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215 Research products, page 1 of 22

  • COVID-19
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  • Other research product . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dahlström, Carl; Lindvall, Johannes;
    Country: Sweden
  • Other research product . 2021
    Open Access Swedish
    Authors: 
    KALLDAL, HANNA; KARLKVIST, DANIEL; KHADEMI, THEODOR; LAM, CHARLIE; REPO WECKLAUF, ROBIN; WAHLBERG, ANDRÉ;
    Country: Sweden

    Studier visar att internetanvändningen bland den svenska befolkningen fortsätter att växa varje år och har under de senaste tio åren ökat mest för den äldre målgruppen. Trots detta har de flesta applikationer som utvecklas inte tagit hänsyn till seniorer. Detta blir problematiskt då åldrande kan orsaka försämrad fysisk och kognitiv förmåga samt nedsatt syn, vilka gör det svårare att använda applikationerna. Utöver det har ett nytt problem uppkommit på grund av den pågående covid-19- pandemin. Eftersom viruset är mer dödligt med åldern, har det orsakat en ökning av ensamheten bland äldre då social distansering krävs för att bromsa smittan. Det är viktigt för äldre att hålla kontakt med anhöriga och vänner, vilket är anledningen till att en videosamtalstjänst anpassad för seniorer är relevant. Detta projekt syftade till att skapa en videosamtalstjänst anpassad till äldres behov och förmågor. Ett resultat framställdes genom att använda en iterativ design- och utvecklingsprocess där en prototyp av applikationen byggdes, testades och utvärderades för varje iteration. Totalt gjordes tre iterationer, där det framställdes en mjukvaruprotoyp i den tredje. Baserat på de tre iterationerna såväl som tidigare studier om design för seniorer, kunde en slutgiltig prototyp utvecklas. Detta är en nästintill komplett applikation där användare kan hantera kontakter, ändra informationen i sin profil och dra nytta av ett fullt fungerande videosamtal. Efter positiv respons från användartesterna blev det uppenbart att videosamtalsapplikationen är anpassad för målgruppen till en godkänd nivå. På grund av tidsbegränsningar kunde dock vissa funktioner inte slutföras. Dessutom blev det svårt att hitta tillräckligt med testare inom målgruppen på grund av tidsbegränsningar såväl som fysiska begränsningar som orsakades av pandemin. Därför måste vidare medverkan med seniorer göras innan produkten kan anses vara helt slutförd.

  • Open Access Swedish
    Authors: 
    Possnert, Samuel; Rahmani, Baback;
    Country: Sweden

    Bakgrund: Den krävande intensivvårdsmiljön utsätter intensivvårdssjuksköterskor för en hög stress och graden av utbrändhet hos intensivvårdssjuksköterskor är högre än annan vård-och omsorgspersonal. Indirekt exponering till trauma i dessa miljöer kopplat med utbrändhet och minskad tillfredsställelse från empatiskt arbete kan bidra till empatisk utmattning med konsekvenser för personalens hälsa och patientvården. Covid-19 pandemin har utmanat den moderna intensivvården och specialistsjuksköterskor i frontlinjen har belastats med högre arbetsbördor, med ökade risker för empatisk utmattning som följd. Syfte: Att undersöka graden av empatisk utmattning hos intensivvårdssjuksköterskor under en pågående Covid-19 pandemi och jämföra resultatet med tidigare studier. Metod: Studiedesign var en enkätstudie med ett Google forms webb-formulär baserat på självskattningsinstrumentet Professional Quality of Life Scale. Det består av tre delskalor, som på svenska benämns medkänsletillfredsställelse, empatisk utmattning och utbrändhet. Deltagare i studien var 47 intensivvårdssjuksköterskor från Central IVA och Neurologi IVA på Sahlgrenska sjukhuset samt IVA på Mölndals sjukhus. Dataanalys genomfördes med hjälp av SPSS. Resultat: Föreliggande resultat jämfördes med referensdata från 30 studier med sammanlagt 5612 respondenter med skilda professioner inom vård och omsorg. Inga statistiskt signifikanta skillnader kunde observeras vid jämförelse med dessa referensdata för delskalorna medkänsletillfredsställelse och utbrändhet. Däremot var medelvärdet signifikant högre för de 47 IVA sjuksköterskorna beträffande delskalan empatisk utmattning (p <0,00001). Slutsats: Bortfallet i studien är stort vilket medför problem för generalisering. Den relativt stora skillnaden i empatisk utmattning i jämförelse med referensdata indikerar dock att detta bör uppmärksammas vidare i fortsatt forskning om effekterna på arbetsmiljön bland IVA personal under Covid-19 pandemin. Background: The demanding critical care environment exposes critical care nurses to a higher level of stress and the degree of burnout in critical care nurses is higher than other care and nursing staff. Indirect exposure to trauma in these environments coupled with burnout and reduced satisfaction from empathic work can contribute to compassion fatigue with consequences for staff health and patient care. The Covid-19 pandemic has challenged modern critical care and specialist nurses on the front lines have been burdened with higher workloads, with increased risks of developing compassion fatigue as a result. Aim: To measure the degree of compassion fatigue in critical care nurses during an ongoing covid-19 pandemic and compare the results with earlier studies. Method: Study Design was a survey study using a Google Forms web-survey based on the Professional Quality of Life Scale self-assessment tool. It consists of three subscales, namely compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout. Participants in the study were 47 intensive care nurses from the Central ICU and Neurology ICU at Sahlgrenska Hospital and ICU at Mölndal Hospital. Data analysis was performed using SPSS. Results: The presented results were compared with reference data from 30 studies with a total of 5612 respondents with different professions in healthcare. No statistically significant differences could be observed when compared with reference data for the subscale compassion satisfaction and burnout. On the other hand, the mean value was significantly higher for the 47 ICU nurses regarding the subscale compassion fatigue (p <0.00001). Conclusion: The dropout rate in the study is large, which causes problems for generalization. However, the relatively large difference in compassion fatigue, when compared with reference data, indicates that this should be further noted in future research regarding the effects of the work environment on ICU staff during the Covid-19 pandemic.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Borges do Nascimento, Israel Júnior et al.;

    A growing body of literature on the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is becoming available, but a synthesis of available data has not been conducted. We performed a scoping review of currently available clinical, epidemiological, laboratory, and chest imaging data related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, Scopus and LILACS from 01 January 2019 to 24 February 2020. Study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment were performed by two independent reviewers. Qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis were conducted using the clinical and laboratory data, and random-e ects models were applied to estimate pooled results. A total of 61 studies were included (59,254 patients). The most common disease-related symptoms were fever (82%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 56%–99%; n = 4410), cough (61%, 95% CI 39%–81%; n = 3985), muscle aches and/or fatigue (36%, 95% CI 18%–55%; n = 3778), dyspnea (26%, 95% CI 12%–41%; n = 3700), headache in 12% (95% CI 4%–23%, n = 3598 patients), sore throat in 10% (95% CI 5%–17%, n = 1387) and gastrointestinal symptoms in 9% (95% CI 3%–17%, n=1744). Laboratory findings were described in a lower number of patients and revealed lymphopenia (0.93 109/L, 95% CI 0.83–1.03 109/L, n = 464) and abnormal C-reactive protein (33.72 mg/dL, 95% CI 21.54–45.91 mg/dL; n = 1637). Radiological findings varied, but mostly described ground-glass opacities and consolidation. Data on treatment options were limited. All-cause mortality was 0.3% (95% CI 0.0%–1.0%; n = 53,631). Epidemiological studies showed that mortality was higher in males and elderly patients. The majority of reported clinical symptoms and laboratory findings related to SARS-CoV-2 infection are non-specific. Clinical suspicion, accompanied by a relevant epidemiological history, should be followed by early imaging and virological assay.

  • Open Access Swedish
    Authors: 
    Johansson, Tyra; Nässlander Örninge, My;
    Country: Sweden

    The purpose of our study is to investigate social workers' experiences of the implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) into Swedish law and how it affects their work. The study is based on the following two questions; 1) in what way do social workers feel that the implementation of the CRC into Swedish law has influenced their work involving children?, and 2) how do social workers experience their discretion in applying the CRC after the convention became law? This is a qualitative study based on semi-structured, open interviews with six social workers whose tasks involve taking authoritative decisions regarding children. The analysis has two theoretical points of departure, namely; top-down- and bottom-up perspectives, and discretion. The most relevant findings were that social workers had different experiences of how the convention had been implemented at their respective workplaces. The reasons for variation in implementation and the consequences of the lack of implementation could be recognized in four different themes: Guidance by the implementation and application, Discretion by interpretation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, Children's participation - an already experienced practice and Implementation and application during the covid-19 pandemic. Through our analysis we connected the themes to different reasons for shortcomings in the conditions of a good implementation of a new law. Further, we analyzed the themes through the theory of top-down- and bottom-up, and discretion. Our second finding was that, despite the lack of change in some workplaces, the change that did take place was mostly social, that is, there was an increased feeling of empowerment to put the child first. The change also took a practical shape in the form of new methods and rules. The conclusion of the second finding was that all the changes should be in benefit for children's participation. Over all our findings suggest that the incorporation of CRC as a Swedish law has affected social workers' practices due to the fact that children’s human rights are taking a more prominent position.

  • Open Access Swedish
    Authors: 
    Rogestedt, Josefina; Karlsson, Josefine;
    Country: Sweden

    Det finns idag en utbredd miljömedvetenhet hos slutkonsumenter och företag vilket bidrar till förbättringar gällande näringslivets miljömässiga hållbarhet. En bransch som står för en stor del av Sveriges miljöpåverkan men som samtidigt är nödvändig för att möjliggöra global handel är transportbranschen. Klimatfrågan inom transportbranschen kan tacklas på olika sätt där en åtgärd som ofta förespråkas är fler järnvägstransporter. Ett transportupplägg som därför i många fall förespråkas av beslutsfattare är intermodala transporter då detta bygger på en kombination av olika transportmedel där järnvägstransporter är centrala. En transportnod som har en väletablerad intermodal logistikanläggning och som dessutom är Skandinaviens största hamn är Göteborgs Hamn. Till följd av det ökade miljöfokuset i samhället ser framtiden ljus ut för de intermodala transporterna i anslutning till Göteborgs Hamn. Det finns dock trender av global karaktär som kan få en påverkan på dessa intermodala transporters framväxt. Dessutom kan covid-19-pandemin påverka hur dessa globala trender utvecklas vilket i sin tur kan ha en påverkan på de intermodala transporterna. Alla dessa aspekter skapar en osäkerhet kring hur intermodala transporter kommer att kunna vidareutvecklas och det är just detta som denna studie handlar om. Syftet med arbetet är således att identifiera och undersöka hur aktuella trender kan påverka förutsättningarna för fortsatta intermodala tågtransporter till och från Göteborgs Hamn. Uppsatsen bygger på en kvalitativ studie och består dels av litteraturstudier och dels av semistrukturerade intervjuer. Till intervjuerna valdes olika aktörer inom transportbranschen med någon koppling till Göteborgs Hamn. Detta för att kunna göra en genomgående analys av trenders påverkan på intermodala transporter utifrån olika perspektiv. Baserat på tidigare forskning inom ämnet samt de genomförda intervjuerna kunde flertalet trender med påverkan på intermodala transporter identifieras. Studien visade på svårigheter att hantera ryckigheter och ojämna godsflöden i intermodala transportkedjor. Denna problematik kan dock reduceras med infrastrukturinvesteringar och effektiv materialhantering vilket är enklare att uppnå med hjälp av dagens teknik. Vidare var förändrade kostnad-och avgiftsstrukturer också trender som identifierades som problematiska. Problematiken som är kopplad till dessa trender har dessutom förstärkts något till följd av covid-19-pandemin. Dessa kostnadsstrukturer kan missgynna de intermodala transporterna och i syfte att främja de intermodala transporterna bör dessa strukturer justeras. Synen på trenderna och dess eventuella problematik varierade dock mellan aktörerna vilket visar på en splittring inom transportbranschen. Trots detta kunde slutsatsen dras att det finns en gemensam vilja inom branschen att samarbeta aktörer emellan vilket även beskrivs som en förutsättning för välfungerande intermodala transporter.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yip, Tsz-Wa;
    Country: Sweden

    This thesis aims to analyse the presence of post-truth characteristics in the public sphere, using the case study of the highly debated COVID-19 vaccines in Europe. Since 2016, the concept of post-truth has received increased attention in academia, particularly around the intense polarization of issues such as partisan voting, climate change, and vaccination. While prior studies have focused significantly on the impacts and emergence conditions of the post-truth phenomenon, empirical studies on the prevalence of post-truth in everyday public activities have yet to be written. In response, this thesis conceptualises post-truth into five characteristics that are described in the existing literature: (i) disagreement about fact, (ii) personal experience and emotion, (iii) neglect of fact, (iv) truth-seeking, and (v) discredit of and distrust in experts. Based on these characteristics, this thesis qualitatively analyses the content of the comments on the European Commission’s Facebook posts concerning the COVID-19 vaccine. Descriptive analysis of 362 user-generated comments shows that groups with varying attitudes toward vaccination display most of the post-truth characteristics described in the existing literature. The results suggest that the group of people who are influenced by the post-truth culture is wider than anticipated. Furthermore, this thesis alters prior understandings of post-truth culture by showing that the opponents of vaccines do not display strong emotions or use personal experiences when discussing vaccination with the others. Public health authorities therefore might take these results into consideration for future vaccination campaigns. Lastly, this study posits some associations between post-truth characteristics and calls for further qualitative research on the matter.

  • Open Access Swedish
    Authors: 
    Klint, Emma;
    Country: Sweden

    Violations of democratic standards and use of emergency power to curb the Covid-19 pandemic, has become routine for many of the world's countries during 2020. Excessive use of emergency powers or limiting media freedoms means that Covid-19 could potentially pose a threat to democracies worldwide. An accumulation of smaller actions of democratic backsliding rather than massive revolutions seem to slip under democratic radars – is Covid-19 the perfect camouflage for such measures? Drawing upon the rapidly expanding literature in the area, this study argues for the link between how the impact of extensive cases in Covid-19 in a state has caused increasing violations of democratic standards. The study tests the relationship between Covid-19 and violations towards democratic standards using regression analysis. However, the study finds no empirical evidence that the number of cases of Covid-19 (per capita) correlates with violations towards democratic standards. Instead, states with high as well as low numbers of cases has violated democratic standards during the Covid-19 pandemic, indicating that future research possibly might find evidence that states has been using Covid-19 as a legitimate cover for autocratic processes.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Amin, Vanja; vom Hofe, Anton;
    Country: Sweden

    Through a single case study, we expand on pre-existing M&A research by examining how M&A processes have been affected by the increased information asymmetry as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic and what implications it will have on these processes going forward. By conducting a case study on a strategic serial acquirer in the technology industry, this thesis shed light on how firms within this industry react towards such a market shock and alter processes in order to adapt to the new circumstances. Based on a triangulation of document analysis and interviews with key employees of the case firm we find that the M&A strategy in terms of screening process and target criteria was not changed due to the pandemic. The most affected processes are the initiation of contact with target companies and the due-diligence process. There is a perceived loss of deep insight into target firms, trust and relationship building due to the vanishing of physical meetings, which is argued to be the largest change to the firm’s M&A processes. In addition to this, specific Covid-related aspects are taken into consideration, such as a more intense and differentiated focus on the liquidity and generation as well as origins of cash flows of targets during the due diligence process, compared to before the pandemic. Further, implications for the future mainly concern the possibility of increased productivity, inclusion and alignment of interests in the post-merger integration work, and the importance of trust and long-lasting relationships as an inherent part of the M&A strategy. MSc in Accounting and Financial Management

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hosie, Margaret J.; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Hartmann, Katrin; Egberink, Herman F.; Truyen, Uwe; Addie, Diane D.; Belák, Sándor; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Frymus, Tadeusz; Lloret, Albert; +6 more
    Country: Sweden

    COVID-19 is a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by a new coronavirus (CoV), SARS-CoV-2, which is closely related to SARS-CoV that jumped the animal-human species barrier and caused a disease outbreak in 2003. SARS-CoV-2 is a betacoronavirus that was first described in 2019, unrelated to the commonly occurring feline coronavirus (FCoV) that is an alphacoronavirus associated with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). SARS-CoV-2 is highly contagious and has spread globally within a few months, resulting in the current pandemic. Felids have been shown to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Particularly in the Western world, many people live in very close contact with their pet cats, and natural infections of cats in COVID-19-positive households have been described in several countries. In this review, the European Advisory Board on Cat Diseases (ABCD), a scientifically independent board of experts in feline medicine from 11 European Countries, discusses the current status of SARS-CoV infections in cats. The review examines the host range of SARS-CoV-2 and human-to-animal transmissions, including infections in domestic and non-domestic felids, as well as mink-to-human/-cat transmission. It summarises current data on SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in domestic cats and the results of experimental infections of cats and provides expert opinions on the clinical relevance and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats.