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472 Research products, page 1 of 48

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Moritz U. G. Kraemer; Chia-Hung Yang; Bernardo Gutierrez; Chieh-Hsi Wu; Brennan Klein; David M. Pigott; Louis du Plessis; Nuno R. Faria; Ruoran Li; William P. Hanage; +7 more
    Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science
    Countries: France, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Kingdom
    Project: NIH | MIDAS Center for Communic... (1U54GM088558-01)

    The ongoing COVID-19 outbreak has expanded rapidly throughout China. Major behavioral, clinical, and state interventions are underway currently to mitigate the epidemic and prevent the persistence of the virus in human populations in China and worldwide. It remains unclear how these unprecedented interventions, including travel restrictions, have affected COVID-19 spread in China. We use real-time mobility data from Wuhan and detailed case data including travel history to elucidate the role of case importation on transmission in cities across China and ascertain the impact of control measures. Early on, the spatial distribution of COVID-19 cases in China was well explained by human mobility data. Following the implementation of control measures, this correlation dropped and growth rates became negative in most locations, although shifts in the demographics of reported cases are still indicative of local chains of transmission outside Wuhan. This study shows that the drastic control measures implemented in China have substantially mitigated the spread of COVID-19. One sentence summary: The spread of COVID-19 in China was driven by human mobility early on and mitigated substantially by drastic control measures implemented since the end of January.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Achraf Ammar; Michael Brach; Khaled Trabelsi; Hamdi Chtourou; Omar Boukhris; Liwa Masmoudi; Bassem Bouaziz; Ellen Bentlage; Daniella How; Mona A. Ahmed; +47 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    AbstractBackgroundPublic health recommendations and governmental measures during the COVID-19 pandemic have enforced numerous restrictions on daily living including social distancing, isolation and home confinement. While these measures are imperative to abate the spreading of COVID-19, the impact of these restrictions on health behaviours and lifestyle at home is undefined. Therefore, an international online survey was launched in April 2020 in seven languages to elucidate the behavioral and lifestyle consequences of COVID-19 restrictions. This report presents the preliminary results from the first thousand responders on physical activity (PA) and nutrition behaviours.MethodsThirty-five research organisations from Europe, North-Africa, Western Asia and the Americas promoted the survey through their networks to the general society, in English, German, French, Arabic, Spanish, Portugese, and Slovenian languages. Questions were presented in a differential format with questions related to responses “before” and “during” confinement conditions.Results1047 replies (54% women) from Asia (36%), Africa (40%), Europe (21%) and other (3%) were included into a general analysis. The COVID-19 home confinement had a negative effect on all intensities of PA (vigorous, moderate, walking and overall). Conversely, daily sitting time increased from 5 to 8 hours per day. Additionally, food consumption and meal patterns (the type of food, eating out of control, snacks between meals, number of meals) were more unhealthy during confinement with only alcohol binge drink decreasing significantly.ConclusionWhile isolation is a necessary measure to protect public health, our results indicate that it alters physical activity and eating behaviours in a direction that would compromise health. A more detailed analysis of survey data will allow for a segregation of these responses in different age groups, countries and other subgroups which will help develop bespoke interventions to mitigate the negative lifestyle behaviors manifest during the COVID-19 confinement.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Cyril Fersing; Clotilde Boudot; Julien Pedron; Sébastien Hutter; Nicolas Primas; Caroline Castera-Ducros; Sandra Bourgeade-Delmas; Alix Sournia-Saquet; Alain Moreau; Anita Cohen; +11 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; Based on a previously identified antileishmanial 6,8-dibromo-3-nitroimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine derivative, a Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction at position 8 of the scaffold was studied and optimized from a 8-bromo-6-chloro-3-nitroimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine substrate. Twenty-one original derivatives were prepared, screened in vitro for activity against L. infantum axenic amastigotes and T. brucei brucei trypomastigotes and evaluated for their cytotoxicity on the HepG2 human cell line. Thus, 7 antileishmanial hit compounds were identified, displaying IC50 values in the 1.1-3 μM range. Compounds 13 and 23, the 2 most selective molecules (SI = >18 or >17) were additionally tested on both the promastigote and intramacrophage amastigote stages of L. donovani. The two molecules presented a good activity (IC50 = 1.2-1.3 μM) on the promastigote stage but only molecule 23, bearing a 4-pyridinyl substituent at position 8, was active on the intracellular amastigote stage, with a good IC50 value (2.3 μM), slightly lower than the one of miltefosine (IC50 = 4.3 μM). The antiparasitic screening also revealed 8 antitrypanosomal hit compounds, including 14 and 20, 2 very active (IC50 = 0.04-0.16 μM) and selective (SI = >313 to 550) molecules toward T. brucei brucei, in comparison with drug-candidate fexinidazole (IC50 = 0.6 & SI > 333) or reference drugs suramin and eflornithine (respective IC50 = 0.03 and 13.3 μM). Introducing an aryl moiety at position 8 of the scaffold quite significantly increased the antitrypanosomal activity of the pharmacophore. Antikinetoplastid molecules 13, 14, 20 and 23 were assessed for bioactivation by parasitic nitroreductases (either in L. donovani or in T. brucei brucei), using genetically modified parasite strains that over-express NTRs: all these molecules are substrates of type 1 nitroreductases (NTR1), such as those that are responsible for the bioactivation of fexinidazole. Reduction potentials measured for these 4 hit compounds were higher than that of fexinidazole (-0.83 V), ranging from -0.70 to -0.64 V.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Javid Kavousi; Forough Goudarzi; Mohammad Reza Izadi; Charlie J. Gardner;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Countries: United Kingdom, France
    Project: ANR | ISBlue (ANR-17-EURE-0015)

    International audience; The conservation of biodiversity-and the vital ecosystem services it generates-is one of the greatest challenges humanity faces, yet the field faces drastic funding cuts as society realigns its priorities in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we argue that diverting attention from conservation would, however, increase the risk of further global health crises because the emergence of novel infectious diseases is partially driven by global environmental change. As the discrepancy between conservation needs and society's willingness to pay for them grows, conservation will have to evolve to stay relevant in the age global change-induced human infectious disease.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Patricija van Oosten-Hawle; Steven Bergink; Brian S. J. Blagg; Jeff Brodsky; Adrienne L. Edkins; Brian C. Freeman; Olivier Genest; Linda M. Hendershot; Harm H. Kampinga; Jill L. Johnson; +10 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Netherlands, France, United Kingdom, United Kingdom

    AbstractMembers of the Cell Stress Society International (CSSI), Patricija van Oosten-Hawle (University of Leeds, UK), Mehdi Mollapour (SUNY Upstate Medical University, USA), Andrew Truman (University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA) organized a new virtual meeting format which took place on November 5–6, 2020. The goal of this congress was to provide an international platform for scientists to exchange data and ideas among the Cell Stress and Chaperones community during the Covid-19 pandemic. Here we will highlight the summary of the meeting and acknowledge those who were honored by the CSSI.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Laura Di Domenico; Giulia Pullano; Chiara E. Sabbatini; Pierre-Yves Boëlle; Vittoria Colizza;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: ANR | DataRedux (ANR-19-CE46-0008), ANR | SPHINx (ANR-17-CE36-0008), EC | MOOD (874850)

    As countries in Europe implement strategies to control the COVID-19 pandemic, different options are chosen regarding schools. Through a stochastic age-structured transmission model calibrated to the observed epidemic in Île-de-France in the first wave, we explored scenarios of partial, progressive, or full school reopening. Given the uncertainty on children’s role, we found that reopening schools after lockdown may increase COVID-19 cases, yet protocols exist to keep the epidemic controlled. Under a scenario with stable epidemic activity if schools were closed, reopening pre-schools and primary schools would lead to up to 76% [67, 84]% occupation of ICU beds if no other school level reopened, or if middle and high schools reopened later. Immediately reopening all school levels may overwhelm the ICU system. Priority should be given to pre- and primary schools allowing younger children to resume learning and development, whereas full attendance in middle and high schools is not recommended for stable or increasing epidemic activity. Large-scale test and trace is required to keep the epidemic under control. Ex-post assessment shows that progressive reopening of schools, limited attendance, and strong adoption of preventive measures contributed to a decreasing epidemic after lifting the first lockdown. The role of children in the spread of COVID-19 is not fully understood, and the circumstances under which schools should be opened are therefore debated. Here, the authors demonstrate protocols by which schools in France can be safely opened without overwhelming the healthcare system.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gordon Pennycook; Jonathon McPhetres; Bence Bago; David G. Rand;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: United Kingdom, France
    Project: SSHRC , CIHR

    What are the psychological consequences of the increasingly politicized nature of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States relative to similar Western countries? In a two-wave study completed early (March) and later (December) in the pandemic, we found that polarization was greater in the United States ( N = 1,339) than in Canada ( N = 644) and the United Kingdom. ( N = 1,283). Political conservatism in the United States was strongly associated with engaging in weaker mitigation behaviors, lower COVID-19 risk perceptions, greater misperceptions, and stronger vaccination hesitancy. Although there was some evidence that cognitive sophistication was associated with increased polarization in the United States in December (but not March), cognitive sophistication was nonetheless consistently negatively correlated with misperceptions and vaccination hesitancy across time, countries, and party lines. Furthermore, COVID-19 skepticism in the United States was strongly correlated with distrust in liberal-leaning mainstream news outlets and trust in conservative-leaning news outlets, suggesting that polarization may be driven by differences in information environments.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Wunsch, Natasha;
    Countries: United Kingdom, France, France

    contribution à un site web; Several countries in the Western Balkans have responded to the Covid-19 outbreak with draconian measures that entail a further erosion of democracy, writes Natasha Wunsch. She argues the pandemic is shining a spotlight on the impact of geopolitical competition in the Western Balkans, where authoritarian forces are undermining the EU’s democracy promotion efforts.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Guodong Liang; Xiaoyan Gao; Ernest A. Gould;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, United Kingdom
    Project: EC | PREDEMICS (278433), EC | SILVER (260644)

    International audience; Slave trading of Africans to the Americas, during the 16th to the 19th century was responsible for the first recorded emergence in the New World of two arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), yellow fever virus and dengue virus. Many other arboviruses have since emerged from their sylvatic reservoirs and dispersed globally due to evolving factors that include anthropological behaviour, commercial transportation and land-remediation. Here, we outline some characteristics of these highly divergent arboviruses, including the variety of life cycles they have developed and the mechanisms by which they have adapted to evolving changes in habitat and host availability. We cite recent examples of virus emergence that exemplify how arboviruses have exploited the consequences of the modern human lifestyle. Using our current understanding of these viruses, we also attempt to demonstrate some of the limitations encountered in developing control strategies to reduce the impact of future emerging arbovirus diseases. Finally, we present recommendations for development by an international panel of experts reporting directly to World Health Organization, with the intention of providing internationally acceptable guidelines for improving emerging arbovirus disease control strategies. Success in these aims should alleviate the suffering and costs encountered during recent decades when arboviruses have emerged from their sylvatic environment.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Wickenhagen, A; Sugrue, E; Lytras, S; Kuchi, S; Noerenberg, M; Turnbull, ML; Loney, C; Herder, V; Allan, J; Jarmson, I; +190 more
    Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science
    Countries: France, United Kingdom

    International audience; INTRODUCTIONInterferons (IFNs) are cytokines that are rapidly deployed in response to invading pathogens. By initiating a signaling cascade that stimulates the expression of hundreds of genes, IFNs create an antiviral state in host cells. Because IFNs heavily influence COVID-19 outcomes, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) replication can be inhibited by the antiviral state, it is important to understand how the individual antiviral effectors encoded by IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) inhibit SARS-CoV-2.RATIONALEWe hypothesized that IFN-stimulated antiviral effectors can inhibit SARS-CoV-2, and that variation at the loci encoding these defenses underlies why some people are more susceptible to severe COVID-19.RESULTSWe used arrayed ISG expression screening to reveal that 2′-5′-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1) consistently inhibited SARS-CoV-2 in different contexts. Using CRISPR-Cas9, we found that endogenous OAS1 makes a substantial contribution to the antiviral state by recognizing short stretches of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and activating RNase L. We globally mapped where OAS1 binds to SARS-CoV-2 viral RNAs and found that OAS1 binding is remarkably specific, with two conserved stem loops in the SARS-CoV-2 5′-untranslated region (UTR) constituting the principal viral target.OAS1 expression was readily detectable at the sites of infection in individuals who died of COVID-19, and specific OAS1 alleles are known to be associated with altered susceptibility to infection and severe disease. It had previously been reported that alleles containing a common splice-acceptor single nucleotide polymorphism in OAS1 (Rs10774671) were associated with less severe COVID-19. We determined that people with at least one allele with a G at this position could express a prenylated form of OAS1 (p46), whereas other individuals could not. Using a series of mutants, we found that C-terminal prenylation was necessary for OAS1 to initiate a block to SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, confocal microscopy revealed that prenylation targeted OAS1 to perinuclear structures rich in viral dsRNA, whereas non-prenylated OAS1 was diffusely localized and unable to initiate a detectable block to SARS-CoV-2 replication.The realization that prenylation is essential for OAS1-mediated sensing of SARS-CoV-2 allowed us to examine the transcriptome of infected patients and investigate whether there was a link between the expression of prenylated OAS1 and SARS-CoV-2 disease progression. Analysis of the OAS1 transcripts from 499 hospitalized COVID-19 patients revealed that expressing prenylated OAS1 was associated with protection from severe COVID-19.Because prenylated OAS1 was so important in human cases, we wanted to determine whether horseshoe bats, the likely source of SARS-CoV-2, possessed the same defense. When we examined the genomic region where the prenylation signal should reside, retrotransposition of a long terminal repeat sequence had ablated this signal, preventing the expression of prenylated anti-CoV OAS1 in these bats.CONCLUSIONC-terminal prenylation targets OAS1 to intracellular sites rich in viral dsRNA, which are likely the SARS-CoV-2 replicative organelles. Once in the right place, OAS1 binds to dsRNA structures in the SARS-CoV-2 5′-UTR and initiates a potent block to SARS-CoV-2 replication. Thus, the correct targeting of OAS1 and the subsequent inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 likely underpins the genetic association of alleles containing a G at Rs10774671 with reduced susceptibility to infection and severe disease in COVID-19. Moreover, the conspicuous absence of this antiviral defense in horseshoe bats potentially explains why SARS-CoV-2 is so sensitive to this defense in humans.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
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Searching FieldsTerms
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Include:
The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
472 Research products, page 1 of 48
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Moritz U. G. Kraemer; Chia-Hung Yang; Bernardo Gutierrez; Chieh-Hsi Wu; Brennan Klein; David M. Pigott; Louis du Plessis; Nuno R. Faria; Ruoran Li; William P. Hanage; +7 more
    Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science
    Countries: France, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Kingdom
    Project: NIH | MIDAS Center for Communic... (1U54GM088558-01)

    The ongoing COVID-19 outbreak has expanded rapidly throughout China. Major behavioral, clinical, and state interventions are underway currently to mitigate the epidemic and prevent the persistence of the virus in human populations in China and worldwide. It remains unclear how these unprecedented interventions, including travel restrictions, have affected COVID-19 spread in China. We use real-time mobility data from Wuhan and detailed case data including travel history to elucidate the role of case importation on transmission in cities across China and ascertain the impact of control measures. Early on, the spatial distribution of COVID-19 cases in China was well explained by human mobility data. Following the implementation of control measures, this correlation dropped and growth rates became negative in most locations, although shifts in the demographics of reported cases are still indicative of local chains of transmission outside Wuhan. This study shows that the drastic control measures implemented in China have substantially mitigated the spread of COVID-19. One sentence summary: The spread of COVID-19 in China was driven by human mobility early on and mitigated substantially by drastic control measures implemented since the end of January.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Achraf Ammar; Michael Brach; Khaled Trabelsi; Hamdi Chtourou; Omar Boukhris; Liwa Masmoudi; Bassem Bouaziz; Ellen Bentlage; Daniella How; Mona A. Ahmed; +47 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    AbstractBackgroundPublic health recommendations and governmental measures during the COVID-19 pandemic have enforced numerous restrictions on daily living including social distancing, isolation and home confinement. While these measures are imperative to abate the spreading of COVID-19, the impact of these restrictions on health behaviours and lifestyle at home is undefined. Therefore, an international online survey was launched in April 2020 in seven languages to elucidate the behavioral and lifestyle consequences of COVID-19 restrictions. This report presents the preliminary results from the first thousand responders on physical activity (PA) and nutrition behaviours.MethodsThirty-five research organisations from Europe, North-Africa, Western Asia and the Americas promoted the survey through their networks to the general society, in English, German, French, Arabic, Spanish, Portugese, and Slovenian languages. Questions were presented in a differential format with questions related to responses “before” and “during” confinement conditions.Results1047 replies (54% women) from Asia (36%), Africa (40%), Europe (21%) and other (3%) were included into a general analysis. The COVID-19 home confinement had a negative effect on all intensities of PA (vigorous, moderate, walking and overall). Conversely, daily sitting time increased from 5 to 8 hours per day. Additionally, food consumption and meal patterns (the type of food, eating out of control, snacks between meals, number of meals) were more unhealthy during confinement with only alcohol binge drink decreasing significantly.ConclusionWhile isolation is a necessary measure to protect public health, our results indicate that it alters physical activity and eating behaviours in a direction that would compromise health. A more detailed analysis of survey data will allow for a segregation of these responses in different age groups, countries and other subgroups which will help develop bespoke interventions to mitigate the negative lifestyle behaviors manifest during the COVID-19 confinement.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Cyril Fersing; Clotilde Boudot; Julien Pedron; Sébastien Hutter; Nicolas Primas; Caroline Castera-Ducros; Sandra Bourgeade-Delmas; Alix Sournia-Saquet; Alain Moreau; Anita Cohen; +11 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; Based on a previously identified antileishmanial 6,8-dibromo-3-nitroimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine derivative, a Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction at position 8 of the scaffold was studied and optimized from a 8-bromo-6-chloro-3-nitroimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine substrate. Twenty-one original derivatives were prepared, screened in vitro for activity against L. infantum axenic amastigotes and T. brucei brucei trypomastigotes and evaluated for their cytotoxicity on the HepG2 human cell line. Thus, 7 antileishmanial hit compounds were identified, displaying IC50 values in the 1.1-3 μM range. Compounds 13 and 23, the 2 most selective molecules (SI = >18 or >17) were additionally tested on both the promastigote and intramacrophage amastigote stages of L. donovani. The two molecules presented a good activity (IC50 = 1.2-1.3 μM) on the promastigote stage but only molecule 23, bearing a 4-pyridinyl substituent at position 8, was active on the intracellular amastigote stage, with a good IC50 value (2.3 μM), slightly lower than the one of miltefosine (IC50 = 4.3 μM). The antiparasitic screening also revealed 8 antitrypanosomal hit compounds, including 14 and 20, 2 very active (IC50 = 0.04-0.16 μM) and selective (SI = >313 to 550) molecules toward T. brucei brucei, in comparison with drug-candidate fexinidazole (IC50 = 0.6 & SI > 333) or reference drugs suramin and eflornithine (respective IC50 = 0.03 and 13.3 μM). Introducing an aryl moiety at position 8 of the scaffold quite significantly increased the antitrypanosomal activity of the pharmacophore. Antikinetoplastid molecules 13, 14, 20 and 23 were assessed for bioactivation by parasitic nitroreductases (either in L. donovani or in T. brucei brucei), using genetically modified parasite strains that over-express NTRs: all these molecules are substrates of type 1 nitroreductases (NTR1), such as those that are responsible for the bioactivation of fexinidazole. Reduction potentials measured for these 4 hit compounds were higher than that of fexinidazole (-0.83 V), ranging from -0.70 to -0.64 V.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Javid Kavousi; Forough Goudarzi; Mohammad Reza Izadi; Charlie J. Gardner;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Countries: United Kingdom, France
    Project: ANR | ISBlue (ANR-17-EURE-0015)

    International audience; The conservation of biodiversity-and the vital ecosystem services it generates-is one of the greatest challenges humanity faces, yet the field faces drastic funding cuts as society realigns its priorities in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we argue that diverting attention from conservation would, however, increase the risk of further global health crises because the emergence of novel infectious diseases is partially driven by global environmental change. As the discrepancy between conservation needs and society's willingness to pay for them grows, conservation will have to evolve to stay relevant in the age global change-induced human infectious disease.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Patricija van Oosten-Hawle; Steven Bergink; Brian S. J. Blagg; Jeff Brodsky; Adrienne L. Edkins; Brian C. Freeman; Olivier Genest; Linda M. Hendershot; Harm H. Kampinga; Jill L. Johnson; +10 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Netherlands, France, United Kingdom, United Kingdom

    AbstractMembers of the Cell Stress Society International (CSSI), Patricija van Oosten-Hawle (University of Leeds, UK), Mehdi Mollapour (SUNY Upstate Medical University, USA), Andrew Truman (University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA) organized a new virtual meeting format which took place on November 5–6, 2020. The goal of this congress was to provide an international platform for scientists to exchange data and ideas among the Cell Stress and Chaperones community during the Covid-19 pandemic. Here we will highlight the summary of the meeting and acknowledge those who were honored by the CSSI.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Laura Di Domenico; Giulia Pullano; Chiara E. Sabbatini; Pierre-Yves Boëlle; Vittoria Colizza;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: ANR | DataRedux (ANR-19-CE46-0008), ANR | SPHINx (ANR-17-CE36-0008), EC | MOOD (874850)

    As countries in Europe implement strategies to control the COVID-19 pandemic, different options are chosen regarding schools. Through a stochastic age-structured transmission model calibrated to the observed epidemic in Île-de-France in the first wave, we explored scenarios of partial, progressive, or full school reopening. Given the uncertainty on children’s role, we found that reopening schools after lockdown may increase COVID-19 cases, yet protocols exist to keep the epidemic controlled. Under a scenario with stable epidemic activity if schools were closed, reopening pre-schools and primary schools would lead to up to 76% [67, 84]% occupation of ICU beds if no other school level reopened, or if middle and high schools reopened later. Immediately reopening all school levels may overwhelm the ICU system. Priority should be given to pre- and primary schools allowing younger children to resume learning and development, whereas full attendance in middle and high schools is not recommended for stable or increasing epidemic activity. Large-scale test and trace is required to keep the epidemic under control. Ex-post assessment shows that progressive reopening of schools, limited attendance, and strong adoption of preventive measures contributed to a decreasing epidemic after lifting the first lockdown. The role of children in the spread of COVID-19 is not fully understood, and the circumstances under which schools should be opened are therefore debated. Here, the authors demonstrate protocols by which schools in France can be safely opened without overwhelming the healthcare system.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gordon Pennycook; Jonathon McPhetres; Bence Bago; David G. Rand;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: United Kingdom, France
    Project: SSHRC , CIHR

    What are the psychological consequences of the increasingly politicized nature of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States relative to similar Western countries? In a two-wave study completed early (March) and later (December) in the pandemic, we found that polarization was greater in the United States ( N = 1,339) than in Canada ( N = 644) and the United Kingdom. ( N = 1,283). Political conservatism in the United States was strongly associated with engaging in weaker mitigation behaviors, lower COVID-19 risk perceptions, greater misperceptions, and stronger vaccination hesitancy. Although there was some evidence that cognitive sophistication was associated with increased polarization in the United States in December (but not March), cognitive sophistication was nonetheless consistently negatively correlated with misperceptions and vaccination hesitancy across time, countries, and party lines. Furthermore, COVID-19 skepticism in the United States was strongly correlated with distrust in liberal-leaning mainstream news outlets and trust in conservative-leaning news outlets, suggesting that polarization may be driven by differences in information environments.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Wunsch, Natasha;
    Countries: United Kingdom, France, France

    contribution à un site web; Several countries in the Western Balkans have responded to the Covid-19 outbreak with draconian measures that entail a further erosion of democracy, writes Natasha Wunsch. She argues the pandemic is shining a spotlight on the impact of geopolitical competition in the Western Balkans, where authoritarian forces are undermining the EU’s democracy promotion efforts.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Guodong Liang; Xiaoyan Gao; Ernest A. Gould;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, United Kingdom
    Project: EC | PREDEMICS (278433), EC | SILVER (260644)

    International audience; Slave trading of Africans to the Americas, during the 16th to the 19th century was responsible for the first recorded emergence in the New World of two arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), yellow fever virus and dengue virus. Many other arboviruses have since emerged from their sylvatic reservoirs and dispersed globally due to evolving factors that include anthropological behaviour, commercial transportation and land-remediation. Here, we outline some characteristics of these highly divergent arboviruses, including the variety of life cycles they have developed and the mechanisms by which they have adapted to evolving changes in habitat and host availability. We cite recent examples of virus emergence that exemplify how arboviruses have exploited the consequences of the modern human lifestyle. Using our current understanding of these viruses, we also attempt to demonstrate some of the limitations encountered in developing control strategies to reduce the impact of future emerging arbovirus diseases. Finally, we present recommendations for development by an international panel of experts reporting directly to World Health Organization, with the intention of providing internationally acceptable guidelines for improving emerging arbovirus disease control strategies. Success in these aims should alleviate the suffering and costs encountered during recent decades when arboviruses have emerged from their sylvatic environment.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Wickenhagen, A; Sugrue, E; Lytras, S; Kuchi, S; Noerenberg, M; Turnbull, ML; Loney, C; Herder, V; Allan, J; Jarmson, I; +190 more
    Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science
    Countries: France, United Kingdom

    International audience; INTRODUCTIONInterferons (IFNs) are cytokines that are rapidly deployed in response to invading pathogens. By initiating a signaling cascade that stimulates the expression of hundreds of genes, IFNs create an antiviral state in host cells. Because IFNs heavily influence COVID-19 outcomes, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) replication can be inhibited by the antiviral state, it is important to understand how the individual antiviral effectors encoded by IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) inhibit SARS-CoV-2.RATIONALEWe hypothesized that IFN-stimulated antiviral effectors can inhibit SARS-CoV-2, and that variation at the loci encoding these defenses underlies why some people are more susceptible to severe COVID-19.RESULTSWe used arrayed ISG expression screening to reveal that 2′-5′-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1) consistently inhibited SARS-CoV-2 in different contexts. Using CRISPR-Cas9, we found that endogenous OAS1 makes a substantial contribution to the antiviral state by recognizing short stretches of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and activating RNase L. We globally mapped where OAS1 binds to SARS-CoV-2 viral RNAs and found that OAS1 binding is remarkably specific, with two conserved stem loops in the SARS-CoV-2 5′-untranslated region (UTR) constituting the principal viral target.OAS1 expression was readily detectable at the sites of infection in individuals who died of COVID-19, and specific OAS1 alleles are known to be associated with altered susceptibility to infection and severe disease. It had previously been reported that alleles containing a common splice-acceptor single nucleotide polymorphism in OAS1 (Rs10774671) were associated with less severe COVID-19. We determined that people with at least one allele with a G at this position could express a prenylated form of OAS1 (p46), whereas other individuals could not. Using a series of mutants, we found that C-terminal prenylation was necessary for OAS1 to initiate a block to SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, confocal microscopy revealed that prenylation targeted OAS1 to perinuclear structures rich in viral dsRNA, whereas non-prenylated OAS1 was diffusely localized and unable to initiate a detectable block to SARS-CoV-2 replication.The realization that prenylation is essential for OAS1-mediated sensing of SARS-CoV-2 allowed us to examine the transcriptome of infected patients and investigate whether there was a link between the expression of prenylated OAS1 and SARS-CoV-2 disease progression. Analysis of the OAS1 transcripts from 499 hospitalized COVID-19 patients revealed that expressing prenylated OAS1 was associated with protection from severe COVID-19.Because prenylated OAS1 was so important in human cases, we wanted to determine whether horseshoe bats, the likely source of SARS-CoV-2, possessed the same defense. When we examined the genomic region where the prenylation signal should reside, retrotransposition of a long terminal repeat sequence had ablated this signal, preventing the expression of prenylated anti-CoV OAS1 in these bats.CONCLUSIONC-terminal prenylation targets OAS1 to intracellular sites rich in viral dsRNA, which are likely the SARS-CoV-2 replicative organelles. Once in the right place, OAS1 binds to dsRNA structures in the SARS-CoV-2 5′-UTR and initiates a potent block to SARS-CoV-2 replication. Thus, the correct targeting of OAS1 and the subsequent inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 likely underpins the genetic association of alleles containing a G at Rs10774671 with reduced susceptibility to infection and severe disease in COVID-19. Moreover, the conspicuous absence of this antiviral defense in horseshoe bats potentially explains why SARS-CoV-2 is so sensitive to this defense in humans.