natural resources, extreme poverty, and reliance on external debts. International support is crucial to avoid the worst-case scenario for SIDS, including those which depend on the tourism industry. As a part of the recovery phase, this paper underscores the urgency of a more sustainable tourism practice for future development in the SIDS. That comprises strategic issues ranging from environmental-based tourism with a focus on socio-cultural aspects, and economic diversification to small island community resilience.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Elyta Elyta; Warjio Warjio; Ahmad AzrinBin Adnan;
    Publisher: Universitas Muhammadiyah Tangerang

    This article aims to develop the concept of human security through economic safeguards for Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) in the face of the Covid-19 pandemic. The analysis was carried out using a qualitative approach. This article has found an effort to secure the economy for Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) in the face of the Covid-19 pandemic by integrating the hard skills and soft skills approaches. The hard skill approach is an effort made through technical matters, namely primary education in online-based entrepreneurship and training in business management based on Information, Communication, and Technology. Primary education on entrepreneurship and training in the form of technical supervision and management of ICT-based businesses in dealing with the Covid-19 pandemic. The soft skill approach is the provision of understanding and communication skills, especially the ability to conduct diplomacy so that people can have good diplomacy skills and through empathy-buying so that people through empathy can trust again to increase their purchasing power, especially to products from MSMEs. By the author, this method is called smart human security. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan konsep human Secuity melalui pengaman ekonomi terhadap Usaha Mikro Kecil dan Menengah (UMKM) dalam menghadapi pandemi Covid-19. Analisis dilakukan dengan pendekatan kualitatif. Artikel ini telah menemukan upaya pengamanan ekonomi bagi Usaha Mikro Kecil dan Menengah (UMKM) dalam menghadapi pandemi Covid-19 dengan mengintegrasikan antara pendekatan hard skill dan soft skill . Pendekatan hard skill merupakan upaya yang dilakukan melalui hal-hal teknis yaitu pendidikan dasar dalam berwirausaha berbasis online dan pelatihan pengelolaan usaha berbasis Information, Communication, and Technology . Pendidikan dasar mengenai kewirausahaan dan pelatihan-pelatihan berupa teknis manajemen dan pengelolaan usaha berbasis ICT dalam menghadapi pandemi Covid-19. Pendekatan soft skill merupakan pemberian pemahaman dan kemampuan komunikasi khususnya kemampuan dalam melakukan diplomasi agar masyarakat dapat memiliki keahlian berdiplomasi dengan baik serta melalui empathy-buying agar masyarakat melalui empatinya dapat kembali percaya untuk meningkatkan kembali daya belinya terutama kepada produk dari UMKM. Oleh penulis, cara tersebut disebut sebagai smart human security .

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Dominika Stastna; Ingrid Menkyova; Jiri Drahota; Tereza Hrnciarova; Eva Kubala Havrdova; Marta Vachova; Michaela Andelova; Pavlina Kleinova; Ivana Kovarova; Eva Krasulova; +13 more

    COVID-19 vaccination and infection are speculated to increase the activity of immune-mediated diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). The aim of this study was to evaluate a short-term risk of relapse after COVID-19 vaccination and COVID-19 infection in patients with these demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system and to determine disease exacerbation risk factors.Data in this retrospective, observational cohort study was collected via the Czech nationwide registry ReMuS from March 1, 2020, to October 30, 2021. We compared the proportion of patients with at least one clinical relapse in the 90 days following vaccination or infection to the 90-day intervals during the year before. For the evaluation of the risk factors of relapse, a comparison between groups with and without relapses after COVID-19 vaccination or infection was made.We identified 1661 vaccinated (90.11% BNT162b2) patients with MS without a history of COVID-19 and 495 unvaccinated patients with MS who experienced COVID-19. A mild increase in the proportion of patients with at least one clinical relapse (-360 to -270 days: 4.46%; -270 to -180: 4.27%; -180 to -90: 3.85%; -90 to 0: 3.79% vs. 0 to +90 days: 5.30%) after vaccination in patients with MS was observed, as well as a rise in the proportion of patients with at least one clinical relapse after COVID-19. Lower age was associated with MS relapse after vaccination or infection. Although there were only 17 vaccinated and eight post-COVID-19 patients with NMOSD, the results were broadly consistent with those of patients with MS.There is a mild increase in the relapse incidence after the COVID-19 vaccination. The risks, however, need to be balanced against the risks of COVID-19 itself, also leading to the rise in relapse rate and particularly to morbidity and mortality.

  • Closed Access Croatian
    Authors: 
    Kurtović, Tihana;
    Country: Croatia

    U vrijeme kad se epidemije zaraznih bolesti događaju sve češće i šire brže i dalje nego ikad, javlja se i veća potreba za održivim proizvodnim pristupom koji bi osigurao pripravu lako i brzo dostupnih terapijskih imunoglobulina što nas je potaknulo na razvoj nove strategije pročišćavanja IgG-a koja je zamišljena kao jednostavna, praktična i pristupačna, a što smo planirali postići redukcijom broja procesnih koraka. Dizajnirali smo je na laboratorijskoj skali s ciljem da ponudimo brzo dostupnu opciju liječenja koja bi popunila prazninu od izbijanja nove zarazne bolesti do razvoja drugih specifičnih terapeutika ili cjepiva. S obzirom na trenutni, još uvijek aktualni pandemijski status COVID-a 19, demonstrirali smo je na anti-SARS-CoV-2 konvalescentnoj plazmi. Iako naša platforma uključuje samo frakcionaciju posredstvom kaprilne kiseline za taloženje ne-imunoglobulinskih proteina, dijafiltraciju za uklanjanje precipitirajućeg agensa i anionsku izmjenu u flow- through modu za fino pročišćavanje, daje kvalitetni IgG produkt bez ikakvih nečistoća i agregata, visokog prinosa, očuvanog neutralizacijskog potencijala i nenarušene distribucije potklasa.

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The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
970,538 Research products, page 1 of 97,054
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Buntu Karaeng, Desianti; Weny Anggraini Adhisty; Masniati;
    Publisher: Universitas Sulawesi Barat

    Latar Belakang: Covid-19 adalah penyakit yang disebabkan oleh Severe acute respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) yang ditandai dengan gangguan pernapasan akut yang parah. Wabah Covid-19 pertama kali terdeteksi di Wuhan, Cina, pada Desember 2019. Ibu hamil tergolong rentan terinfeksi Covid-19, hal ini disebabkan karena ibu hamil memiliki sistem imunitas tubuh yang rendah, sehingga lebih rentan untuk mengidap penyakit atau infeksi. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan pengetahuan ibu hamil dengan perilaku pencegahan Covid-19 di wilayah kerja Puskesmas Banggae-1 Majene. Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian observasional analitik dengan pendekatan cross-sectional dengan metode random sampling. Hasil: Dari 61 responden yang diperoleh, 41 (67,2%) orang berpengetahuan baik dengan berperilaku baik, 3 (4,9%) orang berpengetahuan kurang dengan berperilaku baik, 17 (27,9%) orang berpengetahuan kurang dan berperilaku kurang baik, tidak ada responden yang berpengetahuan baik dengan berperilaku kurang baik dalam pencegahan Covid-19. Kesimpulan: Hasil uji Chi-square (p=0,000<0,05) yang berarti terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara pengetahuan ibu hamil dengan perilaku pencegahan Covid-19 di wilayah kerja Puskesmas Banggae-1 Majene.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Seyyed Amir Yasin, Ahmadi; Mohammad, Moradi; Mitra, Elmi; Ehsan, Bitaraf; Ali, Kabir;
    Publisher: National Institute of Public Health NIH (National Research Institute)

    INTRODUCTION. How to reduce the fatality of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is still challenging. A proper nutritional support has been always a matter of attention in critically ill patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS. We assessed COVID-19 patients who had received intralipid infusion due to medical indications and compared them with those who did not receive it regarding fatality rate and prognosis. As a part of a data mining project using data of observational cohort of COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the educational centers of Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, an inferential case series was performed. A total of 19 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were selected from the cohort. Briefly, 13 patients survived and 6 patients died, and 12 patients were admitted in intensive care unit (ICU). All dead cases were ICU admitted. The association of intralipid infusion and survival rate was examined using Fisher exact test. No association was observed between intralipid infusion and survival. CONCLUSIONS. No significant protecting effect was observed for patients who received intralipid for medical indications. Since intralipid was administered according to medical indications, surviving of all the non-ICU admitted patients despite having underlying diseases was remarkable. Despite the fact, due to several bias factors that could not be controlled in such a retrospective study, the results might be accidental. We suggest to assess such an effect retrospectively in other centers as well.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Kiran Malbul; Srijana Katwal; Swojay Maharjan; Suraj Shrestha; Roman Dhital; Ashish Prasad Rajbhandari;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Background Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is an infectious respiratory disease caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Respiratory symptoms and flu-like presentation are the most defined clinical manifestations. However, gastrointestinal symptoms with acute abdomen have been reported in a small percentage, occasionally mimicking acute appendicitis. Hence, the diagnosis of COVID-19 should be suspected and investigated in every case of acute abdomen in the present situation. Case presentation We report a case of a 25-year-old male who presented with features of acute appendicitis. Despite the equivocal ultrasound results, he was scheduled for an emergency appendectomy for Alvarado's score 7 out of 10, who underwent a successful appendectomy. The patient had initially tested negative on an upper respiratory COVID-19 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with normal chest X-ray but few hours after the surgery patient developed a high-grade fever. An RT-PCR for COVID-19 was resent following a suspicion that came out to be positive. Clinical discussion Several case reports have suggested a probable association between COVID-19 and appendicitis. This case shows the limited effectiveness of clinical diagnosis for the surgical abdomen in COVID-19 patients as these two conditions share similar symptoms often needing a clinical vigilance. Conclusion This case reports acute appendicitis in a patient who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 subsequently following emergency appendectomy highlighting the acute gastrointestinal presentation of COVID-19. This case exemplifies the necessity to be familiar with the gastrointestinal symptoms of COVID-19 and maintain a high level of suspicion for COVID-19 infection in cases of abdominal pain. Highlights • Acute appendicitis can be one of the presentation of COVID-19. • Clinicians need to be familiar with the gastrointestinal symptoms of COVID-19. • Rapid diagnosis of COVID-19 in patients with acute abdominal pain should be done to prevent the virus from spreading. • A negative RT-PCR for COVID-19 can't totally exclude COVID-19.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Hanie Teki Tjendani; Retno Trimurtiningrum;
    Publisher: Universitas Mataram

    Status pandemi COVID 19 hingga saat ini belum dicabut oleh WHO, dampak pendemi terjadi pada berbagai sektor sehingga antisipasi terhadap masalah kesehatan fisik dan kesehatan psikologis harus senantiasa dijaga. Ibu rumah tangga adalah ujung tombak dalam penerapan kesehatan dari lingkungan masyarakat terkecil yaitu keluarga. Penyuluhan kesehatan dan bantuan psikologi awal (BPA) di kalangan ibu rumah tangga diharapkan mampu menghalau dampak buruk dari pandemi terhadap kehidupan suatu keluarga. Metode yang digunakan adalah Rekayasa Sosial karena masih dalam kondisi pandemi maka penyuluhan hanya dilakukan untuk pengurus RT dan ketua Dasa Wisma dan diharapkan dapat menyampaikan hasil penyuluhan kepada warganya secara merata. Pre-test diberikan kepada para peserta sebelum dilakukan penyuluhan dan post-test diberikan setelah selesai penyuluhan. Hasil yang didapat, warga harus senantiasa menjaga protokol kesehatan dan tidak mengasingkan warga yang terpapar melainkan harus memberikan dorongan moril untuk segera terlepas dari virus COVID 19 atau penyakit lainnya. BPA dapat dilakukan oleh pengurus RT dan Ketua Dasa Wisma kepada individu atau kelompok yang mengalami dampak pandemi COVID 19. Bila gangguan psikologis masih tidak teratasi maka dapat diserahkan kepada tenaga ahli yang berkompeten.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Joseph, Juliet Eileen;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    The coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic remains a global security threat, as the result of the emerging and exacerbated security challenges that have impacted on the national security policies of various regional economic communities (RECs). This study analyses SADC and ECOWAS' responses to the Covid-19 pandemic under their respective existing peace and security structures and explores if both RECs, SADC and ECOWAS have been efficient. This article discusses the Southern African and West African security setting, how its security architecture emerged and whether it has been successful in overcoming the security ramification in the region under the Covid-19 pandemic. Coincidentally, both SADC and ECOWAS have been confronted with existing and emerging human security threats, such as increased poverty, inequality, and the spread of diseases, such as Covid-19. The Covid-19 pandemic, a non-traditional security threat, has exposed how RECs, such as SADC and ECOWAS, respond to non-traditional and emerging security threats, suggesting for the transcendence of their security architecture that caters equally for non-military and emerging human security threats, alike military threats. This article explores the regional security experiences, challenges, and responses of both the SADC and ECOWAS under the Covid-19 pandemic.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Antonio Pujol de Castro;
    Publisher: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca

    espanolDurante la epidemia de polio de Estados Unidos durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, se cuenta la vivencia de la epidemia desde los ojos de un joven profesor de gimnasia en una comunidad judia. En el articulo describimos los aspectos principales de la epidemia. En primer lugar hablamos de las caracteristicas que se dan al inicio de una epidemia, cuando se intenta llamar a la calma y se recuerdan enfermedades pasadas. A continuacion se habla sobre el origen de la epidemia, las causas que se barajan y los sesgos racistas que pueden llegar a aparecer. Tambien hablamos del rol del medico como fuente de conocimiento y como agente humanizador de la enfermedad. Hablamos del gobierno y las medidas poblacionales que se toman y la proporcionalidad de estas, abriendo el debate de hasta cuando es responsable paralizar la vida cotidiana para controlar una enfermedad. Finalmente, hablamos del tratamiento de la polio, las grandes secuelas tanto fisicas como psicologicas y la situacion de la polio actualmente. Sin duda, la polio ha sido una epidemia ejemplar en cuanto a como combatir entre todos una amenaza comun. Conocer su historia nos puede dar herramientas para enfrentarnos a las nuevas epidemias como la COVID-19. EnglishDuring the United States’ polio epidemic during World War II, the experience of the epidemic is told from the point of view of a young gymnastics teacher in a Jewish community. Throughout the article we describe the main aspects of the epidemic. First, we talk about the characteristics that occur at the beginning of an epidemic, when you try to call to calm and remember past illnesses. It then discusses the origin of the epidemic, the causes that are being addressed and the racist biases that may emerge. We also talk about the role of the doctor as a source of knowledge and as a humanizing agent of the disease. We talk about the government and the population measures that are taken and the proportionality of them, opening the debate on how long it is responsible to paralyze daily life to control a disease. Finally, we talk about the treatment of polio, the great physical and psychological consequences and the situation of polio today. Without any doubt, polio has been an exemplary epidemic in terms of how to fight a common threat together. Knowing its history can give us tools to confront new epidemics such as COVID-19.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Abdul Fikri Angga Reksa; Ayu Nova Lissandhi; Choerunisa Noor Syahid;
    Publisher: Indonesian Institute of Sciences

    The COVID-19 pandemic has ravaged the global tourism industry, leaving millions of people unemployed without certainty when tourism bounces back. Small Island Developing States (SIDS) are amongst the worst hit by the novel coronavirus. The unprecedented crisis has severely aggravated the SIDS economic growth due to relying on foreign tourists heavily. In the absence of international tourism, small island residents have been grappling with alternative income sources. Despite its notorious impacts, many scholars look at this global pandemic as a discernible opportunity to reverse mass tourism in the SIDS. Therefore, this paper aims to elaborate on the current condition of small islands communities amid COVID-19, their coping strategies, and their reflection of the future tourism industry in the SIDS. Furthermore, this paper also aims to discuss a prevailing policy to contain health emergency and economic collapse in the SIDS. Based on the critical literature review, many SIDS were already faced complex predicaments before the pandemic, such as high vulnerability to the climate crisis, lack of natural resources, extreme poverty, and reliance on external debts. International support is crucial to avoid the worst-case scenario for SIDS, including those which depend on the tourism industry. As a part of the recovery phase, this paper underscores the urgency of a more sustainable tourism practice for future development in the SIDS. That comprises strategic issues ranging from environmental-based tourism with a focus on socio-cultural aspects, and economic diversification to small island community resilience.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Elyta Elyta; Warjio Warjio; Ahmad AzrinBin Adnan;
    Publisher: Universitas Muhammadiyah Tangerang

    This article aims to develop the concept of human security through economic safeguards for Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) in the face of the Covid-19 pandemic. The analysis was carried out using a qualitative approach. This article has found an effort to secure the economy for Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) in the face of the Covid-19 pandemic by integrating the hard skills and soft skills approaches. The hard skill approach is an effort made through technical matters, namely primary education in online-based entrepreneurship and training in business management based on Information, Communication, and Technology. Primary education on entrepreneurship and training in the form of technical supervision and management of ICT-based businesses in dealing with the Covid-19 pandemic. The soft skill approach is the provision of understanding and communication skills, especially the ability to conduct diplomacy so that people can have good diplomacy skills and through empathy-buying so that people through empathy can trust again to increase their purchasing power, especially to products from MSMEs. By the author, this method is called smart human security. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan konsep human Secuity melalui pengaman ekonomi terhadap Usaha Mikro Kecil dan Menengah (UMKM) dalam menghadapi pandemi Covid-19. Analisis dilakukan dengan pendekatan kualitatif. Artikel ini telah menemukan upaya pengamanan ekonomi bagi Usaha Mikro Kecil dan Menengah (UMKM) dalam menghadapi pandemi Covid-19 dengan mengintegrasikan antara pendekatan hard skill dan soft skill . Pendekatan hard skill merupakan upaya yang dilakukan melalui hal-hal teknis yaitu pendidikan dasar dalam berwirausaha berbasis online dan pelatihan pengelolaan usaha berbasis Information, Communication, and Technology . Pendidikan dasar mengenai kewirausahaan dan pelatihan-pelatihan berupa teknis manajemen dan pengelolaan usaha berbasis ICT dalam menghadapi pandemi Covid-19. Pendekatan soft skill merupakan pemberian pemahaman dan kemampuan komunikasi khususnya kemampuan dalam melakukan diplomasi agar masyarakat dapat memiliki keahlian berdiplomasi dengan baik serta melalui empathy-buying agar masyarakat melalui empatinya dapat kembali percaya untuk meningkatkan kembali daya belinya terutama kepada produk dari UMKM. Oleh penulis, cara tersebut disebut sebagai smart human security .

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Dominika Stastna; Ingrid Menkyova; Jiri Drahota; Tereza Hrnciarova; Eva Kubala Havrdova; Marta Vachova; Michaela Andelova; Pavlina Kleinova; Ivana Kovarova; Eva Krasulova; +13 more

    COVID-19 vaccination and infection are speculated to increase the activity of immune-mediated diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). The aim of this study was to evaluate a short-term risk of relapse after COVID-19 vaccination and COVID-19 infection in patients with these demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system and to determine disease exacerbation risk factors.Data in this retrospective, observational cohort study was collected via the Czech nationwide registry ReMuS from March 1, 2020, to October 30, 2021. We compared the proportion of patients with at least one clinical relapse in the 90 days following vaccination or infection to the 90-day intervals during the year before. For the evaluation of the risk factors of relapse, a comparison between groups with and without relapses after COVID-19 vaccination or infection was made.We identified 1661 vaccinated (90.11% BNT162b2) patients with MS without a history of COVID-19 and 495 unvaccinated patients with MS who experienced COVID-19. A mild increase in the proportion of patients with at least one clinical relapse (-360 to -270 days: 4.46%; -270 to -180: 4.27%; -180 to -90: 3.85%; -90 to 0: 3.79% vs. 0 to +90 days: 5.30%) after vaccination in patients with MS was observed, as well as a rise in the proportion of patients with at least one clinical relapse after COVID-19. Lower age was associated with MS relapse after vaccination or infection. Although there were only 17 vaccinated and eight post-COVID-19 patients with NMOSD, the results were broadly consistent with those of patients with MS.There is a mild increase in the relapse incidence after the COVID-19 vaccination. The risks, however, need to be balanced against the risks of COVID-19 itself, also leading to the rise in relapse rate and particularly to morbidity and mortality.

  • Closed Access Croatian
    Authors: 
    Kurtović, Tihana;
    Country: Croatia

    U vrijeme kad se epidemije zaraznih bolesti događaju sve češće i šire brže i dalje nego ikad, javlja se i veća potreba za održivim proizvodnim pristupom koji bi osigurao pripravu lako i brzo dostupnih terapijskih imunoglobulina što nas je potaknulo na razvoj nove strategije pročišćavanja IgG-a koja je zamišljena kao jednostavna, praktična i pristupačna, a što smo planirali postići redukcijom broja procesnih koraka. Dizajnirali smo je na laboratorijskoj skali s ciljem da ponudimo brzo dostupnu opciju liječenja koja bi popunila prazninu od izbijanja nove zarazne bolesti do razvoja drugih specifičnih terapeutika ili cjepiva. S obzirom na trenutni, još uvijek aktualni pandemijski status COVID-a 19, demonstrirali smo je na anti-SARS-CoV-2 konvalescentnoj plazmi. Iako naša platforma uključuje samo frakcionaciju posredstvom kaprilne kiseline za taloženje ne-imunoglobulinskih proteina, dijafiltraciju za uklanjanje precipitirajućeg agensa i anionsku izmjenu u flow- through modu za fino pročišćavanje, daje kvalitetni IgG produkt bez ikakvih nečistoća i agregata, visokog prinosa, očuvanog neutralizacijskog potencijala i nenarušene distribucije potklasa.