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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gerco Hassink; Marjolein Kikkert; Sjaak van Voorden; Shiow Ju Lee; Robbert M. Spaapen; Theo Van Laar; Catherine S. Coleman; Eric Bartee; Klaus Früh; Vincent Chau; +1 more
    Publisher: Portland Press Ltd.

    In the present study, the human TEB4 is identified as a novel ER (endoplasmic reticulum)-resident ubiquitin ligase. TEB4 has homologues in many species and has a number of remarkable properties. TEB4 contains a conserved RING (really interesting new gene) finger and 13 predicted transmembrane domains. The RING finger of TEB4 and its homologues is situated at the N-terminus and has the unconventional C4HC3 configuration. The N-terminus of TEB4 is located in the cytosol. We show that the isolated TEB4 RING domain catalyses ubiquitin ligation in vitro in a reaction that is ubiquitin Lys48-specific and involves UBC7 (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 7). These properties are reminiscent of E3 enzymes, which are involved in ER-associated protein degradation. TEB4 is an ER degradation substrate itself, promoting its own degradation in a RING finger- and proteasome-dependent manner.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    José Geraldo Santos de Lima Júnior; Laís Delli Nogueira; Luiza Maria Monteiro Canale; Rodrigo Costa Sant Anna da Cruz; Victória Andrade Solano Rodriguez Freitas; Camila Richieri Gomes; Heloisa Rosa; Juliana Cristina Marinheiro;
    Publisher: Elsevier

    Introdução/Objetivo: A sepse é definida como alteração biológica decorrente de infecção, na qual o paciente apresenta resposta inflamatória desproporcional à agressão inicial, culminando em disfunções orgânicas, podendo evoluir ao óbito. Os principais agentes causadores de sepse são bactérias, fungos e vírus e, o ambiente hospitalar é o principal onde ocorre a transmissão dos mesmos. Em 2020 foi observado que pacientes criticamente enfermos com COVID-19 desenvolveram alterações fisiológicas condizentes com quadro de sepse. Este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar as notificações relacionadas à sepse no Brasil, nos últimos anos e, verificar se houve alguma alteração ocasionada pela pandemia da COVID-19. Métodos: Dados referentes às notificações de sepse, proveniente do SINAN-DATASUS (Doenças e Agravos de Notificação), no período de Julho 2018 e Abril de 2021, foram tabulados, analisados e comparados com os publicados em artigos científicos de referência na área estudada. Resultados: Entre julho de 2018 e abril de 2021 foram notificados 424.365 casos de sepse no Brasil. A maioria das notificações ocorreram em: São Paulo (24,47%), Minas Gerais (16,72%) e Rio de Janeiro (9%). As maiores mortalidade foram observadas no Rio de Janeiro (58,20%), Amazonas (56,54%), São Paulo (55,48%), Ceará (54,64%), Tocantins (54,28%) e Pernambuco (52,01%). A análise da distribuição dos casos no período demonstra uma pequena queda no número de notificações nos últimos anos, porém, a letalidade apresentou um pequeno aumento, sendo esta de 38,7% em 2018; 44,7% em 2019; 46,8% em 2020 e 46,6% em 2021. Os anos de 2020 e 2021 podem ser considerados atípicos para a saúde. Se de um lado, a pandemia e as medidas de isolamento social, fizeram o número de cirurgias eletivas e o número de pacientes hospitalizados por traumas diminuírem, por outro, a maioria das mortes em pacientes gravemente enfermos por COVID-19 pode ser atribuída ao quadro séptico, sendo que, em cerca de 80% desses pacientes o SARS CoV-2 é o único agente desencadeador do processo. Conclusão: Podemos concluir que as notificações por sepse, entre julho de 2018 e abril de 2021, se mantiveram constantes. A letalidade associada, vem apresentando um pequeno aumento nos últimos anos. A pandemia de COVID-19 pode ter influenciado esses resultados pelo fato de que grande parte dos pacientes com COVID-19 apresentam alterações fisiológicas condizentes com o diagnóstico de Sepse.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2022
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Collins M. Morang’a; Joyce M. Ngoi; Jones Gyamfi; Dominic S. Y. Amuzu; Benjamin D. Nuertey; Philip M. Soglo; Vincent Appiah; Ivy A. Asante; Paul Owusu-Oduro; Samuel Armoo; +46 more
    Publisher: The Francis Crick Institute

    AbstractThe COVID-19 pandemic is one of the fastest evolving pandemics in recent history. As such, the SARS-CoV-2 viral evolution needs to be continuously tracked. This study sequenced 1123 SARS-CoV-2 genomes from patient isolates (121 from arriving travellers and 1002 from communities) to track the molecular evolution and spatio-temporal dynamics of the SARS-CoV-2 variants in Ghana. The data show that initial local transmission was dominated by B.1.1 lineage, but the second wave was overwhelmingly driven by the Alpha variant. Subsequently, an unheralded variant under monitoring, B.1.1.318, dominated transmission from April to June 2021 before being displaced by Delta variants, which were introduced into community transmission in May 2021. Mutational analysis indicated that variants that took hold in Ghana harboured transmission enhancing and immune escape spike substitutions. The observed rapid viral evolution demonstrates the potential for emergence of novel variants with greater mutational fitness as observed in other parts of the world.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Binaya Sapkota; Bhuvan Saud; Ranish Shrestha; Dhurgham Al-Fahad; Ranjit Sah; Sunil Shrestha; Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales;
    Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP)

    Abstract Background/Objective Heterologous prime–boost doses of COVID-19 vaccines (‘mix-and-match’ approach) are being studied to test for the effectiveness of Oxford (AZD1222), Pfizer (BNT162b2), Moderna (mRNA-1273) and Novavax (NVX-CoV2373) vaccines for COVID in ‘Com-Cov2 trial’ in UK, and that of Oxford and Pfizer vaccines in ‘CombivacS trial’ in Spain. Later, other heterologous combinations of CoronaVac (DB15806), Janssen (JNJ-78436735), CanSino (AD5-nCOV) and other were also being trialled to explore their effectiveness. Previously, such a strategy was deployed for HIV, Ebola virus, malaria, tuberculosis, influenza and hepatitis B to develop the artificial acquired active immunity. The present review explores the science behind such an approach for candidate COVID-19 vaccines developed using 11 different platforms approved by the World Health Organization. Methods The candidate vaccines’ pharmaceutical parameters (e.g. platforms, number needed to vaccinate and intervals, adjuvanted status, excipients and preservatives added, efficacy and effectiveness, vaccine adverse events, and boosters), and clinical aspects must be analysed for the mix-and-match approach. Results prime–boost trials showed safety, effectiveness, higher systemic reactogenicity, well tolerability with improved immunogenicity, and flexibility profiles for future vaccinations, especially during acute and global shortages, compared to the homologous counterparts. Conclusion Still, large controlled trials are warranted to address challenging variants of concerns including Omicron and other, and to generalize the effectiveness of the approach in regular as well as emergency use during vaccine scarcity.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Likun Gao; Jiacai Ren; Li Xu; Xiaokang Ke; Lin Xiong; Xiaoli Tian; Cuifang Fan; Honglin Yan; Jingping Yuan;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC

    Abstract Aims To explore the clinical characteristics and placental pathological changes of pregnant women with 2019 novel coronavirus (CoV) disease (COVID-19) in the third trimester, and to assess the possibility of vertical transmission. Methods and results The placenta tissues were evaluated by using immunohistochemistry for inflammatory cells and Hofbauer cells, and using severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV-2 RNA Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein immunofluorescence (IF) double staining. All eight placentas from the third trimester pregnancy women were studied. All patients were cured, no clinical or serological evidence pointed to vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Features of maternal vascular malperfusion (MVM) such as increased syncytial knots were present in all 8 cases (8/8), and increased focal perivillous fibrin depositions were presented in 7 cases (7/8). No significate chronic histiocytic intervillositis was noted in the placenta. The number of macrophages and inflammatory cells such as T cells, B cells and plasma cells in the placental villous was not significantly increased in all cases. Moreover, all of eight cases demonstrated negative results by FISH using a SARS-CoV-2 virus RNA probe and by IF using a monoclonal antibody against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Conclusions We found no evidence of vertical transmission and adverse maternal-fetal outcomes in the placentas of third trimester COVID-19 pregnancy women, which provided further information for the clinical management of those women in the third trimester. However, further studies are still needed for patients with infections in different stage of gestation, especially in first and second trimester.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    McKenzie Lockett; Tom Pyszczynski; Sander L. Koole;
    Country: Netherlands

    Reminders of COVID-related problems have been pervasive throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. Such reminders could have negative mental health impacts, especially among psychologically vulnerable people, including those with trauma-related problems. We experimentally examined the effects of pandemic reminders among trauma-exposed participants sampled from Prolific (N = 238). Participants were induced to think about health-related or social isolation-related aspects of COVID-19 or their favourite TV show and existential anxiety and coping self-efficacy (CSE) were then assessed. Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) related to a prior stressor and COVID-related functional impairment were assessed as potential moderators of reactions to pandemic reminders. Results showed that both types of pandemic reminders lowered CSE among participants with either higher PTSS or COVID-related functional impairment. Pandemic reminders did not significantly affect existential anxiety. These findings suggest that reminders of the COVID-19 pandemic may undermine the mental health of psychologically vulnerable populations.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Bladimir Becerra-Canales; Edgar Hernández-Huaripaucar; Juan Mayaute-Ghezzi; Cecilia Solano-García; Patricia Pardo-Angulo; Alejandro Reyes-Uribe; Carmen Chauca; Victor Cáceres; Ana Chang-Laura; Diana De la Cruz; +7 more
    Publisher: Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga de Ica

    Objetivo: Estimar la prevalencia y el nivel de riesgo de adición a teléfonos inteligentes en una muestra de adolescentes. Métodos: Estudio de tipo observacional, prospectivo y transversal, realizado en la ciudad de Ica, Perú. Participaron 120 adolescentes mujeres de 13 a 17 años de una Institución Educativa pública. Se recolectaron características generales y se administró la Escala de adicción a teléfonos inteligentes de 10 preguntas. Se describieron las variables del estudio y se aplicó Chi-cuadrado para evaluar diferencias. Resultados: De las participantes el 13,9% tienen adicción a los teléfonos celulares inteligentes y el 54,1% se encuentran en riesgo alto de dependencia. Presentan mayor riesgo de adicción a estos dispositivos, quienes tuvieron COVID-19, no tuvieron familiar fallecido por COVID-19, ni miedo a la COVID-19, tienen conflictos familiares en el hogar, sentimiento de tristeza, ansiedad o depresión, sentimientos de vergüenza, ha sufrido alguna vez de bullying, no se siente rechazada por la sociedad, no prefiere estar en aislamiento obligatorio por la pandemia por COVID-19, no prefiere las clases virtuales y de 16 a 17 años; sin embargo, las diferencias no resultaron significativas. Conclusiones: La prevalencia y el riesgo de adicción a los teléfonos móviles inteligentes es alta; existen variables generales potencialmente modificables que podrían disminuir el riesgo de dependencia al Smartphone.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Muhič, Simon; Muhič, Tatjana;
    Publisher: Fakulteta za strojništvo
    Country: Slovenia

    This article presents measurements of air quality in school and kindergarten facilities, which were carried out in 311 spaces throughout the Republic of Slovenia, before taking measures to improve energy efficiency of measured buildings. During the measurements, the internal dimensions of the spaces were also measured, as well as data on the energy efficiency of buildings and weather data at the time of the measurements. The measurements focused on indoor carbon dioxide concentration levels and air temperature and relative humidity of indoor air. The performed statistical analysis of measurements shows a large dispersion of measured parameters in buildings, which cannot be statistically significantly related to the analyzed quantities. During the occupancy of the spaces, a statistically significant difference in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the indoor air between the spaces of schools and kindergartens was found. The results of the measurements were also evaluated from the point of view of the COVID-19 pandemic. The average value of measured carbon dioxide value during occupancy of the spaces was compared with the results of a model that predicts an airborne transmission risk. The measured average value of relative humidity in kindergartens shows that relative humidity was 37 %, where is the highest infection risk according to recent studies. The measured average carbon dioxide concentration in classrooms and playrooms significantly exceeds the safe concentration, predicted by the model, to prevent COVID-19 spread at the expected six-hour exposure.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Roumen Balabanov; Krystle Strand; Rajendra Goswami; Eileen J McMahon; Wendy Smith Begolka; Stephen D. Miller; Brian Popko;
    Publisher: Society for Neuroscience

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of the human demyelinating disorder multiple sclerosis (MS). The immune cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is believed to participate in disease pathogenesis in both EAE and MS. In the present study, we examined the significance of IFN-gamma-oligodendrocyte interactions in the course of EAE. For the purpose of our study, we used the previously described [proteolipid protein/suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (PLP/SOCS1)] transgenic mouse line that displays suppressed oligodendrocyte responsiveness to IFN-gamma. PLP/SOCS1 mice developed EAE with an accelerated onset associated with enhanced early inflammation and markedly increased oligodendrocyte apoptosis. Moreover, we found that IFN-gamma pretreatment of mature oligodendrocytes in vitro had a protective effect against oxidative stress and the inhibition of proteasome activity and resulted in upregulation in expression of a number of chemokines, including CXCL10 (IP10), CCL2 (MCP-1), CCL3 (MCP-1alpha), and CCL5 (RANTES). These results suggest that IFN-gamma-oligodendrocyte interactions are of significance to the clinical and pathological aspects of EAE. In addition, the present study suggests that oligodendrocytes are not simply targets of inflammatory injury but active participants of the neuroimmune network operating during the course of EAE.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mahdi Ftouh; Nesrine Kalboussi; Nabil Abid; Souad Sfar; Nathalie Mignet; Badr Bahloul;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the coronavirus disease 2019, a respiratory viral illness linked to significant morbidity, mortality, production loss, and severe economic depression, was the third-largest cause of death in 2020. Respiratory viruses such as influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, SARS-CoV-2, and adenovirus, are among the most common causes of respiratory illness in humans, spreading as pandemics or epidemics throughout all continents. Nanotechnologies are particles in the nanometer range made from various compositions. They can be lipid-based, polymer-based, protein-based, or inorganic in nature, but they are all bioinspired and virus-like. In this review, we aimed to present a short review of the different nanoparticles currently studied, in particular those which led to publications in the field of respiratory viruses. We evaluated those which could be beneficial for respiratory disease-based viruses; those which already have contributed, such as lipid nanoparticles in the context of COVID-19; and those which will contribute in the future either as vaccines or antiviral drug delivery systems. We present a short assessment based on a critical selection of evidence indicating nanotechnology’s promise in the prevention and treatment of respiratory infections.

Advanced search in Research products
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The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
678,617 Research products, page 1 of 67,862
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gerco Hassink; Marjolein Kikkert; Sjaak van Voorden; Shiow Ju Lee; Robbert M. Spaapen; Theo Van Laar; Catherine S. Coleman; Eric Bartee; Klaus Früh; Vincent Chau; +1 more
    Publisher: Portland Press Ltd.

    In the present study, the human TEB4 is identified as a novel ER (endoplasmic reticulum)-resident ubiquitin ligase. TEB4 has homologues in many species and has a number of remarkable properties. TEB4 contains a conserved RING (really interesting new gene) finger and 13 predicted transmembrane domains. The RING finger of TEB4 and its homologues is situated at the N-terminus and has the unconventional C4HC3 configuration. The N-terminus of TEB4 is located in the cytosol. We show that the isolated TEB4 RING domain catalyses ubiquitin ligation in vitro in a reaction that is ubiquitin Lys48-specific and involves UBC7 (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 7). These properties are reminiscent of E3 enzymes, which are involved in ER-associated protein degradation. TEB4 is an ER degradation substrate itself, promoting its own degradation in a RING finger- and proteasome-dependent manner.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    José Geraldo Santos de Lima Júnior; Laís Delli Nogueira; Luiza Maria Monteiro Canale; Rodrigo Costa Sant Anna da Cruz; Victória Andrade Solano Rodriguez Freitas; Camila Richieri Gomes; Heloisa Rosa; Juliana Cristina Marinheiro;
    Publisher: Elsevier

    Introdução/Objetivo: A sepse é definida como alteração biológica decorrente de infecção, na qual o paciente apresenta resposta inflamatória desproporcional à agressão inicial, culminando em disfunções orgânicas, podendo evoluir ao óbito. Os principais agentes causadores de sepse são bactérias, fungos e vírus e, o ambiente hospitalar é o principal onde ocorre a transmissão dos mesmos. Em 2020 foi observado que pacientes criticamente enfermos com COVID-19 desenvolveram alterações fisiológicas condizentes com quadro de sepse. Este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar as notificações relacionadas à sepse no Brasil, nos últimos anos e, verificar se houve alguma alteração ocasionada pela pandemia da COVID-19. Métodos: Dados referentes às notificações de sepse, proveniente do SINAN-DATASUS (Doenças e Agravos de Notificação), no período de Julho 2018 e Abril de 2021, foram tabulados, analisados e comparados com os publicados em artigos científicos de referência na área estudada. Resultados: Entre julho de 2018 e abril de 2021 foram notificados 424.365 casos de sepse no Brasil. A maioria das notificações ocorreram em: São Paulo (24,47%), Minas Gerais (16,72%) e Rio de Janeiro (9%). As maiores mortalidade foram observadas no Rio de Janeiro (58,20%), Amazonas (56,54%), São Paulo (55,48%), Ceará (54,64%), Tocantins (54,28%) e Pernambuco (52,01%). A análise da distribuição dos casos no período demonstra uma pequena queda no número de notificações nos últimos anos, porém, a letalidade apresentou um pequeno aumento, sendo esta de 38,7% em 2018; 44,7% em 2019; 46,8% em 2020 e 46,6% em 2021. Os anos de 2020 e 2021 podem ser considerados atípicos para a saúde. Se de um lado, a pandemia e as medidas de isolamento social, fizeram o número de cirurgias eletivas e o número de pacientes hospitalizados por traumas diminuírem, por outro, a maioria das mortes em pacientes gravemente enfermos por COVID-19 pode ser atribuída ao quadro séptico, sendo que, em cerca de 80% desses pacientes o SARS CoV-2 é o único agente desencadeador do processo. Conclusão: Podemos concluir que as notificações por sepse, entre julho de 2018 e abril de 2021, se mantiveram constantes. A letalidade associada, vem apresentando um pequeno aumento nos últimos anos. A pandemia de COVID-19 pode ter influenciado esses resultados pelo fato de que grande parte dos pacientes com COVID-19 apresentam alterações fisiológicas condizentes com o diagnóstico de Sepse.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2022
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Collins M. Morang’a; Joyce M. Ngoi; Jones Gyamfi; Dominic S. Y. Amuzu; Benjamin D. Nuertey; Philip M. Soglo; Vincent Appiah; Ivy A. Asante; Paul Owusu-Oduro; Samuel Armoo; +46 more
    Publisher: The Francis Crick Institute

    AbstractThe COVID-19 pandemic is one of the fastest evolving pandemics in recent history. As such, the SARS-CoV-2 viral evolution needs to be continuously tracked. This study sequenced 1123 SARS-CoV-2 genomes from patient isolates (121 from arriving travellers and 1002 from communities) to track the molecular evolution and spatio-temporal dynamics of the SARS-CoV-2 variants in Ghana. The data show that initial local transmission was dominated by B.1.1 lineage, but the second wave was overwhelmingly driven by the Alpha variant. Subsequently, an unheralded variant under monitoring, B.1.1.318, dominated transmission from April to June 2021 before being displaced by Delta variants, which were introduced into community transmission in May 2021. Mutational analysis indicated that variants that took hold in Ghana harboured transmission enhancing and immune escape spike substitutions. The observed rapid viral evolution demonstrates the potential for emergence of novel variants with greater mutational fitness as observed in other parts of the world.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Binaya Sapkota; Bhuvan Saud; Ranish Shrestha; Dhurgham Al-Fahad; Ranjit Sah; Sunil Shrestha; Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales;
    Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP)

    Abstract Background/Objective Heterologous prime–boost doses of COVID-19 vaccines (‘mix-and-match’ approach) are being studied to test for the effectiveness of Oxford (AZD1222), Pfizer (BNT162b2), Moderna (mRNA-1273) and Novavax (NVX-CoV2373) vaccines for COVID in ‘Com-Cov2 trial’ in UK, and that of Oxford and Pfizer vaccines in ‘CombivacS trial’ in Spain. Later, other heterologous combinations of CoronaVac (DB15806), Janssen (JNJ-78436735), CanSino (AD5-nCOV) and other were also being trialled to explore their effectiveness. Previously, such a strategy was deployed for HIV, Ebola virus, malaria, tuberculosis, influenza and hepatitis B to develop the artificial acquired active immunity. The present review explores the science behind such an approach for candidate COVID-19 vaccines developed using 11 different platforms approved by the World Health Organization. Methods The candidate vaccines’ pharmaceutical parameters (e.g. platforms, number needed to vaccinate and intervals, adjuvanted status, excipients and preservatives added, efficacy and effectiveness, vaccine adverse events, and boosters), and clinical aspects must be analysed for the mix-and-match approach. Results prime–boost trials showed safety, effectiveness, higher systemic reactogenicity, well tolerability with improved immunogenicity, and flexibility profiles for future vaccinations, especially during acute and global shortages, compared to the homologous counterparts. Conclusion Still, large controlled trials are warranted to address challenging variants of concerns including Omicron and other, and to generalize the effectiveness of the approach in regular as well as emergency use during vaccine scarcity.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Likun Gao; Jiacai Ren; Li Xu; Xiaokang Ke; Lin Xiong; Xiaoli Tian; Cuifang Fan; Honglin Yan; Jingping Yuan;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC

    Abstract Aims To explore the clinical characteristics and placental pathological changes of pregnant women with 2019 novel coronavirus (CoV) disease (COVID-19) in the third trimester, and to assess the possibility of vertical transmission. Methods and results The placenta tissues were evaluated by using immunohistochemistry for inflammatory cells and Hofbauer cells, and using severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV-2 RNA Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein immunofluorescence (IF) double staining. All eight placentas from the third trimester pregnancy women were studied. All patients were cured, no clinical or serological evidence pointed to vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Features of maternal vascular malperfusion (MVM) such as increased syncytial knots were present in all 8 cases (8/8), and increased focal perivillous fibrin depositions were presented in 7 cases (7/8). No significate chronic histiocytic intervillositis was noted in the placenta. The number of macrophages and inflammatory cells such as T cells, B cells and plasma cells in the placental villous was not significantly increased in all cases. Moreover, all of eight cases demonstrated negative results by FISH using a SARS-CoV-2 virus RNA probe and by IF using a monoclonal antibody against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Conclusions We found no evidence of vertical transmission and adverse maternal-fetal outcomes in the placentas of third trimester COVID-19 pregnancy women, which provided further information for the clinical management of those women in the third trimester. However, further studies are still needed for patients with infections in different stage of gestation, especially in first and second trimester.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    McKenzie Lockett; Tom Pyszczynski; Sander L. Koole;
    Country: Netherlands

    Reminders of COVID-related problems have been pervasive throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. Such reminders could have negative mental health impacts, especially among psychologically vulnerable people, including those with trauma-related problems. We experimentally examined the effects of pandemic reminders among trauma-exposed participants sampled from Prolific (N = 238). Participants were induced to think about health-related or social isolation-related aspects of COVID-19 or their favourite TV show and existential anxiety and coping self-efficacy (CSE) were then assessed. Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) related to a prior stressor and COVID-related functional impairment were assessed as potential moderators of reactions to pandemic reminders. Results showed that both types of pandemic reminders lowered CSE among participants with either higher PTSS or COVID-related functional impairment. Pandemic reminders did not significantly affect existential anxiety. These findings suggest that reminders of the COVID-19 pandemic may undermine the mental health of psychologically vulnerable populations.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Bladimir Becerra-Canales; Edgar Hernández-Huaripaucar; Juan Mayaute-Ghezzi; Cecilia Solano-García; Patricia Pardo-Angulo; Alejandro Reyes-Uribe; Carmen Chauca; Victor Cáceres; Ana Chang-Laura; Diana De la Cruz; +7 more
    Publisher: Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga de Ica

    Objetivo: Estimar la prevalencia y el nivel de riesgo de adición a teléfonos inteligentes en una muestra de adolescentes. Métodos: Estudio de tipo observacional, prospectivo y transversal, realizado en la ciudad de Ica, Perú. Participaron 120 adolescentes mujeres de 13 a 17 años de una Institución Educativa pública. Se recolectaron características generales y se administró la Escala de adicción a teléfonos inteligentes de 10 preguntas. Se describieron las variables del estudio y se aplicó Chi-cuadrado para evaluar diferencias. Resultados: De las participantes el 13,9% tienen adicción a los teléfonos celulares inteligentes y el 54,1% se encuentran en riesgo alto de dependencia. Presentan mayor riesgo de adicción a estos dispositivos, quienes tuvieron COVID-19, no tuvieron familiar fallecido por COVID-19, ni miedo a la COVID-19, tienen conflictos familiares en el hogar, sentimiento de tristeza, ansiedad o depresión, sentimientos de vergüenza, ha sufrido alguna vez de bullying, no se siente rechazada por la sociedad, no prefiere estar en aislamiento obligatorio por la pandemia por COVID-19, no prefiere las clases virtuales y de 16 a 17 años; sin embargo, las diferencias no resultaron significativas. Conclusiones: La prevalencia y el riesgo de adicción a los teléfonos móviles inteligentes es alta; existen variables generales potencialmente modificables que podrían disminuir el riesgo de dependencia al Smartphone.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Muhič, Simon; Muhič, Tatjana;
    Publisher: Fakulteta za strojništvo
    Country: Slovenia

    This article presents measurements of air quality in school and kindergarten facilities, which were carried out in 311 spaces throughout the Republic of Slovenia, before taking measures to improve energy efficiency of measured buildings. During the measurements, the internal dimensions of the spaces were also measured, as well as data on the energy efficiency of buildings and weather data at the time of the measurements. The measurements focused on indoor carbon dioxide concentration levels and air temperature and relative humidity of indoor air. The performed statistical analysis of measurements shows a large dispersion of measured parameters in buildings, which cannot be statistically significantly related to the analyzed quantities. During the occupancy of the spaces, a statistically significant difference in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the indoor air between the spaces of schools and kindergartens was found. The results of the measurements were also evaluated from the point of view of the COVID-19 pandemic. The average value of measured carbon dioxide value during occupancy of the spaces was compared with the results of a model that predicts an airborne transmission risk. The measured average value of relative humidity in kindergartens shows that relative humidity was 37 %, where is the highest infection risk according to recent studies. The measured average carbon dioxide concentration in classrooms and playrooms significantly exceeds the safe concentration, predicted by the model, to prevent COVID-19 spread at the expected six-hour exposure.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Roumen Balabanov; Krystle Strand; Rajendra Goswami; Eileen J McMahon; Wendy Smith Begolka; Stephen D. Miller; Brian Popko;
    Publisher: Society for Neuroscience

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of the human demyelinating disorder multiple sclerosis (MS). The immune cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is believed to participate in disease pathogenesis in both EAE and MS. In the present study, we examined the significance of IFN-gamma-oligodendrocyte interactions in the course of EAE. For the purpose of our study, we used the previously described [proteolipid protein/suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (PLP/SOCS1)] transgenic mouse line that displays suppressed oligodendrocyte responsiveness to IFN-gamma. PLP/SOCS1 mice developed EAE with an accelerated onset associated with enhanced early inflammation and markedly increased oligodendrocyte apoptosis. Moreover, we found that IFN-gamma pretreatment of mature oligodendrocytes in vitro had a protective effect against oxidative stress and the inhibition of proteasome activity and resulted in upregulation in expression of a number of chemokines, including CXCL10 (IP10), CCL2 (MCP-1), CCL3 (MCP-1alpha), and CCL5 (RANTES). These results suggest that IFN-gamma-oligodendrocyte interactions are of significance to the clinical and pathological aspects of EAE. In addition, the present study suggests that oligodendrocytes are not simply targets of inflammatory injury but active participants of the neuroimmune network operating during the course of EAE.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mahdi Ftouh; Nesrine Kalboussi; Nabil Abid; Souad Sfar; Nathalie Mignet; Badr Bahloul;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the coronavirus disease 2019, a respiratory viral illness linked to significant morbidity, mortality, production loss, and severe economic depression, was the third-largest cause of death in 2020. Respiratory viruses such as influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, SARS-CoV-2, and adenovirus, are among the most common causes of respiratory illness in humans, spreading as pandemics or epidemics throughout all continents. Nanotechnologies are particles in the nanometer range made from various compositions. They can be lipid-based, polymer-based, protein-based, or inorganic in nature, but they are all bioinspired and virus-like. In this review, we aimed to present a short review of the different nanoparticles currently studied, in particular those which led to publications in the field of respiratory viruses. We evaluated those which could be beneficial for respiratory disease-based viruses; those which already have contributed, such as lipid nanoparticles in the context of COVID-19; and those which will contribute in the future either as vaccines or antiviral drug delivery systems. We present a short assessment based on a critical selection of evidence indicating nanotechnology’s promise in the prevention and treatment of respiratory infections.