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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Zheng Hu; Renren Sun; Zongzheng Zhao; Cong Fu; Yixin Wang; Zhendong Guo; Chunmao Zhang; Lina Liu; Cheng Zhang; Chang Shu; +6 more
    Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

    ABSTRACTThere is an urgent need for animal models of COVID-19 to study immunopathogenesis and test therapeutic intervenes. In this study we showed that NSG mice engrafted with human lung (HL) tissue (NSG-L mice) could be infected efficiently by SARS-CoV-2, and that live virus capable of infecting Vero cells was found in the HL grafts and multiple organs from infected NSG-L mice. RNA-seq examination identified a series of differentially expressed genes, which are enriched in viral defense responses, chemotaxis, interferon stimulation, and pulmonary fibrosis between HL grafts from infected and control NSG-L mice. Furthermore, when infecting humanized mice with human immune system (HIS) and autologous HL grafts (HISL mice), the mice had bodyweight loss and hemorrhage and immune cell infiltration in HL grafts, which were not observed in immunodeficient NSG-L mice, indicating the development of anti-viral immune responses in these mice. In support of this possibility, the infected HISL mice showed bodyweight recovery and lack of detectable live virus at the later time. These results demonstrate that NSG-L and HISL mice are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, offering a useful in vivo model for studying SARS-CoV-2 infection and the associated immune response and immunopathology, and testing anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapies.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Nora K. Schaal; Janine Zöllkau; Philip Hepp; Tanja Fehm; Carsten Hagenbeck;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: Germany

    Abstract Purpose The COVID-19 vaccination is probably the most important source to fight the COVID-19 pandemic. However, recommendations and possibilities for vaccination for pregnant and breastfeeding women are inconsistent and dynamically changing. Methods An anonymous, online, cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant and breastfeeding women in Germany between 30th March and 19th April 2021 addressing COVID-19 vaccination attitudes including the underlying reasons for their decision. Additionally, anxiety regarding a SARS-CoV-2 infection and a symptomatic course of the infection were evaluated. Results In total, 2339 women (n = 1043 pregnant and n = 1296 breastfeeding) completed the survey. During pregnancy the majority (57.4%) are not in favour of receiving the vaccine, 28.8% are unsure and only 13.8% would get vaccinated at the time of the survey. In contrast, 47.2% would be in favour to receive the vaccine, if more scientific evidence on the safety of the vaccination during pregnancy would be available. Breastfeeding women show higher vaccination willingness (39.5% are in favour, 28.1% are unsure and 32.5% not in favour). The willingness to be vaccinated is significantly related to the women’s anxiety levels of getting infected and to develop disease symptoms. Main reasons for vaccination hesitancy are the women’s perception of limited vaccination-specific information, limited scientific evidence on vaccination safety and the fear to harm the fetus or infant. Conclusions The results provide important implications for obstetrical care during the pandemic as well as for official recommendations und information strategies regarding the COVID-19 vaccination.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2011
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Irina Tikhanovich; Bo Liang; Cathal Seoighe; William R. Folk; Heinz-Peter Nasheuer;
    Publisher: American Society for Microbiology Journals
    Country: Ireland

    ABSTRACT Small noncoding RNAs regulate a variety of cellular processes, including genomic imprinting, chromatin remodeling, replication, transcription, and translation. Here, we report small replication-regulating RNAs (srRNAs) that specifically inhibit DNA replication of the human BK polyomavirus (BKV) in vitro and in vivo . srRNAs from FM3A murine mammary tumor cells were enriched by DNA replication assay-guided fractionation and hybridization to the BKV noncoding control region (NCCR) and synthesized as cDNAs. Selective mutagenesis of the cDNA sequences and their putative targets suggests that the inhibition of BKV DNA replication is mediated by srRNAs binding to the viral NCCR, hindering early steps in the initiation of DNA replication. Ectopic expression of srRNAs in human cells inhibited BKV DNA replication in vivo . Additional srRNAs were designed and synthesized that specifically inhibit simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA replication in vitro . These observations point to novel mechanisms for regulating DNA replication and suggest the design of synthetic agents for inhibiting replication of polyomaviruses and possibly other viruses.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Qiang Zhang; Ying Xiong; Ting Wu; Wenzhen Zhu;
    Publisher: Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)

    ABSTRACT: We aimed to retrospectively analyze the clinical and computed tomography (CT) characteristics of young adults with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia who were critically ill and to identify the features associated with non-survival.Thirty-eight COVID-19 patients (20-45 years old, 28 men) who had been admitted in the intensive care unit were included, including 18 non-survivors (group 1) and 20 survivors (group 2). Their clinical characteristics and initial and follow-up CT were compared between groups.In group 1, the days from illness onset to death were 21.1 ±â€Š10.3 days; 7 patients had underlying comorbidities. At admission, group 1 exhibited higher serum ferritin and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels (1142.6 ±â€Š242.4 mg/L and 33.8 ±â€Š18.6 mmol/L) compared with group 2 (728.3 ±â€Š150.9 mg/L and 15.2 ±â€Š6.9 mmol/L, P < .01). Group 1 exhibited more rapidly progressive opacities and consolidation in follow-up CT (16.7 ±â€Š3.1 scores, 15.7 ±â€Š3.1 segments) than group 2 (11.4 ±â€Š4.0 scores, 10.3 ±â€Š4.6 segments, P < .01). The oxygenation index was lower (87.6 ±â€Š19.2 vs 99.1 ±â€Š20.4 mm Hg) and the mechanical ventilation duration was longer (14.7 ±â€Š6.9 vs 9.7 ±â€Š3.7 days) in group 1 compare with group 2 (P < .01).Compared with the survivors, the non-survivors showed higher serum ferritin and IL-6 levels, more rapidly progressive opacities in CT, lower oxygenation index, and longer mechanical ventilation durations. Special attention to ferritin/IL-6 levels and oxygenation index as well as early CT application and timely reexaminations are important to identify the individuals who may be at risk of becoming critically ill.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tobias Mourier; Mukhtar Sadykov; Michael J. Carr; Gabriel Gonzalez; William W. Hall; Arnab Pain;
    Publisher: The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

    The extensive sequence data generated from SARS-CoV-2 during the 2020 pandemic has facilitated the study of viral genome evolution over a brief period of time. This has highlighted instances of directional mutation pressures exerted on the SARS-CoV-2 genome from host antiviral defense systems. In this brief review we describe three such human defense mechanisms, the apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide-like proteins (APOBEC), adenosine deaminase acting on RNA proteins (ADAR), and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and discuss their potential implications on SARS-CoV-2 evolution.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2013
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Yi Guan; Gavin J. D. Smith;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    The Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus was first detected in the goose population of Guangdong, China in 1996. The viruses in this lineage are unique in their ecological success, demonstrating an extremely broad host range and becoming established in poultry over much of Asia and in Africa. H5N1 viruses have also diverged into multiple clades and subclades that generally do not cross neutralize, which has greatly confounded control measures in poultry and pre-pandemic vaccine strain selection. Although H5N1 viruses currently cannot transmit efficiently between mammals they exhibit high mortality in humans and recent experimental studies have shown that it is possible to generate an H5N1 virus that is transmissible in mammals. In addition to causing unprecedented economic losses, the long-term presence of the H5N1 virus in poultry and its frequent introductions to humans continue to pose a significant pandemic threat. Here we provide a summary of the genesis, molecular epidemiology and evolution of this H5N1 lineage, particularly the factors that have contributed to the continued diversification and ecological success of H5N1 viruses, with particular reference to the poultry production systems they have emerged from.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Zhili Li; Feng Chen; Yao Yuan; Xiduo Zeng; Zhongyan Wei; Ling Zhu; Baoli Sun; Qingmei Xie; Yongchang Cao; Chunyi Xue; +2 more
    Publisher: Springer Nature

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes acute diarrhea and dehydration with high mortality rates in swine. It has become increasingly problematic in China. Since the nucleocapsid (N) protein is highly conserved, it is a candidate protein for early diagnosis and vaccine development. In this study, the N genes of 15 PEDV strains were amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into the pMT-19T vector, sequenced, and compared to each other as well as to PEDV reference strains. The nucleotide sequences of the N gene of the Chinese PEDV strains consist of 1326 nucleotides and encode a 441-aa-long peptide. The nucleotide sequences of the fifteen PEDV strains in our study were 96.1-100 % identical to each other, and the deduced amino acid sequences were 94.8-100 % identical. Sequence comparison with other PEDV strains selected from GenBank revealed that their nucleotide sequences were 94.2-99.7 % identical to those of the Chinese PEDV strains, and their deduced amino acid sequences were 94.1-99.5 % identical. In addition, the fifteen strains showed a high degree of nucleotide sequence identity to the early domestic strains (98.4-99.7 %) except the LZC strain, but less sequence identity to the vaccine strain (CV777) used in China (94.7-97.7 %). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Chinese PEDV strains are composed of a separate cluster including three early domestic strains (JS-2004-02, LJB/03 and DX) but differ genetically from the vaccine strain (CV777) and the early Korean strains (Chinju99 and SM98).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lu Li; Xiaoli Zhao; Zhouyang Li; Kang Song;
    Publisher: Elsevier B.V.

    Wearing face masks has become the new normal worldwide due to the global spread of the coronavirus disease 2019. The inhalation of microplastics due to the wearing of masks has rarely been reported. The present study used different types of commonly used masks to conduct breathing simulation experiments and investigate microplastic inhalation risk. Microplastic inhalation caused by reusing masks that underwent various treatment processes was also tested. Results implied that wearing masks considerably reduces the inhalation risk of particles (e.g., granular microplastics and unknown particles) even when they are worn continuously for 720 h. Surgical, cotton, fashion, and activated carbon masks wearing pose higher fiber-like microplastic inhalation risk, while all masks generally reduced exposure when used under their supposed time (<4 h). N95 poses less fiber-like microplastic inhalation risk. Reusing masks after they underwent different disinfection pretreatment processes can increase the risk of particle (e.g., granular microplastics) and fiber-like microplastic inhalation. Ultraviolet disinfection exerts a relatively weak effect on fiber-like microplastic inhalation, and thus, it can be recommended as a treatment process for reusing masks if proven effective from microbiological standpoint. Wearing an N95 mask reduces the inhalation risk of spherical-type microplastics by 25.5 times compared with not wearing a mask. Highlights • Wearing masks poses microplastic inhalation risk, reusing masks increases the risk • Wearing N95 masks poses lowest microplastic inhalation risks in the long term • Wearing mask, except for N95, poses higher stripe type microplastic inhalation risk • Wearing masks poses considerably lower spherical-type microplastic inhalation risk • Wearing masks leads to lower gross microplastic inhalation risk in the long term Graphical Abstract

  • Open Access

    Background: Delirium complicating the course of Intensive care unit (ICU) therapy is a known driver of morbidity and mortality. It has been speculated that infection with the neurotrophic SARS-CoV-2 might promote delirium. Methods: Retrospective registry analysis including all patients treated at least 48 h on a medical intensive care unit. The primary endpoint was development of delirium as diagnosed by Nursing Delirium screening scale ≥2. Results were confirmed by propensity score matching. Results: 542 patients were included. The primary endpoint was reached in 352/542 (64.9%) patients, without significant differences between COVID-19 patients and non-COVID-19 patients (51.4% and 65.9%, respectively, p = 0.07) and correlated with prolonged ICU stay in both groups. In a subgroup of patients with ICU stay >10 days delirium was significantly lower in COVID-19 patients (p ≤ 0.01). After adjustment for confounders, COVID-19 correlated independently with less ICU delirium (p ≤ 0.01). In the propensity score matched cohort, patients with COVID-19 had significantly lower delirium incidence compared to the matched control patients (p ≤ 0.01). Conclusion: Delirium is frequent in critically ill patients with and without COVID-19 treated at an intensive care unit. Data suggests that COVID-19 itself is not a driver of delirium per se.

  • Authors: 
    Hongwei Zhu; Xuesong Wang;
    Publisher: IOS Press

    With the continuous progress of social science and technology, the development of the Internet of things is growing With the development of Internet of things, security problems emerge in endlessly During the period of COVID-19, the Internet of Things have been widely used to fight virus outbreak However, the most serious security problem of the Internet of things is network intrusion This paper proposes a balanced quadratic support vector machine information security analysis method for Internet of things Compared with the traditional support vector machine Internet of things security analysis method, this method has a higher accuracy, and can shorten the detection time, with efficient and powerful characteristics The method proposed in this paper has certain reference value to the Internet of things network intrusion problem It provides better security for the Internet of things during the protection period of covid-19 © 2020 - IOS Press and the authors All rights reserved