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  • COVID-19
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  • 2014-2023
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  • COVID-19

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  • Open Access
    Publisher: Zenodo

    В статье рассмотрен философский аспект развития государственных программ цифровизации разных стран. Дана характеристика категории «искусственный интеллект». Показаны особенности внедрения слабого искусственного интеллекта в социальные системы, в частности, в России, Китае и странах Запада. На примере COVID-19 рассмотрено принятие обществом мер государственного принуждения. Освещены вопросы вмешательства правительств в частную жизнь, влияния искусственного интеллекта на окружающую реальность. Приведены аксиологические основания различий в реакции разных народов на необходимость исполнения распоряжений органов власти.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kobayashi, Hisashi;

    Why are the epidemic patterns of COVID-19 so different among different cities or countries which are similar in their populations, medical infrastructures, and people's behavior? Why are forecasts or predictions made by so-called experts often grossly wrong, concerning the numbers of people who get infected or die? The purpose of this study is to better understand the stochastic nature of an epidemic disease, and answer the above questions. Much of the work on infectious diseases has been based on "SIR deterministic models," (Kermack and McKendrick:1927.) We will explore stochastic models that can capture the essence of the seemingly erratic behavior of an infectious disease. A stochastic model, in its formulation, takes into account the random nature of an infectious disease. The stochastic model we study here is based on the "birth-and-death process with immigration" (BDI for short), which was proposed in the study of population growth or extinction of some biological species. The BDI process model ,however, has not been investigated by the epidemiology community. The BDI process is one of a few birth-and-death processes, which we can solve analytically. Its time-dependent probability distribution function is a "negative binomial distribution" with its parameter $r$ less than $1$. The "coefficient of variation" of the process is larger than $\sqrt{1/r} > 1$. Furthermore, it has a long tail like the zeta distribution. These properties explain why infection patterns exhibit enormously large variations. The number of infected predicted by a deterministic model is much greater than the median of the distribution. This explains why any forecast based on a deterministic model will fail more often than not. 28 pages, 14 figures

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Visacri, Marília Berlofa; Figueiredo, Isabel Vitória; de Mendonça Lima, Tácio;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    AbstractBackgroundSince the start of the new Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak in December 2019, pharmacists worldwide are playing a key role adopting innovative strategies to minimize the adverse impact of the pandemic.ObjectivesTo identify and describe core services provided by the pharmacist during the COVID-19 pandemic.MethodsA literature search was performed in MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and LILACS for studies published between December 1st, 2019 and May 20th, 2020 without language restriction. Studies that reported services provided by pharmacists during the COVID-19 pandemic were included. Two independent authors performed study selection and data extraction with a consensus process. The pharmacist’s intervention identified in the included studies were described based on key domains in the DEPICT v.2.ResultsA total of 1,189 records were identified, of which 11 studies fully met the eligibility criteria. Most of them were conducted in the United States of America (n=4) and China (n=4). The most common type of publication were letters (n=4) describing the workplace of the pharmacist in hospitals (n=8). These findings showed the different roles of pharmacists during the COVID-19 pandemic, such as disease prevention and infection control, adequate storage and drug supply, patient care and support for healthcare professionals. Pharmacists’ interventions were mostly conducted for healthcare professionals and patients (n=7), through one-to-one contact (n=11), telephone (n=6) or video conference (n=5). The pharmacists’ main responsibility was to provide drug information for healthcare professionals (n=7) as well as patient counseling (n=8).ConclusionsA reasonable number of studies that described the role of the pharmacists during the COVID-19 pandemic were found. All studies reported actions taken by pharmacists, although without providing a satisfactory description. Thus, future research with more detailed description as well as an evaluation of the impact of pharmacist intervention is needed in order to guide future actions in this and-or other pandemic.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Eun Kim; Geza Erdos; Shaohua Huang; Thomas W. Kenniston; Stephen C. Balmert; Cara Donahue Carey; V. Stalin Raj; Michael W. Epperly; William B. Klimstra; Bart L. Haagmans; +3 more
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Country: Netherlands

    Abstract Background Coronaviruses pose a serious threat to global health as evidenced by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and COVID-19. SARS Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), MERS Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and the novel coronavirus, previously dubbed 2019-nCoV, and now officially named SARS-CoV-2, are the causative agents of the SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 disease outbreaks, respectively. Safe vaccines that rapidly induce potent and long-lasting virus-specific immune responses against these infectious agents are urgently needed. The coronavirus spike (S) protein, a characteristic structural component of the viral envelope, is considered a key target for vaccines for the prevention of coronavirus infection. Methods We first generated codon optimized MERS-S1 subunit vaccines fused with a foldon trimerization domain to mimic the native viral structure. In variant constructs, we engineered immune stimulants (RS09 or flagellin, as TLR4 or TLR5 agonists, respectively) into this trimeric design. We comprehensively tested the pre-clinical immunogenicity of MERS-CoV vaccines in mice when delivered subcutaneously by traditional needle injection, or intracutaneously by dissolving microneedle arrays (MNAs) by evaluating virus specific IgG antibodies in the serum of vaccinated mice by ELISA and using virus neutralization assays. Driven by the urgent need for COVID-19 vaccines, we utilized this strategy to rapidly develop MNA SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccines and tested their pre-clinical immunogenicity in vivo by exploiting our substantial experience with MNA MERS-CoV vaccines. Findings Here we describe the development of MNA delivered MERS-CoV vaccines and their pre-clinical immunogenicity. Specifically, MNA delivered MERS-S1 subunit vaccines elicited strong and long-lasting antigen-specific antibody responses. Building on our ongoing efforts to develop MERS-CoV vaccines, promising immunogenicity of MNA-delivered MERS-CoV vaccines, and our experience with MNA fabrication and delivery, including clinical trials, we rapidly designed and produced clinically-translatable MNA SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccines within 4 weeks of the identification of the SARS-CoV-2 S1 sequence. Most importantly, these MNA delivered SARS-CoV-2 S1 subunit vaccines elicited potent antigen-specific antibody responses that were evident beginning 2 weeks after immunization. Interpretation MNA delivery of coronaviruses-S1 subunit vaccines is a promising immunization strategy against coronavirus infection. Progressive scientific and technological efforts enable quicker responses to emerging pandemics. Our ongoing efforts to develop MNA-MERS-S1 subunit vaccines enabled us to rapidly design and produce MNA SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccines capable of inducing potent virus-specific antibody responses. Collectively, our results support the clinical development of MNA delivered recombinant protein subunit vaccines against SARS, MERS, COVID-19, and other emerging infectious diseases.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Cory Febrina; Rina Mariyana;
    Publisher: JP Global Transtech

    Background –The use of gadgets among adolescents has some advantages. There has been a very significant increase in the use of cell phones, especially among teenagers. Gadget addiction will have an impact on social relationships, violent behavior,and mental health disorders. Purpose - This study aims to determine the characteristics of gadget and to determine the frequency distribution of gadget dependency levels. Design / methodology / approach – This study was using descriptive analytic. Samples in this study were adolescents and taken by multi-stage random sampling after being grouped by region. Sample that met the inclusion criteria was 86 respondents. Data collection in this study used an instrument in the form of a Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS) questionnaire. Findings - The results showed that the highest level of gadget’s addiction in adolescents was low (34.9%), moderate dependence (33.7%), while for high dependence it was 14% and very high dependency 4.7%. 51.7% of male adolescents showed moderate gadget dependence symptoms and 56.7% of female adolescents showed low levels of dependence. Research limitations – This study has limitations, namely that the implementation was planned face-to-face due to the Covid-19 pandemic conditions, the implementation of the research was carried out through the network. Originality / value - This study produces data that is not yet available in the city of Bukittinggi regarding the level of gadget dependence on adolescents in 2020, and can be the basis for further intervention in groups of children with a level of gadget dependence, both for schools, as well as on families and individuals.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    T. I. Kalenchic; S. L. Kabak; N. S. Didenko; I. P. Dulub; A. Y. Haustovich;
    Publisher: Scientific and Practical Reviewed Journal Pulmonology

    The article presents a rare case of thrombosis of the pulmonary arteries branches, which developed in a patient two months after infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, that caused bilateral polysegmental pneumonia. The thrombosis was suspected because of a high plasma D-dimer level. Contrast-enhanced chest CT was performed to make a definitive diagnosis. The absence of blood clots in the veins of the lower extremities and pelvis allowed us to conclude that the patient did not have thromboembolism, but rather a pulmonary thrombosis in situ. Such possible causes of venousthromboembolic complications as tumors, systemic diseases of the connective tissue, and antiphospholipid syndrome were excluded based on negative tests for tumor and autoimmune diseases markers. The long-stay in the hospital was associated with the inability of the patient to maintain the normal level of blood oxygen saturation independently due to the large area of the lung damage associated with COVID-19 pneumonia and ischemia caused by thrombosis of the branches of the pulmonary arteries.

  • Authors: 
    Anna K. Chistyakova; Ekaterina A. Stepanova; Irina N. Isakova-Sivak; Larisa G. Rudenko;
    Publisher: ECO-Vector LLC

    BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus, which caused the COVID-19 pandemic, and the emergence of new co-circulating antigenic variants require the development and update of subtyping kits and protocols. Pyrosequencing-based protocols are promising approach for detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms. AIM: In this study we designed the assays for genotyping Variants of Concern of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus using polymerase chain reaction, followed by determination of the virus variant in the sample by pyrosequencing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pyrosequencing assays were designed based on alignment of SARS-CoV-2 sequences. Testing was performed using RNA of SARS-CoV-2 viruses of different lineages (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and omicron). Pyrosequencing was performed using the PyroMark Q24 system. RESULTS: The protocols of sample preparation and pyrosequencing were developed and tested for sequencing of regions encoding substitutions in amino acid positions: L18F, T19R, T20N; A67V, 69-70; G142D, 143-145; 156-157, R158G; 242-244; K417N/T; L452R; S477N, T478K, E484A/K/Q; H655Y; N679K, P681H/R. The specificity of the system was also evaluated in reactions with a negative control sample (RNA isolated from human nasal swab). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we developed and initially tested protocol for detecting coronavirus variants (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and omicron) from samples collected from cell culture, based on the PCR technique, followed by genotyping of the variants by pyrosequencing with PyroMark Q24. The developed protocols may be adjusted to the current epidemiological situation by increasing the number of detectable sites.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Claudia Kohl; Annika Brinkmann; Aleksandar Radonić; Piotr Wojtek Dabrowski; Kristin Mühldorfer; Andreas Nitsche; Gudrun Wibbelt; Andreas Kurth;
    Publisher: Robert Koch-Institut
    Country: Germany

    AbstractBats are known to be reservoirs of several highly pathogenic viruses. Hence, the interest in bat virus discovery has been increasing rapidly over the last decade. So far, most studies have focused on a single type of virus detection method, either PCR, virus isolation or virome sequencing. Here we present a comprehensive approach in virus discovery, using all three discovery methods on samples from the same bats. By family-specific PCR screening we found sequences of paramyxoviruses, adenoviruses, herpesviruses and one coronavirus. By cell culture we isolated a novel bat adenovirus and bat orthoreovirus. Virome sequencing revealed viral sequences of ten different virus families and orders: three bat nairoviruses, three phenuiviruses, one orbivirus, one rotavirus, one orthoreovirus, one mononegavirus, five parvoviruses, seven picornaviruses, three retroviruses, one totivirus and two thymoviruses were discovered. Of all viruses identified by family-specific PCR in the original samples, none was found by metagenomic sequencing. Vice versa, none of the viruses found by the metagenomic virome approach was detected by family-specific PCRs targeting the same family. The discrepancy of detected viruses by different detection approaches suggests that a combined approach using different detection methods is necessary for virus discovery studies.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    João Renato Rebello Pinho; Ketti G. Oliveira; Roberta Sitnik; Maira Marranghello Maluf; Pedro Henrique Sebe Rodrigues; Rúbia Anita Ferraz Santana; Eliane Rosseto Welter; Ophir Irony;
    Publisher: Instituto Israelita de Ensino e Pesquisa Albert Einstein

    ABSTRACT During the COVID-19 pandemic, a case of a long-term persistence of SARS-CoV-2 infection (from March 26 to May 20, 2020) was identified at a private hospital in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. The long-term positivity for SARS-CoV-2 in reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction tests of a patient diagnosed with COVID-19 suggests, at least part of patients who recovered, may still carry and transmit the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This fact emphasizes the importance of having at least two negative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction test results for SARS-CoV-2. Serological assays were not particularly helpful in the case described, since the patient had very low antibodies titers at the end of the follow-up period. Low viral loads may not be detected by current molecular methods, leading to wrong conclusions regarding viral clearance.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Imas Damayanti; Adi Gustira;
    Publisher: Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta

    The purpose of this study was to increase the physical activity of students in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic, to maintain and improve body fitness. A quantitative approach using the experimental design method then with a one - group pretest - posttest design research design. Then the population in this study were UPI students in semesters 2-3, who had low physical activity. with a sample of 12 female students. This research was conducted during the first month of the first week for the pre-test, then the 2nd and 3rd weeks for treatment and ended with the post test for the 4th week, the data was collected using the accelerometer actgraph instrument and the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). The results of the mets value for the pretest 1.153 to 1.27 for the post-test score, for the average total stepcount value for the pretest 2. 619 to 3340, while the mets value for the pretest GPAQ was 432.67 and then for the posttest value 529.58. The conclusion is that there is a significant influence from the virtual community for physical activity on the physical activity of students during the Covid-19 pandemic.Pengaruh virtual community for physical activity terhadap aktivitas fisik mahasiswa di era pandemi Covid-19AbstrakPenelitian ini adalah untuk meningkatkan aktivitas fisik mahasiswa di era pandemi covid -19, untuk menjaga dan meningkatkan kebugaran tubuh. Pendekatan penelitian adalah penelitian kuantitatif dengan metode eksperimen desain one - group pretest - posttest design. Sampel pada penelitian ini adalah mahasiswi UPI semester 2 sampai dengan 3 yang mempunyai aktivitas fisik rendah. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan selama satu bulan, minggu pertama untuk pre-test, lalu minggu ke 2 dan 3 untuk perlakuan dan diakhiri dengan post-test untuk pada minggu ke-4. Instrumen pengambilan data yang digunakan diantaranya accelerometer actigraph dan Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Hasil dari nilai mets untuk pretest 1,153 menjadi dan meningkat menjadi 1,27 pada akhir perlakuan. Nilai stepcount total rata rata pretest 2619 meningkat menjadi 3340, dan nilai mets pada GPAQ pretest 432.67 meningkat menjadi 529.58. Kesimpulan penelitian ini bahwa terdapat pengaruh yang signifikan dari virtual community for phisical activity terhadap aktivitas fisik mahasiswa pada era pandemi Covid-19

Advanced search in Research products
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The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
778,955 Research products, page 1 of 77,896
  • Open Access
    Publisher: Zenodo

    В статье рассмотрен философский аспект развития государственных программ цифровизации разных стран. Дана характеристика категории «искусственный интеллект». Показаны особенности внедрения слабого искусственного интеллекта в социальные системы, в частности, в России, Китае и странах Запада. На примере COVID-19 рассмотрено принятие обществом мер государственного принуждения. Освещены вопросы вмешательства правительств в частную жизнь, влияния искусственного интеллекта на окружающую реальность. Приведены аксиологические основания различий в реакции разных народов на необходимость исполнения распоряжений органов власти.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kobayashi, Hisashi;

    Why are the epidemic patterns of COVID-19 so different among different cities or countries which are similar in their populations, medical infrastructures, and people's behavior? Why are forecasts or predictions made by so-called experts often grossly wrong, concerning the numbers of people who get infected or die? The purpose of this study is to better understand the stochastic nature of an epidemic disease, and answer the above questions. Much of the work on infectious diseases has been based on "SIR deterministic models," (Kermack and McKendrick:1927.) We will explore stochastic models that can capture the essence of the seemingly erratic behavior of an infectious disease. A stochastic model, in its formulation, takes into account the random nature of an infectious disease. The stochastic model we study here is based on the "birth-and-death process with immigration" (BDI for short), which was proposed in the study of population growth or extinction of some biological species. The BDI process model ,however, has not been investigated by the epidemiology community. The BDI process is one of a few birth-and-death processes, which we can solve analytically. Its time-dependent probability distribution function is a "negative binomial distribution" with its parameter $r$ less than $1$. The "coefficient of variation" of the process is larger than $\sqrt{1/r} > 1$. Furthermore, it has a long tail like the zeta distribution. These properties explain why infection patterns exhibit enormously large variations. The number of infected predicted by a deterministic model is much greater than the median of the distribution. This explains why any forecast based on a deterministic model will fail more often than not. 28 pages, 14 figures

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Visacri, Marília Berlofa; Figueiredo, Isabel Vitória; de Mendonça Lima, Tácio;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    AbstractBackgroundSince the start of the new Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak in December 2019, pharmacists worldwide are playing a key role adopting innovative strategies to minimize the adverse impact of the pandemic.ObjectivesTo identify and describe core services provided by the pharmacist during the COVID-19 pandemic.MethodsA literature search was performed in MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and LILACS for studies published between December 1st, 2019 and May 20th, 2020 without language restriction. Studies that reported services provided by pharmacists during the COVID-19 pandemic were included. Two independent authors performed study selection and data extraction with a consensus process. The pharmacist’s intervention identified in the included studies were described based on key domains in the DEPICT v.2.ResultsA total of 1,189 records were identified, of which 11 studies fully met the eligibility criteria. Most of them were conducted in the United States of America (n=4) and China (n=4). The most common type of publication were letters (n=4) describing the workplace of the pharmacist in hospitals (n=8). These findings showed the different roles of pharmacists during the COVID-19 pandemic, such as disease prevention and infection control, adequate storage and drug supply, patient care and support for healthcare professionals. Pharmacists’ interventions were mostly conducted for healthcare professionals and patients (n=7), through one-to-one contact (n=11), telephone (n=6) or video conference (n=5). The pharmacists’ main responsibility was to provide drug information for healthcare professionals (n=7) as well as patient counseling (n=8).ConclusionsA reasonable number of studies that described the role of the pharmacists during the COVID-19 pandemic were found. All studies reported actions taken by pharmacists, although without providing a satisfactory description. Thus, future research with more detailed description as well as an evaluation of the impact of pharmacist intervention is needed in order to guide future actions in this and-or other pandemic.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Eun Kim; Geza Erdos; Shaohua Huang; Thomas W. Kenniston; Stephen C. Balmert; Cara Donahue Carey; V. Stalin Raj; Michael W. Epperly; William B. Klimstra; Bart L. Haagmans; +3 more
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Country: Netherlands

    Abstract Background Coronaviruses pose a serious threat to global health as evidenced by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and COVID-19. SARS Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), MERS Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and the novel coronavirus, previously dubbed 2019-nCoV, and now officially named SARS-CoV-2, are the causative agents of the SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 disease outbreaks, respectively. Safe vaccines that rapidly induce potent and long-lasting virus-specific immune responses against these infectious agents are urgently needed. The coronavirus spike (S) protein, a characteristic structural component of the viral envelope, is considered a key target for vaccines for the prevention of coronavirus infection. Methods We first generated codon optimized MERS-S1 subunit vaccines fused with a foldon trimerization domain to mimic the native viral structure. In variant constructs, we engineered immune stimulants (RS09 or flagellin, as TLR4 or TLR5 agonists, respectively) into this trimeric design. We comprehensively tested the pre-clinical immunogenicity of MERS-CoV vaccines in mice when delivered subcutaneously by traditional needle injection, or intracutaneously by dissolving microneedle arrays (MNAs) by evaluating virus specific IgG antibodies in the serum of vaccinated mice by ELISA and using virus neutralization assays. Driven by the urgent need for COVID-19 vaccines, we utilized this strategy to rapidly develop MNA SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccines and tested their pre-clinical immunogenicity in vivo by exploiting our substantial experience with MNA MERS-CoV vaccines. Findings Here we describe the development of MNA delivered MERS-CoV vaccines and their pre-clinical immunogenicity. Specifically, MNA delivered MERS-S1 subunit vaccines elicited strong and long-lasting antigen-specific antibody responses. Building on our ongoing efforts to develop MERS-CoV vaccines, promising immunogenicity of MNA-delivered MERS-CoV vaccines, and our experience with MNA fabrication and delivery, including clinical trials, we rapidly designed and produced clinically-translatable MNA SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccines within 4 weeks of the identification of the SARS-CoV-2 S1 sequence. Most importantly, these MNA delivered SARS-CoV-2 S1 subunit vaccines elicited potent antigen-specific antibody responses that were evident beginning 2 weeks after immunization. Interpretation MNA delivery of coronaviruses-S1 subunit vaccines is a promising immunization strategy against coronavirus infection. Progressive scientific and technological efforts enable quicker responses to emerging pandemics. Our ongoing efforts to develop MNA-MERS-S1 subunit vaccines enabled us to rapidly design and produce MNA SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccines capable of inducing potent virus-specific antibody responses. Collectively, our results support the clinical development of MNA delivered recombinant protein subunit vaccines against SARS, MERS, COVID-19, and other emerging infectious diseases.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Cory Febrina; Rina Mariyana;
    Publisher: JP Global Transtech

    Background –The use of gadgets among adolescents has some advantages. There has been a very significant increase in the use of cell phones, especially among teenagers. Gadget addiction will have an impact on social relationships, violent behavior,and mental health disorders. Purpose - This study aims to determine the characteristics of gadget and to determine the frequency distribution of gadget dependency levels. Design / methodology / approach – This study was using descriptive analytic. Samples in this study were adolescents and taken by multi-stage random sampling after being grouped by region. Sample that met the inclusion criteria was 86 respondents. Data collection in this study used an instrument in the form of a Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS) questionnaire. Findings - The results showed that the highest level of gadget’s addiction in adolescents was low (34.9%), moderate dependence (33.7%), while for high dependence it was 14% and very high dependency 4.7%. 51.7% of male adolescents showed moderate gadget dependence symptoms and 56.7% of female adolescents showed low levels of dependence. Research limitations – This study has limitations, namely that the implementation was planned face-to-face due to the Covid-19 pandemic conditions, the implementation of the research was carried out through the network. Originality / value - This study produces data that is not yet available in the city of Bukittinggi regarding the level of gadget dependence on adolescents in 2020, and can be the basis for further intervention in groups of children with a level of gadget dependence, both for schools, as well as on families and individuals.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    T. I. Kalenchic; S. L. Kabak; N. S. Didenko; I. P. Dulub; A. Y. Haustovich;
    Publisher: Scientific and Practical Reviewed Journal Pulmonology

    The article presents a rare case of thrombosis of the pulmonary arteries branches, which developed in a patient two months after infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, that caused bilateral polysegmental pneumonia. The thrombosis was suspected because of a high plasma D-dimer level. Contrast-enhanced chest CT was performed to make a definitive diagnosis. The absence of blood clots in the veins of the lower extremities and pelvis allowed us to conclude that the patient did not have thromboembolism, but rather a pulmonary thrombosis in situ. Such possible causes of venousthromboembolic complications as tumors, systemic diseases of the connective tissue, and antiphospholipid syndrome were excluded based on negative tests for tumor and autoimmune diseases markers. The long-stay in the hospital was associated with the inability of the patient to maintain the normal level of blood oxygen saturation independently due to the large area of the lung damage associated with COVID-19 pneumonia and ischemia caused by thrombosis of the branches of the pulmonary arteries.

  • Authors: 
    Anna K. Chistyakova; Ekaterina A. Stepanova; Irina N. Isakova-Sivak; Larisa G. Rudenko;
    Publisher: ECO-Vector LLC

    BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus, which caused the COVID-19 pandemic, and the emergence of new co-circulating antigenic variants require the development and update of subtyping kits and protocols. Pyrosequencing-based protocols are promising approach for detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms. AIM: In this study we designed the assays for genotyping Variants of Concern of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus using polymerase chain reaction, followed by determination of the virus variant in the sample by pyrosequencing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pyrosequencing assays were designed based on alignment of SARS-CoV-2 sequences. Testing was performed using RNA of SARS-CoV-2 viruses of different lineages (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and omicron). Pyrosequencing was performed using the PyroMark Q24 system. RESULTS: The protocols of sample preparation and pyrosequencing were developed and tested for sequencing of regions encoding substitutions in amino acid positions: L18F, T19R, T20N; A67V, 69-70; G142D, 143-145; 156-157, R158G; 242-244; K417N/T; L452R; S477N, T478K, E484A/K/Q; H655Y; N679K, P681H/R. The specificity of the system was also evaluated in reactions with a negative control sample (RNA isolated from human nasal swab). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we developed and initially tested protocol for detecting coronavirus variants (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and omicron) from samples collected from cell culture, based on the PCR technique, followed by genotyping of the variants by pyrosequencing with PyroMark Q24. The developed protocols may be adjusted to the current epidemiological situation by increasing the number of detectable sites.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Claudia Kohl; Annika Brinkmann; Aleksandar Radonić; Piotr Wojtek Dabrowski; Kristin Mühldorfer; Andreas Nitsche; Gudrun Wibbelt; Andreas Kurth;
    Publisher: Robert Koch-Institut
    Country: Germany

    AbstractBats are known to be reservoirs of several highly pathogenic viruses. Hence, the interest in bat virus discovery has been increasing rapidly over the last decade. So far, most studies have focused on a single type of virus detection method, either PCR, virus isolation or virome sequencing. Here we present a comprehensive approach in virus discovery, using all three discovery methods on samples from the same bats. By family-specific PCR screening we found sequences of paramyxoviruses, adenoviruses, herpesviruses and one coronavirus. By cell culture we isolated a novel bat adenovirus and bat orthoreovirus. Virome sequencing revealed viral sequences of ten different virus families and orders: three bat nairoviruses, three phenuiviruses, one orbivirus, one rotavirus, one orthoreovirus, one mononegavirus, five parvoviruses, seven picornaviruses, three retroviruses, one totivirus and two thymoviruses were discovered. Of all viruses identified by family-specific PCR in the original samples, none was found by metagenomic sequencing. Vice versa, none of the viruses found by the metagenomic virome approach was detected by family-specific PCRs targeting the same family. The discrepancy of detected viruses by different detection approaches suggests that a combined approach using different detection methods is necessary for virus discovery studies.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    João Renato Rebello Pinho; Ketti G. Oliveira; Roberta Sitnik; Maira Marranghello Maluf; Pedro Henrique Sebe Rodrigues; Rúbia Anita Ferraz Santana; Eliane Rosseto Welter; Ophir Irony;
    Publisher: Instituto Israelita de Ensino e Pesquisa Albert Einstein

    ABSTRACT During the COVID-19 pandemic, a case of a long-term persistence of SARS-CoV-2 infection (from March 26 to May 20, 2020) was identified at a private hospital in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. The long-term positivity for SARS-CoV-2 in reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction tests of a patient diagnosed with COVID-19 suggests, at least part of patients who recovered, may still carry and transmit the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This fact emphasizes the importance of having at least two negative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction test results for SARS-CoV-2. Serological assays were not particularly helpful in the case described, since the patient had very low antibodies titers at the end of the follow-up period. Low viral loads may not be detected by current molecular methods, leading to wrong conclusions regarding viral clearance.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Imas Damayanti; Adi Gustira;
    Publisher: Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta

    The purpose of this study was to increase the physical activity of students in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic, to maintain and improve body fitness. A quantitative approach using the experimental design method then with a one - group pretest - posttest design research design. Then the population in this study were UPI students in semesters 2-3, who had low physical activity. with a sample of 12 female students. This research was conducted during the first month of the first week for the pre-test, then the 2nd and 3rd weeks for treatment and ended with the post test for the 4th week, the data was collected using the accelerometer actgraph instrument and the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). The results of the mets value for the pretest 1.153 to 1.27 for the post-test score, for the average total stepcount value for the pretest 2. 619 to 3340, while the mets value for the pretest GPAQ was 432.67 and then for the posttest value 529.58. The conclusion is that there is a significant influence from the virtual community for physical activity on the physical activity of students during the Covid-19 pandemic.Pengaruh virtual community for physical activity terhadap aktivitas fisik mahasiswa di era pandemi Covid-19AbstrakPenelitian ini adalah untuk meningkatkan aktivitas fisik mahasiswa di era pandemi covid -19, untuk menjaga dan meningkatkan kebugaran tubuh. Pendekatan penelitian adalah penelitian kuantitatif dengan metode eksperimen desain one - group pretest - posttest design. Sampel pada penelitian ini adalah mahasiswi UPI semester 2 sampai dengan 3 yang mempunyai aktivitas fisik rendah. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan selama satu bulan, minggu pertama untuk pre-test, lalu minggu ke 2 dan 3 untuk perlakuan dan diakhiri dengan post-test untuk pada minggu ke-4. Instrumen pengambilan data yang digunakan diantaranya accelerometer actigraph dan Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Hasil dari nilai mets untuk pretest 1,153 menjadi dan meningkat menjadi 1,27 pada akhir perlakuan. Nilai stepcount total rata rata pretest 2619 meningkat menjadi 3340, dan nilai mets pada GPAQ pretest 432.67 meningkat menjadi 529.58. Kesimpulan penelitian ini bahwa terdapat pengaruh yang signifikan dari virtual community for phisical activity terhadap aktivitas fisik mahasiswa pada era pandemi Covid-19