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2,092 Research products, page 1 of 210

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mamelund, Svenn-Erik; Dimka, Jessica;
    Publisher: Routledge

    Despite common perceptions to the contrary, pandemic diseases do not affect populations indiscriminately. In this paper, we review literature produced by demographers, historians, epidemiologists, and other researchers on disparities during the 1918–20 influenza pandemic and the Covid-19 pandemic. Evidence from these studies demonstrates that lower socio-economic status and minority/stigmatized race or ethnicity are associated with higher morbidity and mortality. However, such research often lacks theoretical frameworks or appropriate data to explain the mechanisms underlying these disparities fully. We suggest using a framework that considers proximal and distal factors contributing to differential exposure, susceptibility, and consequences as one way to move this research forward. Further, current pandemic preparedness plans emphasize medically defined risk groups and epidemiological approaches. Therefore, we conclude by arguing in favour of a transdisciplinary paradigm that recognizes socially defined risk groups, includes input from the social sciences and humanities and other diverse perspectives, and contributes to the reduction of health disparities before a pandemic hits.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Banco de España;
    Publisher: Banco de España
    Country: Spain
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kinsella, Cormac M.; Santos, Pauline Dianne; Postigo-Hidalgo, Ignacio; Folgueiras-González, Alba; Passchier, Tim Casper; Szillat, Kevin P.; Akello, Joyce Odeke; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Beatriz; Martí-Carreras, Joan;

    The first cluster of patients suffering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was identified on December 21, 2019, and as of July 29, 2020, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections have been linked with 664,333 deaths and number at least 16,932,996 worldwide. Unprecedented in global societal impact, the COVID-19 pandemic has tested local, national, and international preparedness for viral outbreaks to the limits. Just as it will be vital to identify missed opportunities and improve contingency planning for future outbreaks, we must also highlight key successes and build on them. Concomitant to the emergence of a novel viral disease, there is a 'research and development gap' that poses a threat to the overall pace and quality of outbreak response during its most crucial early phase. Here, we outline key components of an adequate research response to novel viral outbreaks using the example of SARS-CoV-2. We highlight the exceptional recent progress made in fundamental science, resulting in the fastest scientific response to a major infectious disease outbreak or pandemic. We underline the vital role of the international research community, from the implementation of diagnostics and contact tracing procedures to the collective search for vaccines and antiviral therapies, sustained by unique information sharing efforts.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kooman, Jeroen P.; van der Sande, Frank M.;

    The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly affected nephrology. Firstly, dialysis patients appear to be at increased risk for infection due to viral transmission next to an enhanced risk for mortality as compared to the general population, even in the face of an often apparently mild clinical presentation. Derangements in the innate and adaptive immune systems may be responsible for a reduced antiviral response, whereas chronic activation of the innate immune system and endothelial dysfunction provide a background for a more severe course. The presence of severe comorbidity, older age, and a reduction of organ reserve may lead to a rapid deterioration of the clinical situation of the patients in case of severe infection. Secondly, patients with COVID-19 are at increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI), which is related to the severity of the clinical disease. The presence of AKI, and especially the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT), is associated with an increased risk of mortality. AKI in COVID-19 has a multifactorial origin, in which direct viral invasion of kidney cells, activation of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system, a hyperinflammatory response, hypercoagulability, and nonspecific factors such as hypotension and hypoxemia may be involved. Apart from logistic challenges and the need for strict hygiene within units, treatment of patients with ESRD and COVID-19 is not different from that of the general population. Extracorporeal treatment of patients with AKI with RRT can be complicated by frequent filter clotting due to the hypercoagulable state, for which regional citrate coagulation provides a reasonable solution. Also, acute peritoneal dialysis may be a reasonable option in these patients. Whether adjuncts to extracorporeal therapies, such as hemoadsorption, provide additional benefits in the case of severely ill COVID-19 patients needs to be addressed in controlled studies.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Abourabi, Yousra; Agosto, Gabriela; Aracena, Belkis; Benítez, Andrea Fernández; Chepo, Macarena; Coffie, Amanda; Crush, Jonathan; Dávila Pérez, María del Consuelo; Degila, Dêlidji Eric; Freier, Luisa Feline; +19 more
    Publisher: Institut de hautes études internationales et du développement

    The 14th thematic volume of International Development Policy provides perspectives through case studies from the global South(s) focusing on the challenges and opportunities of governing migration on multiple levels: the subnational, national, regional and international. It explores existing and new policies and frameworks in terms of their successes and best practices, and looks at them through the lens of additional challenges, such as those brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic, the rise of nationalisms and an increase in xenophobia. The chapters also take the ‘5 Ps’ approach to sustainable development (people, planet, prosperity, peace and partnerships) and assess how migration policies serve sustainable development in a rapidly evolving context. Guest Editors: Dêlidji Eric Degila and Valeria Marina Valle. ‘A powerful and challenging collection that offers a depth of empirical and conceptual insight in order to demonstrate the need both to think about and understand international migration from perspectives of the ‘global south’.’ Andrew Geddes Professor of Migration Studies/Director of the Migration Policy Centre, Migration Policy Centre / Robert Schuman Centre ‘Governing Migration for Development from the Global Souths is an excellent volume that addresses and unpacks the governance-migration-sustainable development nexus in the global Souths. It maps distinct ways in which global South states are involved in and create new forms of migration governance that tend to be overlooked in analyses of multilevel governance that primarily reflect the concerns of the global North. The present volume is a must read for anyone interested in the role of the global Souths in migration governance.’ Marianne H. Marchand Research Chair in International Relations, Universidad de las Américas Puebla Cite the volume: Dêlidji Eric Degila and Valeria Marina Valle (eds.) (2022) Governing Migration for Development from the Global Souths, International Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de développement, 14 (Geneva, Boston: Graduate Institute Publications, Brill-Nijhoff). DOI: 10.4000/poldev.4544 (paperback version: forthcoming, Autumn 2022 - https://brill.com/view/title/63268). Watch the videos of the authors explaining their chapter.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lehmann, Stine; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Sandal, Gro Mjeldheim; Haug, Ellen; Bjørknes, Ragnhild;

    Background The COVID-19 pandemic may have multifarious adverse effects on the mental health of some youth. To our knowledge, no study has followed young people beyond the first 6 months of the pandemic outbreak. The aim of this study was to examine 1) Change in internalizing, externalizing, and total mental health problems over two time-points with a nine-month interval during the COVID-19 outbreak and 2) Whether contextual and COVID-19-related factors contribute to change in mental health problems. Methods Youth within the municipality of Bergen aged 11-19 years were invited via SMS to participate in an online survey in April and again in December 2020. A total of 2997 (40% response rate) youth participated at baseline in the present study, and 1598 (53.3%) completed the second survey. At baseline, the mean age was 16.0 (standard deviations 1.7) years, about 60% were girls, and 93% were born in Norway. Comparison across time was approached using inferential statistics and mixed linear models with maximum likelihood estimation and mixed-effects logistic regression models. Results There was an overall increase in total mental health problems from the first weeks into lockdown to 9 months after the pandemic outbreak. The overall increase seems to be exclusively driven by internalizing difficulties, i.e., increases in emotional problems and peer problems. The level of externalizing difficulties, i.e., conduct problems and hyperactivity/inattention remained stable between the two time-points. Conclusions Our results imply that in the wake of the pandemic, one should be aware of emerging mental health problems among presumably resilient youth, in addition to the more expected and pronounced mental health needs of vulnerable groups. Efforts to reach out to the general youth population with preventive measures in schools may be important actions to normalize the situation for young people, and to identify those in need of more targeted mental health interventions.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Furmonaviciene, Ruta; Dubakiene, Ruta; Šauliene, Ingrida;
    Country: United Kingdom

    This event has been organised in collaboration with Prof R Dubakiene from Vilnius University and Prof I Šauliene from Šauliai Academy of Vilnius University DMUGlobal Allergy Friday: Sessions on International Allergy Research for DMU ABMS BIOM5015 Module Students Presentations and Activities Prepared by Dr R Furmonaviciene in Collaboration with Prof R Dubakiene and Prof I Sauliene from Vilnius University as well as with DMUGlobal and DMULocal Teams Session Activities also included Production of Allergy Information Cards for Local Community as part of ‘Sharing knowledge for re-building communities after the COVID-19 pandemic’ project

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jerónimo, Patrícia;
    Country: Portugal

    There is still much that we do not know about COVID-19, but by now it has become very clear that, far from being ‘the great equalizer,’ the disease is disproportionately impacting the poor and the most vulnerable (including racial and ethnic minorities), fuelling nationalist and xenophobic sentiments, and prompting a resurgence of borders and mobility restrictions all over the globe. The siege mentality that has been brewing under the threats of mass migration and terrorism is now at peak intensity, as States barricade themselves, adopt increasingly protectionist measures and compete against each other for medical supplies and personnel.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hayder Fawzi; Haydar Al-Tukmagi;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    examination of pharmacy students

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Roussel, Jean-François;
    Country: Canada

    La pandemia en el contexto de una crisis cultural ¿que reto teológico?. Panel"Theology and the global crisis caused by COVID-19": Forum mondial théologie et libération. Evénement sur Zoom, Montréal, Canada