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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Megan Arnot; Eva Brandl; O L K Campbell; Yuan Chen; Juan Du; Mark Dyble; Emily H Emmott; Erhao Ge; Luke D W Kretschmer; Ruth Mace; +5 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic has brought science into the public eye and to the attention of governments more than ever before. Much of this attention is on work in epidemiology, virology and public health, with most behavioural advice in public health focusing squarely on ‘proximate’ determinants of behaviour. While epidemiological models are powerful tools to predict the spread of disease when human behaviour is stable, most do not incorporate behavioural change. The evolutionary basis of our preferences and the cultural evolutionary dynamics of our beliefs drive behavioural change, so understanding these evolutionary processes can help inform individual and government decision-making in the face of a pandemic. Lay summary: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought behavioural sciences into the public eye: Without vaccinations, stopping the spread of the virus must rely on behaviour change by limiting contact between people. On the face of it, “stop seeing people” sounds simple. In practice, this is hard. Here we outline how an evolutionary perspective on behaviour change can provide additional insights. Evolutionary theory postulates that our psychology and behaviour did not evolve to maximize our health or that of others. Instead, individuals are expected to act to maximise their inclusive fitness (i.e, spreading our genes) – which can lead to a conflict between behaviours that are in the best interests for the individual, and behaviours that stop the spread of the virus. By examining the ultimate explanations of behaviour related to pandemic-management (such as behavioural compliance and social distancing), we conclude that “good of the group” arguments and “one size fits all” policies are unlikely to encourage behaviour change over the long-term. Sustained behaviour change to keep pandemics at bay is much more likely to emerge from environmental change, so governments and policy makers may need to facilitate significant social change – such as improving life experiences for disadvantaged groups.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Moritz U. G. Kraemer; Chia-Hung Yang; Bernardo Gutierrez; Chieh-Hsi Wu; Brennan Klein; David M. Pigott; Louis du Plessis; Nuno R. Faria; Ruoran Li; William P. Hanage; +7 more
    Countries: United Kingdom, France, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Kingdom
    Project: NIH | MIDAS Center for Communic... (1U54GM088558-01), NIH | MIDAS Center for Communic... (1U54GM088558-01)

    The ongoing COVID-19 outbreak has expanded rapidly throughout China. Major behavioral, clinical, and state interventions are underway currently to mitigate the epidemic and prevent the persistence of the virus in human populations in China and worldwide. It remains unclear how these unprecedented interventions, including travel restrictions, have affected COVID-19 spread in China. We use real-time mobility data from Wuhan and detailed case data including travel history to elucidate the role of case importation on transmission in cities across China and ascertain the impact of control measures. Early on, the spatial distribution of COVID-19 cases in China was well explained by human mobility data. Following the implementation of control measures, this correlation dropped and growth rates became negative in most locations, although shifts in the demographics of reported cases are still indicative of local chains of transmission outside Wuhan. This study shows that the drastic control measures implemented in China have substantially mitigated the spread of COVID-19. One sentence summary: The spread of COVID-19 in China was driven by human mobility early on and mitigated substantially by drastic control measures implemented since the end of January.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Cyril Fersing; Clotilde Boudot; Julien Pedron; Sébastien Hutter; Nicolas Primas; Caroline Castera-Ducros; Sandra Bourgeade-Delmas; Alix Sournia-Saquet; Alain Moreau; Anita Cohen; +11 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; Based on a previously identified antileishmanial 6,8-dibromo-3-nitroimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine derivative, a Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction at position 8 of the scaffold was studied and optimized from a 8-bromo-6-chloro-3-nitroimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine substrate. Twenty-one original derivatives were prepared, screened in vitro for activity against L. infantum axenic amastigotes and T. brucei brucei trypomastigotes and evaluated for their cytotoxicity on the HepG2 human cell line. Thus, 7 antileishmanial hit compounds were identified, displaying IC50 values in the 1.1-3 μM range. Compounds 13 and 23, the 2 most selective molecules (SI = >18 or >17) were additionally tested on both the promastigote and intramacrophage amastigote stages of L. donovani. The two molecules presented a good activity (IC50 = 1.2-1.3 μM) on the promastigote stage but only molecule 23, bearing a 4-pyridinyl substituent at position 8, was active on the intracellular amastigote stage, with a good IC50 value (2.3 μM), slightly lower than the one of miltefosine (IC50 = 4.3 μM). The antiparasitic screening also revealed 8 antitrypanosomal hit compounds, including 14 and 20, 2 very active (IC50 = 0.04-0.16 μM) and selective (SI = >313 to 550) molecules toward T. brucei brucei, in comparison with drug-candidate fexinidazole (IC50 = 0.6 & SI > 333) or reference drugs suramin and eflornithine (respective IC50 = 0.03 and 13.3 μM). Introducing an aryl moiety at position 8 of the scaffold quite significantly increased the antitrypanosomal activity of the pharmacophore. Antikinetoplastid molecules 13, 14, 20 and 23 were assessed for bioactivation by parasitic nitroreductases (either in L. donovani or in T. brucei brucei), using genetically modified parasite strains that over-express NTRs: all these molecules are substrates of type 1 nitroreductases (NTR1), such as those that are responsible for the bioactivation of fexinidazole. Reduction potentials measured for these 4 hit compounds were higher than that of fexinidazole (-0.83 V), ranging from -0.70 to -0.64 V.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Priscilla F. Gerber; Chao-Ting Xiao; Kelly M. Lager; Kimberly Crawford; Vikas Kulshreshtha; Dianjun Cao; Xiang-Jin Meng; Tanja Opriessnig;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: United Kingdom, United States, France
    Project: UKRI | Mechanistic understanding... (BBS/E/D/20241864)

    International audience; AbstractPorcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes enteric disease in pigs and spreads rapidly after entering naïve pig populations. The objectives were to (1) compare the disease course following inoculation with PEDV isolate US/Colorado/2013 in naïve 10 day and 8 week-old pigs, and (2) contrast the naïve response to homologous challenge in 8 week-old pigs. Pigs were randomly assigned into group 1 (n = 40, no PEDV exposure), group 2 (n = 43, PEDV inoculation at 10 days of age) and group 3 (n = 48, PEDV inoculation at 8 weeks of age). Thirty-three group 2 pigs received a homologous challenge at 8 weeks of age. Following primary or secondary inoculation, 3–10 pigs were euthanized at days post-inoculation (dpi) 1, 2, 3, 7 or 14. Clinical signs were more pronounced in 10 day-old pigs compared to 8 week-old pigs at dpi 2 and 3, a higher number of 10 day-old pigs shed PEDV RNA in feces compared to 8 week-old pigs. Typical severe atrophic enteritis of PEDV infection was observed at dpi 3 in both age groups, and at dpi 4 and 14 fecal shedding patterns were also similar. While both age groups had seroconverted to PEDV by dpi 14, IgG levels were higher in 8 week-old pigs. PEDV IgA antibodies were detected in feces of approximately 50% of the pigs at dpi 44. In homologous challenged pigs, no clinical signs or lesions were found, and PEDV fecal shedding was restricted to less than 10% of the pigs indicating the existence of homologous protection 44 days after initial PEDV exposure.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gordon Pennycook; Jonathon McPhetres; Bence Bago; David G. Rand;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, United Kingdom
    Project: SSHRC , CIHR

    What are the psychological consequences of the increasingly politicized nature of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States relative to similar Western countries? In a two-wave study completed early (March) and later (December) in the pandemic, we found that polarization was greater in the United States ( N = 1,339) than in Canada ( N = 644) and the United Kingdom. ( N = 1,283). Political conservatism in the United States was strongly associated with engaging in weaker mitigation behaviors, lower COVID-19 risk perceptions, greater misperceptions, and stronger vaccination hesitancy. Although there was some evidence that cognitive sophistication was associated with increased polarization in the United States in December (but not March), cognitive sophistication was nonetheless consistently negatively correlated with misperceptions and vaccination hesitancy across time, countries, and party lines. Furthermore, COVID-19 skepticism in the United States was strongly correlated with distrust in liberal-leaning mainstream news outlets and trust in conservative-leaning news outlets, suggesting that polarization may be driven by differences in information environments.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rameshwar Dubey; David Bryde; Constantin Blome; David Roubaud; Mihalis Giannakis;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: United Kingdom, France, France

    The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted global supply chains and exposed weak links in the chains far beyond what most people have witnessed in their living memory. The scale of disruption affects every nation and industry, and the sudden and dramatic changes in demand and supply that have occurred during the pandemic crisis clearly differentiate its impact from other crises. Using the dynamic capabilities view, we studied alliance management capability (AMC) and artificial intelligence (AI) driven supply chain analytics capability (AI-SCAC) as dynamic capabilities, under the moderating effect of environmental dynamism. We tested our four research hypotheses using survey data collected from the Indian auto components manufacturing industry. For data analysis we used Warp PLS 7.0 (a variance-based structural equation modelling tool). We found that alliance management capability under the mediating effect of artificial intelligence-powered supply chain analytics capability enhances the operational and financial performance of the organization. Moreover, we also observed that the alliance management capability has a significant effect on artificial intelligence-powered supply chain analytics capability under the moderating effect of environmental dynamism. The results of our study provide a nuanced understanding of the dynamic capabilities and the relational view of organization. Finally, we noted the limitations of our study and provide numerous research directions that may help answer some of the questions that arise from our study.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Patricija van Oosten-Hawle; Steven Bergink; Brian S. J. Blagg; Jeff Brodsky; Adrienne L. Edkins; Brian C. Freeman; Olivier Genest; Linda M. Hendershot; Harm H. Kampinga; Jill L. Johnson; +10 more
    Publisher: Springer
    Countries: France, Netherlands, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, Netherlands

    AbstractMembers of the Cell Stress Society International (CSSI), Patricija van Oosten-Hawle (University of Leeds, UK), Mehdi Mollapour (SUNY Upstate Medical University, USA), Andrew Truman (University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA) organized a new virtual meeting format which took place on November 5–6, 2020. The goal of this congress was to provide an international platform for scientists to exchange data and ideas among the Cell Stress and Chaperones community during the Covid-19 pandemic. Here we will highlight the summary of the meeting and acknowledge those who were honored by the CSSI.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Achraf Ammar; Michael Brach; Khaled Trabelsi; Hamdi Chtourou; Omar Boukhris; Liwa Masmoudi; Bassem Bouaziz; Ellen Bentlage; Daniella How; Mona A. Ahmed; +47 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    AbstractBackgroundPublic health recommendations and governmental measures during the COVID-19 pandemic have enforced numerous restrictions on daily living including social distancing, isolation and home confinement. While these measures are imperative to abate the spreading of COVID-19, the impact of these restrictions on health behaviours and lifestyle at home is undefined. Therefore, an international online survey was launched in April 2020 in seven languages to elucidate the behavioral and lifestyle consequences of COVID-19 restrictions. This report presents the preliminary results from the first thousand responders on physical activity (PA) and nutrition behaviours.MethodsThirty-five research organisations from Europe, North-Africa, Western Asia and the Americas promoted the survey through their networks to the general society, in English, German, French, Arabic, Spanish, Portugese, and Slovenian languages. Questions were presented in a differential format with questions related to responses “before” and “during” confinement conditions.Results1047 replies (54% women) from Asia (36%), Africa (40%), Europe (21%) and other (3%) were included into a general analysis. The COVID-19 home confinement had a negative effect on all intensities of PA (vigorous, moderate, walking and overall). Conversely, daily sitting time increased from 5 to 8 hours per day. Additionally, food consumption and meal patterns (the type of food, eating out of control, snacks between meals, number of meals) were more unhealthy during confinement with only alcohol binge drink decreasing significantly.ConclusionWhile isolation is a necessary measure to protect public health, our results indicate that it alters physical activity and eating behaviours in a direction that would compromise health. A more detailed analysis of survey data will allow for a segregation of these responses in different age groups, countries and other subgroups which will help develop bespoke interventions to mitigate the negative lifestyle behaviors manifest during the COVID-19 confinement.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Javid Kavousi; Forough Goudarzi; Mohammad Reza Izadi; Charlie J. Gardner;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, United Kingdom, United Kingdom
    Project: ANR | ISBlue (ANR-17-EURE-0015), ANR | ISBlue (ANR-17-EURE-0015)

    International audience; The conservation of biodiversity-and the vital ecosystem services it generates-is one of the greatest challenges humanity faces, yet the field faces drastic funding cuts as society realigns its priorities in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we argue that diverting attention from conservation would, however, increase the risk of further global health crises because the emergence of novel infectious diseases is partially driven by global environmental change. As the discrepancy between conservation needs and society's willingness to pay for them grows, conservation will have to evolve to stay relevant in the age global change-induced human infectious disease.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    A. Wollenberg; Carsten Flohr; Dagmar Simon; Michael J. Cork; Jacob P. Thyssen; Thomas Bieber; M S de Bruin-Weller; S Weidinger; Mette Deleuran; Alain Taieb; +23 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Netherlands, France

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex disease with elevated risk of respiratory comorbidities.1,2 Severely affected patients are often treated with immune-modulating systemic drugs.3,4 On March 11th 2020, the World Health Organization declared the 2019 novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-Cov-2) epidemic to be a pandemic. The number of cases worldwide is increasing exponentially and poses a major health threat, especially for those who are elderly, immuno-compromised, or have comorbidities. This also applies to AD patients on systemic immune-modulating treatment. In these days of uncertainty, reallocation of medical resources, curfew, hoarding, and shutdown of normal social life, patients, caregivers and doctors ask questions regarding the continuation of systemic immune-modulating treatment of AD patients. The ETFAD decided to address some of these questions here.