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7,033 Research products, page 1 of 704

  • COVID-19
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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Navid Mahdizadeh Gharakhanlou; Liliana Perez;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Project: NSERC

    Throughout history, pandemics have forced societies to think beyond typical management and control protocols. The main goals of this study were to simulate and understand the spatial dynamics of COVID-19 spread and assess the efficacy of two policy measures in Montreal, Canada, to mitigate the COVID-19 outbreak. We simulated the COVID-19 outbreak using a Geographical Information System (GIS)-based agent-based model (ABM) and two management scenarios as follows: (1) human mobility reduction; and (2) observation of self-isolation. The ABM description followed the ODD (Overview, Design concepts, Details) protocol. Our simulation experiments indicated that the mainstream of COVID-19 transmissions (i.e., approximately 90.34%) occurred in public places. Besides, the results indicated that the rules aiming to reduce population mobility, led to a reduction of about 63 infected people each week, on average. Furthermore, our scenarios revealed that if instead of 42% (i.e., the adjusted value in the calibration), 10%, 20%, and 30% of infectious people had followed the self-isolation measure, the number of infected people would have risen by approximately 259, 207, and 83 more each week, on average, respectively. The map of critical locations of COVID-19 spreading resulted from our modeling and the evaluated effectiveness of two control measures on the COVID-19 outbreak could assist health policymakers to navigate through the pandemic.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Fengwen Xu; Geng Wang; Fei Zhao; Yu Huang; Zhangling Fan; Shan Mei; Yu Xie; Liang Wei; Yamei Hu; Conghui Wang; +5 more
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Project: CIHR

    SARS-CoV-2 has become a global threat to public health. Infected individuals can be asymptomatic or develop mild to severe symptoms, including pneumonia, respiratory distress, and death. This wide spectrum of clinical presentations of SARS-CoV-2 infection is believed in part due to the polymorphisms of key genetic factors in the population. In this study, we report that the interferon-induced antiviral factor IFITM3 inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection by preventing SARS-CoV-2 spike-protein-mediated virus entry and cell-to-cell fusion. Analysis of a Chinese COVID-19 patient cohort demonstrates that the rs12252 CC genotype of IFITM3 is associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection risk in the studied cohort. These data suggest that individuals carrying the rs12252 C allele in the IFITM3 gene may be vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection and thus may benefit from early medical intervention.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hanspeter Kriesi; Ioana-Elena Oana;
    Publisher: Routledge
    Country: Italy
    Project: SSHRC

    Published online: 07 November 2022 Based on an original protest event analysis (PEA) dataset covering 30 European countries, this paper provides three sets of results. Despite its unlikeliness due to lockdowns and social distancing measures, protest during COVID-19 has hardly been put to a halt even if, as a result of the restrictions imposed by the lockdown measures on the opportunities of public collective actions, protest occurred at significantly lower levels compared to pre-COVID-19 times, in terms of number of events and, above all, in terms of the number of participants. Moreover, protest was refocused on COVID-19-related issues, in particular on protest against the restrictions imposed by the government lockdowns, while non-COVID-19 issues, in particular economic issues, were crowded out. In addition, protest during the COVID-19-crisis also responded to highly contingent national context conditions which varied between the different regions of Europe.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ellen MacEachen; Angelique de Rijk; Johnny Dyreborg; Jean-Baptiste Fassier; Michael Fletcher; Pamela Hopwood; Meri Koivusalo; Shannon Majowicz; Samantha Meyer; Christian Ståhl; +1 more
    Countries: Finland, Netherlands, Sweden
    Project: CIHR

    In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, this commentary describes and compares shifting employment and occupational health social protections of low-wage workers, including self-employed digital platform workers. Through a focus on eight advanced economy countries, this paper identifies how employment misclassification and definitions of employees were handled in law and policy. Debates about minimum wage and occupational health and safety standards as they relate to worker well-being are considered. Finally, we discuss promising changes introduced during the COVID-19 pandemic that protect the health of low-wage and self-employed workers. Overall, we describe an ongoing "haves" and a "have not" divide, with on the one extreme, traditional job arrangements with good work-and-health social protections and, on the other extreme, low-wage and self-employed digital platform workers who are mostly left out of schemes. However, during the pandemic small and often temporary gains occurred and are discussed. Funding Agencies|Canadian Institutes of Health Research [VR5-172687]

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mehrabi, Sarvenaz;
    Publisher: Scholarship@Western
    Country: Canada

    Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, immigrants have been disproportionally affected and faced difficulties in accessing healthcare services. While it has been reported that the rate of pediatric healthcare utilization decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic, the reasons behind this decline are unclear. It has been suggested that immigrant children might be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions regarding accessing healthcare services. This study aims to understand the Middle Eastern immigrant parents’ perspectives regarding their access to healthcare services for their children in the London, Ontario, area during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted with an interpretive description methodology and informed by the socio-ecological model. Seven participants were interviewed, and data were analyzed thematic analysis using NVivo (1.6.1). Findings: Four main themes were generated: 1) Navigating Health Services: “Limited and Confusing”, 2) Being an Immigrant Made it Hard, 3) Less Intention of Utilizing Child Health Services, and 4) Limited/No Mental Health Utilization. Conclusion: Educational plans for immigrants and healthcare providers, improving effective communication between immigrants and healthcare providers, transferring health information with culturally friendly sources, and collaboration between schools and health services may aid immigrants to have better access to child healthcare services, especially during public health emergencies like a pandemic.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jean Reale; Emma O’Brien; T. J. Ó. Ceallaigh; Cornelia Connolly;
    Publisher: Springer, Cham
    Country: Ireland

    In a rapidly changing educational landscape digital access has become a fundamental need for all learners and educators. Without virtual access to education in March 2020, as a result of the COVID-19 global pandemic, education would have been inaccessible for all. It is in this context of rapidly widening access to digital learning resources that we examine the opportunities for students to become co-creators. Open educational resources (OERs) are central to achieving the creation of a valuable ecosystem for the student, practitioner and educator in which to create and collaborate. This chapter introduces the concept of open and participatory education which provides globally available equal access to collective knowledge. We follow with an explanation of the transition from the passive consumption of technology to students as designers ensuring understanding of the how, where and why learning takes place through the effective use of learner designed OER. The chapter views OER through the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) lens to support the underpinning of inclusive and equitable design for all. The chapter contributes to the theoretically motivated arguments regarding OER and UDL for students and educators at higher education; particularly, it contributes to the discussion of the design of artefacts for learning in formal education and across multiple settings. Furthermore, the chapter highlights the importance of the third space, where we embed UDL design principles in OER design, to establish a supportive technological infrastructure for learning. Peer reviewed 2024-10-26

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sari Mansour; Malik Faisal Azeem; Maureen Dollard; Rachael Potter;
    Publisher: Switzerland : MDPIAG
    Country: Australia
    Project: SSHRC

    Healthcare sector organizations have long been facing the issue of productivity loss due to presenteeism which is affected by psychosocial safety climate (PSC) and work intensification. Presenteeism has visibly increased among nurses during COVID-19 pandemic period. Grounded in COR theory and sensemaking theory, the current study aimed to examine the role PSC plays as driver or moderator to reduce presenteeism by lessening work intensification over time and the impact of work intensification over time on presenteeism during the COVID-19 pandemic. Adopting a time-lagged research design, this study gathered data from randomly selected registered nurses, practicing in Quebec, Canada in two phases, i.e., 800 at Time 1 and 344 at Time 2 through email surveys. The study results showed that (1) PSC reduces presenteeism over time by reducing work intensification at time 1; (2) PSC moderates the relationship between work intensification at time 1 and work intensification at time 2; and (3) PSC as moderator also lessens the detrimental effect of work intensification at time 2 on presenteeism at time 2. Presenteeism among nurses affects their health and psychological well-being. We find that PSC is likely an effective organizational tool particularly in crises situations, by providing an organizational mechanism to assist nurses cope (through a resource caravan, management support) with managing intensified work. Refereed/Peer-reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Koziarski, Jacek;
    Publisher: Scholarship@Western
    Country: Canada

    For many decades the police have been the de facto responders to persons with perceived mental illness (PwPMI). However, having the police in this role has come with negative repercussions for PwPMI, such as disproportionately experiencing criminalization and use of force. In recognizing these issues, the police—and more recently, the community—have developed responses that either seek to improve interactions between the police and PwPMI or remove the police from this role altogether. However, in either case, these efforts are reactive in nature, responding to crises that arguably could have been prevented had a timelier intervention taken place. Further, evidence on certain police responses to PwPMI, such as Crisis Intervention Teams (CIT) and co-response teams, suggests that they endure deployment-related challenges, thus limiting their reach to PwPMI. Drawing from the Criminology of Place and existing place-based policing strategies, the present dissertation argues that efforts focused on responding to PwPMI should instead be proactively deployed, targeting areas where interactions between police and PwPMI concentrate spatially. Doing so would not only result in efficient deployment of scarce resources but would permit police- and community-based efforts to have a greater reach to PwPMI and thus prevent future interactions with police. To-date, however, there have been few empirical and theoretical investigations into the spatial patterns of PwPMI calls for service that could inform such proactive, place-based efforts. Specifically, we do not currently understand: (1) the degree to which PwPMI calls for service concentrate within certain geographical contexts (such as a small city); (2) whether the degree of PwPMI call concentration and the location of these calls remain stable over time; and (3) what theoretical frameworks explain why PwPMI calls for service occur where they do. Drawing on seven years (2014-2020) of calls for service data from the Barrie Police Service and data from the 2016 Canadian Census, the present dissertation employs various methods of spatial analysis to fills these specific knowledge gaps. Although the theoretical investigation confirmed the findings of previous work that found no association between social disorganization theory and the spatial patterns of PwPMI calls for service, the present dissertation revealed: (1) PwPMI calls for service are highly concentrated within the context of a small city, even more so than what has previously been uncovered in larger jurisdictions; (2) the degree of PwPMI call concentration is stable over time, falling within a narrow proportional bandwidth of spatial units; and (3) PwPMI calls for service, and their concentrations, occur in the same places over time—even during the COVID-19 pandemic—and are thus spatially stable. As such, though more scholarship is needed on theories that might help explain why PwPMI calls occur where they do, the findings of the present dissertation strongly support the proactive, place-based deployment of resources to PwPMI.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sheikh, Fatima;
    Country: Canada

    Introduction: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has had a global effect. While most of the transmission occurs through droplets produced by an infected individual, SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted through virus-containing aerosols. The use of N95 respirators reduces the risk of infection; however, in the absence of standardized testing facilities, as well as supply chain and border challenges, Canadian healthcare workers (HCW) had to rely on United States (US) standards and respirators. In Canada, women represent 82% of HCWs, but most masks and respirators have been designed based on the anthropometrics of average men in the US and Europe. In the absence of a tight seal, female HCWs and any individual who does not fit the average male head and face, including individuals of different ethnicities, are at risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 and other infectious diseases. Thus, there is a knowledge gap on the effects of gender and ethnicity on the fit of N95 respirators and the implications of poor fit on the physical and psychological well-being of HCWs. Objectives: Primary: Feasibility of a multi-center mixed-method study, with a sample size of 100, 50% of participants self-identifying as non-white and having at least 1 characteristic of interest. Secondary: (1) Generate quantitative evidence on N95 fit using a PortaCount fit test, (2) describe participant-reported feelings on fit and breathability, and (3) evaluate the impacts of the pandemic and limited supply of N95’s on a HCWs overall physical and mental well-being. Methods: This study was a mixed-method prospective pilot and feasibility study consisting of (1) a quantitative fit test and (2) a qualitative survey on N95 fit and comfort, as perceived by HCWs. The quantitative fit was assessed using a TSI PortaCount test and facial measurements of bizygomatic breadth and Menton-Sellion length. In parallel, a survey was administered to collect sociodemographic information, gauge the HCW's assessment of N95 fit and comfort, and assess the impact of PPE- related challenges on the physical and mental well-being of HCWs. Analysis: Primary: The sample size, the proportion of various HCWs, and the number of participants who completed both aspects of the study were reported using descriptive statistics. Secondary: The results of the quantitative fit test, as well as the domains assessed in the survey using Likert scales, were summarized using descriptive statistics. Additional patient-reported assessments were collated and presented to provide a comprehensive reflection of HCW's feelings and attitudes on respirator fit and comfort. Results: Following a study amendment to increase eligible sites, 37 of the 41 (90.2%) approached HCWs consented to participate, 36 of the 41 (97.3%) were successfully fitted, and all 36 HCWs completed the survey. Compared to the other included HCWs, female HCWs who identified as non-White had the lowest mean fit factor. Differences in Menton-sellion length and bizygomatic breadth were also observed between both male and female HCWs and between white and non-White HCWs. These results were corroborated by the survey data. On average, female HCWs reported lower scores in all measured domains, and the majority of HCWs reported physical discomfort, including headaches and itching, and negative impacts on their psychological well-being, as a result of fit, availability, and prolonged use of N95. Conclusion: Despite the challenges of conducting research in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, we have identified gender and ethnicity as key factors in the fit of N95 respirators and the negative implications of existing respirator designs on the physical and psychological well-being of HCWs. Future studies, including a larger mixed-method study, and respirator designs should consider the effects of gender and ethnicity to ensure that they reflect the diverse demographic of HCWs. Thesis Master of Science (MSc)

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Labach, Daniel S;
    Publisher: Scholarship@Western
    Country: Canada

    The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused extensive mortality and societal disruption. BOLD-100 is a novel anticancer therapeutic being considered to treat COVID-19. We hypothesized that BOLD-100 inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication and progression of COVID-19. Using Western blotting, quantitative RT-PCR, and cell viability assays, we determined that BOLD-100 inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro. RNA sequencing analysis demonstrated that BOLD-100 inhibits virus-induced transcriptional changes in infected cells. Intravenous BOLD-100 treatment of SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters did not significantly alter body weight, lung viral load or pathological lesions. Finally, we showed that the antiviral activity of BOLD-100 is not specific for SARS-CoV-2 and can also inhibit replication of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 and Human Adenovirus type 5. This study identifies BOLD-100 as a novel antiviral agent and will inform its future preclinical development.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
7,033 Research products, page 1 of 704
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Navid Mahdizadeh Gharakhanlou; Liliana Perez;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Project: NSERC

    Throughout history, pandemics have forced societies to think beyond typical management and control protocols. The main goals of this study were to simulate and understand the spatial dynamics of COVID-19 spread and assess the efficacy of two policy measures in Montreal, Canada, to mitigate the COVID-19 outbreak. We simulated the COVID-19 outbreak using a Geographical Information System (GIS)-based agent-based model (ABM) and two management scenarios as follows: (1) human mobility reduction; and (2) observation of self-isolation. The ABM description followed the ODD (Overview, Design concepts, Details) protocol. Our simulation experiments indicated that the mainstream of COVID-19 transmissions (i.e., approximately 90.34%) occurred in public places. Besides, the results indicated that the rules aiming to reduce population mobility, led to a reduction of about 63 infected people each week, on average. Furthermore, our scenarios revealed that if instead of 42% (i.e., the adjusted value in the calibration), 10%, 20%, and 30% of infectious people had followed the self-isolation measure, the number of infected people would have risen by approximately 259, 207, and 83 more each week, on average, respectively. The map of critical locations of COVID-19 spreading resulted from our modeling and the evaluated effectiveness of two control measures on the COVID-19 outbreak could assist health policymakers to navigate through the pandemic.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Fengwen Xu; Geng Wang; Fei Zhao; Yu Huang; Zhangling Fan; Shan Mei; Yu Xie; Liang Wei; Yamei Hu; Conghui Wang; +5 more
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Project: CIHR

    SARS-CoV-2 has become a global threat to public health. Infected individuals can be asymptomatic or develop mild to severe symptoms, including pneumonia, respiratory distress, and death. This wide spectrum of clinical presentations of SARS-CoV-2 infection is believed in part due to the polymorphisms of key genetic factors in the population. In this study, we report that the interferon-induced antiviral factor IFITM3 inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection by preventing SARS-CoV-2 spike-protein-mediated virus entry and cell-to-cell fusion. Analysis of a Chinese COVID-19 patient cohort demonstrates that the rs12252 CC genotype of IFITM3 is associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection risk in the studied cohort. These data suggest that individuals carrying the rs12252 C allele in the IFITM3 gene may be vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection and thus may benefit from early medical intervention.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hanspeter Kriesi; Ioana-Elena Oana;
    Publisher: Routledge
    Country: Italy
    Project: SSHRC

    Published online: 07 November 2022 Based on an original protest event analysis (PEA) dataset covering 30 European countries, this paper provides three sets of results. Despite its unlikeliness due to lockdowns and social distancing measures, protest during COVID-19 has hardly been put to a halt even if, as a result of the restrictions imposed by the lockdown measures on the opportunities of public collective actions, protest occurred at significantly lower levels compared to pre-COVID-19 times, in terms of number of events and, above all, in terms of the number of participants. Moreover, protest was refocused on COVID-19-related issues, in particular on protest against the restrictions imposed by the government lockdowns, while non-COVID-19 issues, in particular economic issues, were crowded out. In addition, protest during the COVID-19-crisis also responded to highly contingent national context conditions which varied between the different regions of Europe.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ellen MacEachen; Angelique de Rijk; Johnny Dyreborg; Jean-Baptiste Fassier; Michael Fletcher; Pamela Hopwood; Meri Koivusalo; Shannon Majowicz; Samantha Meyer; Christian Ståhl; +1 more
    Countries: Finland, Netherlands, Sweden
    Project: CIHR

    In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, this commentary describes and compares shifting employment and occupational health social protections of low-wage workers, including self-employed digital platform workers. Through a focus on eight advanced economy countries, this paper identifies how employment misclassification and definitions of employees were handled in law and policy. Debates about minimum wage and occupational health and safety standards as they relate to worker well-being are considered. Finally, we discuss promising changes introduced during the COVID-19 pandemic that protect the health of low-wage and self-employed workers. Overall, we describe an ongoing "haves" and a "have not" divide, with on the one extreme, traditional job arrangements with good work-and-health social protections and, on the other extreme, low-wage and self-employed digital platform workers who are mostly left out of schemes. However, during the pandemic small and often temporary gains occurred and are discussed. Funding Agencies|Canadian Institutes of Health Research [VR5-172687]

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mehrabi, Sarvenaz;
    Publisher: Scholarship@Western
    Country: Canada

    Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, immigrants have been disproportionally affected and faced difficulties in accessing healthcare services. While it has been reported that the rate of pediatric healthcare utilization decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic, the reasons behind this decline are unclear. It has been suggested that immigrant children might be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions regarding accessing healthcare services. This study aims to understand the Middle Eastern immigrant parents’ perspectives regarding their access to healthcare services for their children in the London, Ontario, area during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted with an interpretive description methodology and informed by the socio-ecological model. Seven participants were interviewed, and data were analyzed thematic analysis using NVivo (1.6.1). Findings: Four main themes were generated: 1) Navigating Health Services: “Limited and Confusing”, 2) Being an Immigrant Made it Hard, 3) Less Intention of Utilizing Child Health Services, and 4) Limited/No Mental Health Utilization. Conclusion: Educational plans for immigrants and healthcare providers, improving effective communication between immigrants and healthcare providers, transferring health information with culturally friendly sources, and collaboration between schools and health services may aid immigrants to have better access to child healthcare services, especially during public health emergencies like a pandemic.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jean Reale; Emma O’Brien; T. J. Ó. Ceallaigh; Cornelia Connolly;
    Publisher: Springer, Cham
    Country: Ireland

    In a rapidly changing educational landscape digital access has become a fundamental need for all learners and educators. Without virtual access to education in March 2020, as a result of the COVID-19 global pandemic, education would have been inaccessible for all. It is in this context of rapidly widening access to digital learning resources that we examine the opportunities for students to become co-creators. Open educational resources (OERs) are central to achieving the creation of a valuable ecosystem for the student, practitioner and educator in which to create and collaborate. This chapter introduces the concept of open and participatory education which provides globally available equal access to collective knowledge. We follow with an explanation of the transition from the passive consumption of technology to students as designers ensuring understanding of the how, where and why learning takes place through the effective use of learner designed OER. The chapter views OER through the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) lens to support the underpinning of inclusive and equitable design for all. The chapter contributes to the theoretically motivated arguments regarding OER and UDL for students and educators at higher education; particularly, it contributes to the discussion of the design of artefacts for learning in formal education and across multiple settings. Furthermore, the chapter highlights the importance of the third space, where we embed UDL design principles in OER design, to establish a supportive technological infrastructure for learning. Peer reviewed 2024-10-26

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sari Mansour; Malik Faisal Azeem; Maureen Dollard; Rachael Potter;
    Publisher: Switzerland : MDPIAG
    Country: Australia
    Project: SSHRC

    Healthcare sector organizations have long been facing the issue of productivity loss due to presenteeism which is affected by psychosocial safety climate (PSC) and work intensification. Presenteeism has visibly increased among nurses during COVID-19 pandemic period. Grounded in COR theory and sensemaking theory, the current study aimed to examine the role PSC plays as driver or moderator to reduce presenteeism by lessening work intensification over time and the impact of work intensification over time on presenteeism during the COVID-19 pandemic. Adopting a time-lagged research design, this study gathered data from randomly selected registered nurses, practicing in Quebec, Canada in two phases, i.e., 800 at Time 1 and 344 at Time 2 through email surveys. The study results showed that (1) PSC reduces presenteeism over time by reducing work intensification at time 1; (2) PSC moderates the relationship between work intensification at time 1 and work intensification at time 2; and (3) PSC as moderator also lessens the detrimental effect of work intensification at time 2 on presenteeism at time 2. Presenteeism among nurses affects their health and psychological well-being. We find that PSC is likely an effective organizational tool particularly in crises situations, by providing an organizational mechanism to assist nurses cope (through a resource caravan, management support) with managing intensified work. Refereed/Peer-reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Koziarski, Jacek;
    Publisher: Scholarship@Western
    Country: Canada

    For many decades the police have been the de facto responders to persons with perceived mental illness (PwPMI). However, having the police in this role has come with negative repercussions for PwPMI, such as disproportionately experiencing criminalization and use of force. In recognizing these issues, the police—and more recently, the community—have developed responses that either seek to improve interactions between the police and PwPMI or remove the police from this role altogether. However, in either case, these efforts are reactive in nature, responding to crises that arguably could have been prevented had a timelier intervention taken place. Further, evidence on certain police responses to PwPMI, such as Crisis Intervention Teams (CIT) and co-response teams, suggests that they endure deployment-related challenges, thus limiting their reach to PwPMI. Drawing from the Criminology of Place and existing place-based policing strategies, the present dissertation argues that efforts focused on responding to PwPMI should instead be proactively deployed, targeting areas where interactions between police and PwPMI concentrate spatially. Doing so would not only result in efficient deployment of scarce resources but would permit police- and community-based efforts to have a greater reach to PwPMI and thus prevent future interactions with police. To-date, however, there have been few empirical and theoretical investigations into the spatial patterns of PwPMI calls for service that could inform such proactive, place-based efforts. Specifically, we do not currently understand: (1) the degree to which PwPMI calls for service concentrate within certain geographical contexts (such as a small city); (2) whether the degree of PwPMI call concentration and the location of these calls remain stable over time; and (3) what theoretical frameworks explain why PwPMI calls for service occur where they do. Drawing on seven years (2014-2020) of calls for service data from the Barrie Police Service and data from the 2016 Canadian Census, the present dissertation employs various methods of spatial analysis to fills these specific knowledge gaps. Although the theoretical investigation confirmed the findings of previous work that found no association between social disorganization theory and the spatial patterns of PwPMI calls for service, the present dissertation revealed: (1) PwPMI calls for service are highly concentrated within the context of a small city, even more so than what has previously been uncovered in larger jurisdictions; (2) the degree of PwPMI call concentration is stable over time, falling within a narrow proportional bandwidth of spatial units; and (3) PwPMI calls for service, and their concentrations, occur in the same places over time—even during the COVID-19 pandemic—and are thus spatially stable. As such, though more scholarship is needed on theories that might help explain why PwPMI calls occur where they do, the findings of the present dissertation strongly support the proactive, place-based deployment of resources to PwPMI.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sheikh, Fatima;
    Country: Canada

    Introduction: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has had a global effect. While most of the transmission occurs through droplets produced by an infected individual, SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted through virus-containing aerosols. The use of N95 respirators reduces the risk of infection; however, in the absence of standardized testing facilities, as well as supply chain and border challenges, Canadian healthcare workers (HCW) had to rely on United States (US) standards and respirators. In Canada, women represent 82% of HCWs, but most masks and respirators have been designed based on the anthropometrics of average men in the US and Europe. In the absence of a tight seal, female HCWs and any individual who does not fit the average male head and face, including individuals of different ethnicities, are at risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 and other infectious diseases. Thus, there is a knowledge gap on the effects of gender and ethnicity on the fit of N95 respirators and the implications of poor fit on the physical and psychological well-being of HCWs. Objectives: Primary: Feasibility of a multi-center mixed-method study, with a sample size of 100, 50% of participants self-identifying as non-white and having at least 1 characteristic of interest. Secondary: (1) Generate quantitative evidence on N95 fit using a PortaCount fit test, (2) describe participant-reported feelings on fit and breathability, and (3) evaluate the impacts of the pandemic and limited supply of N95’s on a HCWs overall physical and mental well-being. Methods: This study was a mixed-method prospective pilot and feasibility study consisting of (1) a quantitative fit test and (2) a qualitative survey on N95 fit and comfort, as perceived by HCWs. The quantitative fit was assessed using a TSI PortaCount test and facial measurements of bizygomatic breadth and Menton-Sellion length. In parallel, a survey was administered to collect sociodemographic information, gauge the HCW's assessment of N95 fit and comfort, and assess the impact of PPE- related challenges on the physical and mental well-being of HCWs. Analysis: Primary: The sample size, the proportion of various HCWs, and the number of participants who completed both aspects of the study were reported using descriptive statistics. Secondary: The results of the quantitative fit test, as well as the domains assessed in the survey using Likert scales, were summarized using descriptive statistics. Additional patient-reported assessments were collated and presented to provide a comprehensive reflection of HCW's feelings and attitudes on respirator fit and comfort. Results: Following a study amendment to increase eligible sites, 37 of the 41 (90.2%) approached HCWs consented to participate, 36 of the 41 (97.3%) were successfully fitted, and all 36 HCWs completed the survey. Compared to the other included HCWs, female HCWs who identified as non-White had the lowest mean fit factor. Differences in Menton-sellion length and bizygomatic breadth were also observed between both male and female HCWs and between white and non-White HCWs. These results were corroborated by the survey data. On average, female HCWs reported lower scores in all measured domains, and the majority of HCWs reported physical discomfort, including headaches and itching, and negative impacts on their psychological well-being, as a result of fit, availability, and prolonged use of N95. Conclusion: Despite the challenges of conducting research in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, we have identified gender and ethnicity as key factors in the fit of N95 respirators and the negative implications of existing respirator designs on the physical and psychological well-being of HCWs. Future studies, including a larger mixed-method study, and respirator designs should consider the effects of gender and ethnicity to ensure that they reflect the diverse demographic of HCWs. Thesis Master of Science (MSc)

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Labach, Daniel S;
    Publisher: Scholarship@Western
    Country: Canada

    The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused extensive mortality and societal disruption. BOLD-100 is a novel anticancer therapeutic being considered to treat COVID-19. We hypothesized that BOLD-100 inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication and progression of COVID-19. Using Western blotting, quantitative RT-PCR, and cell viability assays, we determined that BOLD-100 inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro. RNA sequencing analysis demonstrated that BOLD-100 inhibits virus-induced transcriptional changes in infected cells. Intravenous BOLD-100 treatment of SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters did not significantly alter body weight, lung viral load or pathological lesions. Finally, we showed that the antiviral activity of BOLD-100 is not specific for SARS-CoV-2 and can also inhibit replication of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 and Human Adenovirus type 5. This study identifies BOLD-100 as a novel antiviral agent and will inform its future preclinical development.