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1,071 Research products, page 1 of 108

  • COVID-19
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  • English
    Authors: 
    Scott, Dana; Finamor, Lucas;
    Country: Germany

    In response to the Covid-19 pandemic, the United States enacted the CARES Act, which expanded unemployment insurance (UI) benefits by providing a $600 weekly payment in addition to state unemployment benefits. We test whether changes in UI benefit generosity are associated with decreased employment, both at the onset of the benefits expansion and as businesses began to reopen. We use data from Homebase, a private firm that provides scheduling and time clock software to small businesses, which allows us to exploit high-frequency observations to understand how firms and workers respond to policy changes in real time. While our results show that relative declines in employment and hours occurred in mid-March, we find that the workers with higher post-CARES replacement rates did not experience larger declines in employment or hours of work when the benefits expansion went into effect. They have also returned to their previous jobs over time at similar rates as others.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Escaith, Hubert;
    Country: Germany

    The paper analyses the interindustry spillover effects of bilateral trade conflicts using the example of the 2018-2019 China-USA bilateral trade war. Empirical results are produced using a new heuristic method based on hypothetical extraction and substitution in an International Input-Output model. This model tracts a series of direct and indirect sectoral effects and provides an intuitive and computationally tractable way of mapping the potential gains and losses affecting other trade partners. It sheds light on some intricate inter-industry implications that are not obvious when considering traditional trade models. A large share of the negative impacts may be felt by third countries through two separate trade channels. Firstly, because the production of a final product in one country relies on importing intermediate goods from other trade partners, who may be negatively impacted by the trade destruction effects of the trade embargo. Secondly, because trade embargoes lead to trade substitution in order to fill the gaps left by embargoed products, and to trade deflection. Deflection occurs when the trade belligerents redeploy their unsold exports towards third countries, increasing competition for market shares. This situation is an additional threat for the Multilateral Trade Governance as large-scale trade deflection may induce a cascade of Tit-for-Tat protectionist measures, in a situation where the COVID-19 pandemics has fanned the industrial nationalism, trade protectionism and geo-political tensions which were already perceptible since the global crisis of 2008-2009.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Suah, Jing Lian;
    Country: Germany

    Demand (registrations), supply (availability of vaccines), and throughput (administering of vaccines) are key determinants of the progress of vaccination drives globally, including Malaysia's National COVID-19 Immunisation Programme (Program Imunisasi COVID-19 Kebangsaan, PICK). This paper will focus on the first determinant - demand. Specifically, were major policy "shocks" effective in influencing vaccine registrations? Between 24 February 2021 to 14 June 2021 when the PICK was in progress, several interventions were applied in select districts and states. These provided "natural experiments" to assess the effect of certain policy interventions on vaccine demand. In this paper, we assess the effect of two types of interventions on vaccine registrations in the PICK programme in a difference-in-difference (DiD) and panel event study settings - (1) a cash transfer programme for vaccine recipients, and (2) two instances of parallel opt-in "first come, first serve" queues. Finally, we rationalise these findings in a simple model of individual demand with preference shocks.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Kohnert, Dirk;
    Country: Germany

    ABSTRACT & RÉSUMÉ & ZUSAMMENFASSUNG : Dark clouds over the EU-Africa Summit 2021 in view of Brexit and Corona ---- Every three years, the AU-EU summit reunites African and EU leaders to outline the future direction of cooperation. The 6th summit had been to reaffirm and renew the partnership between the two blocks already in October 2020, but it was pushed back to the first quarter of 2021 or even later due to COVID-19 crisis. Besides, Brussels had to deal with its own post-Brexit situation and its repercussions on EU-Africa relations, excluding the UK. African states, for their part, wanted to renegotiate the EU-Africa partnership and to balance it with new promising Post-Brexit visions of the British premier Johnson about increased economic ties with the African Angloshere. China and other global players compete with the EU and its member states in the new scramble for African resources. Given that Africa is increasingly courted by other partners it could be inclined to successively limit its relations with the EU and see it as a mere provider of aid and security against Islamic terrorism. This trend was reinforced by the fact that the new EU-Africa strategy still hasn't been approved by EU member states. And a timely replacement of the Cotonou Agreement, which expires in November 2021, is open to question. ___________________________________________________________________________ RÉSUMÉ : Tous les trois ans, le sommet UA-UE réunit les dirigeants africains et européens pour définir l'orientation future de la coopération. Le 6e sommet devait réaffirmer et renouveler le partenariat entre les deux blocs déjà en octobre 2020, mais il a été repoussé au premier trimestre 2021, ou même plus tard, en raison de la crise du COVID-19. En outre, Bruxelles a dû faire face à sa propre situation post-Brexit, compte tenu l'exclusion du Royaume-Uni, et à ses répercussions sur les relations UE-Afrique. Les États africains, pour leur part, souhaitaient renégocier le partenariat UE-Afrique, et l'équilibrer avec les nouvelles visions post-Brexit prometteuses du Premier ministre britannique Johnson sur le renforcement des liens économiques avec l'Anglosphère africaine. La Chine et d'autres acteurs mondiaux sont en concurrence avec l'UE et ses États membre dans la nouvelle ruée vers les ressources africaines. Étant donné que l'Afrique est de plus en plus courtisée par d'autres partenaires, elle pourrait être encline à limiter successivement ses relations avec l'UE et à la considérer comme un simple fournisseur d'aide et de sécurité contre le terrorisme islamique. Cette tendance a été renforcée par le fait que la nouvelle stratégie UE-Afrique n'a toujours pas été approuvée par les États membres de l'UE. Et un remplacement opportun de l'accord de Cotonou, qui expire en novembre 2021, est sujet à caution. _____________________________________________________________________ ZUSAMMENFASSUNG : Alle drei Jahre bringt der AU-EU Gipfel afrikanische und EU-Staats- und Regierungschefs zusammen, um die künftige Richtung der Zusammenarbeit zu skizzieren. Der 6. Gipfel hatte sich zum Ziel gesetzt, die Partnerschaft zwischen den beiden Blöcken bereits im Oktober 2020 zu bekräftigen und zu erneuern, er wurde jedoch aufgrund der COVID-19-Krise auf das erste Quartal 2021 verschoben. Davon unabhängig mußte sich Brüssel erst einmal über seine eigene Situation nach dem Brexit und dessen Auswirkungen auf die Beziehungen zwischen der EU und Afrika klar werden. Die afrikanischen Staaten ihrerseits wollen die Partnerschaft zwischen der EU und Afrika neu verhandeln und sie mit den vielversprechenden Visionen des britischen Premierministers Boris Johnson über verstärkte wirtschaftliche Beziehungen zur afrikanischen Anglosphäre in Einklang bringen. Zudem konkurrieren China und andere Global Player mit der EU und ihren Mitgliedstaaten im Kampf um afrikanische Ressourcen. Angesichts der Tatsache, daß Afrika zunehmend von anderen Partnern umworben wird, könnten seine Führer dazu neigen, ihre Beziehungen zur EU sukzessive einzuschränken und die EU auf ihre Funktion als Anbieter von Hilfe und Sicherheit gegen den islamischen Terrorismus zu begrenzen. Dieser Trend wird noch dadurch verstärkt, daß eine gemeinsame EU-Afrika-Strategie von den EU-Mitgliedstaaten noch nicht einmal verabschiedet wurde. Selbst der rechtzeitige Ersatz des Cotonou-Abkommens, das im November 2021 ausläuft, ist fraglich.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    English
    Authors: 
    Kolvenbach, Sabine; Ionita, Andrei; Riedlinger, Urs; Ruland, Rudolf; Reinertz, Dominik; Wohlrab, Anna;
    Country: Germany

    Global challenges like climate change, food security, and infectious diseases such as the COVID-19 pandemic are nearly impossible to tackle when established experts and upstart innovators work in silos. If research organizations, governments, universities, NGOs, and the private sector could collaborate on these challenges more easily, lasting solutions would certainly come more quickly. Aligned with the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals, SAIRA connects key players in different arenas: scientists and engineers at research and technology organizations (RTOs) looking to collaborate on sustainable development projects, companies seeking R&D support to tackle their most challenging problems, and startups with innovative ideas and a desire to scale. The platform is a blockchain-secured open innovation platform, anchored on Max Plank Digital Library's blockchain network bloxberg, that assures the authenticity and integrity of all user-generated content and collaboration processes.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Benzarour, Choukri;
    Country: Germany

    The pandemic caused by the COVID-19 virus has significantly affected the tourism industry. Tourist destinations have adopted emergency measures and restrictions that have affected the mobility of individuals around the world. This study aims to analyse the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the tourism industry and overall economic performance. Moreover, it describes the recommendations made by two international organizations (UNWTO and OECD) to achieve the recovery of the tourism industry. It additionally reviewed the measures taken to ensure the resilience of tourism in Spain and South Africa. The study uses a qualitative approach to analyse data from different sources, such as official websites, news and press releases on government actions in different countries and literature related to crisis management. The findings indicate the various good practices adopted by governments in assisting to manage this crisis and promoting the destinations. The results also shed light on the challenges in planning, development and promotion domestic tourism, bringing digitalization and the importance of proposing an integrated strategy to better crisis management.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Gimenez-Nadal, Jose Ignacio; Velilla, Jorge;
    Country: Germany

    The confinement caused by Covid-19, and the associated promotion of telework to reduce exposure of workers to the disease, have clear implications for worker daily behaviors and well-being. This paper empirically explores the differences between commuters’ and teleworkers’ time allocations during their workdays, and the instant enjoyment experienced while doing such activities, with a focus on gender differences. Using detailed information from the UK Time Use Survey for the years 2014-2015, the results show a statistically significant cut in female and male paid work time associated with teleworking. On the other hand, teleworkers spend more time than commuters in unpaid work and leisure activities. The results also reveal a cut in women’s experienced enjoyment while doing telework, while male teleworkers enjoy their leisure more than do commuters. These results suggest that confinement policies promoting teleworking may impact not only worker time allocations, but also individual well-being, and such an impact may differ between men and women, leading to intrahousehold imbalances.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Cazotto, Gabriel; Araujo, Lyanna;
    Country: Germany

    O artigo apresenta um estudo a mercê das exportações brasileiras durante a pandemia do COVID-19. A forma mais eficiente que o governo encontrou para conter a contaminação e o número de mortes é o lockdown, que foi estabelecido no país. Entretanto, ocasionou fortes impactos na oferta e demanda de bens e produtos. A partir da paralisação do serviço industrial, induziu uma diminuição das manufaturas, e consequentemente, o seu consumo e suas exportações. O setor agropecuário cresceu nesse período, exportando cada vez mais produtos, atendendo a demanda por alimentos de vários países, mas a demanda interna ficou prejudicada, produzindo uma alta na maioria dos bens alimentícios. Um dos setores mais importante é o de serviços, que representa cerca de mais 70% no Produto Interno Bruto – PIB na qual caiu significativamente durante os dois primeiros trimestres do ano, somente no terceiro trimestre o PIB se valorizou frente ao período anterior. As expectativas para 2021, são de melhores resultados, a esperança é para que a vacina chegue no primeiro semestre e assim, aumente o consumo e encaminhando uma repercussão positiva para a economia brasileira, que tanto foi prejudicada.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Katafuchi, Yuya;
    Country: Germany

    This study analyzes how the behavioral changes associated with novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have affected residential land prices. Under previous pandemics (e.g., Spanish flu and SARS), avoidance of real estate transactions accompanied by going-out behavior and contraction of the real economy have caused a decrease in residential land prices. On the other hand, under the COVID-19 pandemic, it has been reported that residential land prices were stable or increasing due to behavioral changes such as the promotion of work-from-home (WFH). In order to confirm this phenomenon, this study first constructs a yearly panel dataset of Japan with the average published land price at the prefectural level as the dependent variable and treatment variables based on policy interventions for COVID-19, or WFH implementation. Second, this study uses the dataset to examine the relationship between land prices and changes in these conditions before and after the pandemic using the difference-in-differences method. The results of the above empirical analysis suggest that residential land prices were higher in prefectures where policy interventions related to COVID-19 were more robust than in other prefectures and where WFH was promoted more. This result supports the upward trend in residential land prices during the COVID-19 pandemic in the prefectures where policy interventions on COVID-19, including requests for WFH, are more implemented and where WFH is more prevalent.

  • Open Access Swedish
    Authors: 
    Possnert, Samuel; Rahmani, Baback;
    Country: Sweden

    Bakgrund: Den krävande intensivvårdsmiljön utsätter intensivvårdssjuksköterskor för en hög stress och graden av utbrändhet hos intensivvårdssjuksköterskor är högre än annan vård-och omsorgspersonal. Indirekt exponering till trauma i dessa miljöer kopplat med utbrändhet och minskad tillfredsställelse från empatiskt arbete kan bidra till empatisk utmattning med konsekvenser för personalens hälsa och patientvården. Covid-19 pandemin har utmanat den moderna intensivvården och specialistsjuksköterskor i frontlinjen har belastats med högre arbetsbördor, med ökade risker för empatisk utmattning som följd. Syfte: Att undersöka graden av empatisk utmattning hos intensivvårdssjuksköterskor under en pågående Covid-19 pandemi och jämföra resultatet med tidigare studier. Metod: Studiedesign var en enkätstudie med ett Google forms webb-formulär baserat på självskattningsinstrumentet Professional Quality of Life Scale. Det består av tre delskalor, som på svenska benämns medkänsletillfredsställelse, empatisk utmattning och utbrändhet. Deltagare i studien var 47 intensivvårdssjuksköterskor från Central IVA och Neurologi IVA på Sahlgrenska sjukhuset samt IVA på Mölndals sjukhus. Dataanalys genomfördes med hjälp av SPSS. Resultat: Föreliggande resultat jämfördes med referensdata från 30 studier med sammanlagt 5612 respondenter med skilda professioner inom vård och omsorg. Inga statistiskt signifikanta skillnader kunde observeras vid jämförelse med dessa referensdata för delskalorna medkänsletillfredsställelse och utbrändhet. Däremot var medelvärdet signifikant högre för de 47 IVA sjuksköterskorna beträffande delskalan empatisk utmattning (p <0,00001). Slutsats: Bortfallet i studien är stort vilket medför problem för generalisering. Den relativt stora skillnaden i empatisk utmattning i jämförelse med referensdata indikerar dock att detta bör uppmärksammas vidare i fortsatt forskning om effekterna på arbetsmiljön bland IVA personal under Covid-19 pandemin. Background: The demanding critical care environment exposes critical care nurses to a higher level of stress and the degree of burnout in critical care nurses is higher than other care and nursing staff. Indirect exposure to trauma in these environments coupled with burnout and reduced satisfaction from empathic work can contribute to compassion fatigue with consequences for staff health and patient care. The Covid-19 pandemic has challenged modern critical care and specialist nurses on the front lines have been burdened with higher workloads, with increased risks of developing compassion fatigue as a result. Aim: To measure the degree of compassion fatigue in critical care nurses during an ongoing covid-19 pandemic and compare the results with earlier studies. Method: Study Design was a survey study using a Google Forms web-survey based on the Professional Quality of Life Scale self-assessment tool. It consists of three subscales, namely compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout. Participants in the study were 47 intensive care nurses from the Central ICU and Neurology ICU at Sahlgrenska Hospital and ICU at Mölndal Hospital. Data analysis was performed using SPSS. Results: The presented results were compared with reference data from 30 studies with a total of 5612 respondents with different professions in healthcare. No statistically significant differences could be observed when compared with reference data for the subscale compassion satisfaction and burnout. On the other hand, the mean value was significantly higher for the 47 ICU nurses regarding the subscale compassion fatigue (p <0.00001). Conclusion: The dropout rate in the study is large, which causes problems for generalization. However, the relatively large difference in compassion fatigue, when compared with reference data, indicates that this should be further noted in future research regarding the effects of the work environment on ICU staff during the Covid-19 pandemic.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
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Searching FieldsTerms
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The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
1,071 Research products, page 1 of 108
  • English
    Authors: 
    Scott, Dana; Finamor, Lucas;
    Country: Germany

    In response to the Covid-19 pandemic, the United States enacted the CARES Act, which expanded unemployment insurance (UI) benefits by providing a $600 weekly payment in addition to state unemployment benefits. We test whether changes in UI benefit generosity are associated with decreased employment, both at the onset of the benefits expansion and as businesses began to reopen. We use data from Homebase, a private firm that provides scheduling and time clock software to small businesses, which allows us to exploit high-frequency observations to understand how firms and workers respond to policy changes in real time. While our results show that relative declines in employment and hours occurred in mid-March, we find that the workers with higher post-CARES replacement rates did not experience larger declines in employment or hours of work when the benefits expansion went into effect. They have also returned to their previous jobs over time at similar rates as others.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Escaith, Hubert;
    Country: Germany

    The paper analyses the interindustry spillover effects of bilateral trade conflicts using the example of the 2018-2019 China-USA bilateral trade war. Empirical results are produced using a new heuristic method based on hypothetical extraction and substitution in an International Input-Output model. This model tracts a series of direct and indirect sectoral effects and provides an intuitive and computationally tractable way of mapping the potential gains and losses affecting other trade partners. It sheds light on some intricate inter-industry implications that are not obvious when considering traditional trade models. A large share of the negative impacts may be felt by third countries through two separate trade channels. Firstly, because the production of a final product in one country relies on importing intermediate goods from other trade partners, who may be negatively impacted by the trade destruction effects of the trade embargo. Secondly, because trade embargoes lead to trade substitution in order to fill the gaps left by embargoed products, and to trade deflection. Deflection occurs when the trade belligerents redeploy their unsold exports towards third countries, increasing competition for market shares. This situation is an additional threat for the Multilateral Trade Governance as large-scale trade deflection may induce a cascade of Tit-for-Tat protectionist measures, in a situation where the COVID-19 pandemics has fanned the industrial nationalism, trade protectionism and geo-political tensions which were already perceptible since the global crisis of 2008-2009.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Suah, Jing Lian;
    Country: Germany

    Demand (registrations), supply (availability of vaccines), and throughput (administering of vaccines) are key determinants of the progress of vaccination drives globally, including Malaysia's National COVID-19 Immunisation Programme (Program Imunisasi COVID-19 Kebangsaan, PICK). This paper will focus on the first determinant - demand. Specifically, were major policy "shocks" effective in influencing vaccine registrations? Between 24 February 2021 to 14 June 2021 when the PICK was in progress, several interventions were applied in select districts and states. These provided "natural experiments" to assess the effect of certain policy interventions on vaccine demand. In this paper, we assess the effect of two types of interventions on vaccine registrations in the PICK programme in a difference-in-difference (DiD) and panel event study settings - (1) a cash transfer programme for vaccine recipients, and (2) two instances of parallel opt-in "first come, first serve" queues. Finally, we rationalise these findings in a simple model of individual demand with preference shocks.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Kohnert, Dirk;
    Country: Germany

    ABSTRACT & RÉSUMÉ & ZUSAMMENFASSUNG : Dark clouds over the EU-Africa Summit 2021 in view of Brexit and Corona ---- Every three years, the AU-EU summit reunites African and EU leaders to outline the future direction of cooperation. The 6th summit had been to reaffirm and renew the partnership between the two blocks already in October 2020, but it was pushed back to the first quarter of 2021 or even later due to COVID-19 crisis. Besides, Brussels had to deal with its own post-Brexit situation and its repercussions on EU-Africa relations, excluding the UK. African states, for their part, wanted to renegotiate the EU-Africa partnership and to balance it with new promising Post-Brexit visions of the British premier Johnson about increased economic ties with the African Angloshere. China and other global players compete with the EU and its member states in the new scramble for African resources. Given that Africa is increasingly courted by other partners it could be inclined to successively limit its relations with the EU and see it as a mere provider of aid and security against Islamic terrorism. This trend was reinforced by the fact that the new EU-Africa strategy still hasn't been approved by EU member states. And a timely replacement of the Cotonou Agreement, which expires in November 2021, is open to question. ___________________________________________________________________________ RÉSUMÉ : Tous les trois ans, le sommet UA-UE réunit les dirigeants africains et européens pour définir l'orientation future de la coopération. Le 6e sommet devait réaffirmer et renouveler le partenariat entre les deux blocs déjà en octobre 2020, mais il a été repoussé au premier trimestre 2021, ou même plus tard, en raison de la crise du COVID-19. En outre, Bruxelles a dû faire face à sa propre situation post-Brexit, compte tenu l'exclusion du Royaume-Uni, et à ses répercussions sur les relations UE-Afrique. Les États africains, pour leur part, souhaitaient renégocier le partenariat UE-Afrique, et l'équilibrer avec les nouvelles visions post-Brexit prometteuses du Premier ministre britannique Johnson sur le renforcement des liens économiques avec l'Anglosphère africaine. La Chine et d'autres acteurs mondiaux sont en concurrence avec l'UE et ses États membre dans la nouvelle ruée vers les ressources africaines. Étant donné que l'Afrique est de plus en plus courtisée par d'autres partenaires, elle pourrait être encline à limiter successivement ses relations avec l'UE et à la considérer comme un simple fournisseur d'aide et de sécurité contre le terrorisme islamique. Cette tendance a été renforcée par le fait que la nouvelle stratégie UE-Afrique n'a toujours pas été approuvée par les États membres de l'UE. Et un remplacement opportun de l'accord de Cotonou, qui expire en novembre 2021, est sujet à caution. _____________________________________________________________________ ZUSAMMENFASSUNG : Alle drei Jahre bringt der AU-EU Gipfel afrikanische und EU-Staats- und Regierungschefs zusammen, um die künftige Richtung der Zusammenarbeit zu skizzieren. Der 6. Gipfel hatte sich zum Ziel gesetzt, die Partnerschaft zwischen den beiden Blöcken bereits im Oktober 2020 zu bekräftigen und zu erneuern, er wurde jedoch aufgrund der COVID-19-Krise auf das erste Quartal 2021 verschoben. Davon unabhängig mußte sich Brüssel erst einmal über seine eigene Situation nach dem Brexit und dessen Auswirkungen auf die Beziehungen zwischen der EU und Afrika klar werden. Die afrikanischen Staaten ihrerseits wollen die Partnerschaft zwischen der EU und Afrika neu verhandeln und sie mit den vielversprechenden Visionen des britischen Premierministers Boris Johnson über verstärkte wirtschaftliche Beziehungen zur afrikanischen Anglosphäre in Einklang bringen. Zudem konkurrieren China und andere Global Player mit der EU und ihren Mitgliedstaaten im Kampf um afrikanische Ressourcen. Angesichts der Tatsache, daß Afrika zunehmend von anderen Partnern umworben wird, könnten seine Führer dazu neigen, ihre Beziehungen zur EU sukzessive einzuschränken und die EU auf ihre Funktion als Anbieter von Hilfe und Sicherheit gegen den islamischen Terrorismus zu begrenzen. Dieser Trend wird noch dadurch verstärkt, daß eine gemeinsame EU-Afrika-Strategie von den EU-Mitgliedstaaten noch nicht einmal verabschiedet wurde. Selbst der rechtzeitige Ersatz des Cotonou-Abkommens, das im November 2021 ausläuft, ist fraglich.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    English
    Authors: 
    Kolvenbach, Sabine; Ionita, Andrei; Riedlinger, Urs; Ruland, Rudolf; Reinertz, Dominik; Wohlrab, Anna;
    Country: Germany

    Global challenges like climate change, food security, and infectious diseases such as the COVID-19 pandemic are nearly impossible to tackle when established experts and upstart innovators work in silos. If research organizations, governments, universities, NGOs, and the private sector could collaborate on these challenges more easily, lasting solutions would certainly come more quickly. Aligned with the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals, SAIRA connects key players in different arenas: scientists and engineers at research and technology organizations (RTOs) looking to collaborate on sustainable development projects, companies seeking R&D support to tackle their most challenging problems, and startups with innovative ideas and a desire to scale. The platform is a blockchain-secured open innovation platform, anchored on Max Plank Digital Library's blockchain network bloxberg, that assures the authenticity and integrity of all user-generated content and collaboration processes.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Benzarour, Choukri;
    Country: Germany

    The pandemic caused by the COVID-19 virus has significantly affected the tourism industry. Tourist destinations have adopted emergency measures and restrictions that have affected the mobility of individuals around the world. This study aims to analyse the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the tourism industry and overall economic performance. Moreover, it describes the recommendations made by two international organizations (UNWTO and OECD) to achieve the recovery of the tourism industry. It additionally reviewed the measures taken to ensure the resilience of tourism in Spain and South Africa. The study uses a qualitative approach to analyse data from different sources, such as official websites, news and press releases on government actions in different countries and literature related to crisis management. The findings indicate the various good practices adopted by governments in assisting to manage this crisis and promoting the destinations. The results also shed light on the challenges in planning, development and promotion domestic tourism, bringing digitalization and the importance of proposing an integrated strategy to better crisis management.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Gimenez-Nadal, Jose Ignacio; Velilla, Jorge;
    Country: Germany

    The confinement caused by Covid-19, and the associated promotion of telework to reduce exposure of workers to the disease, have clear implications for worker daily behaviors and well-being. This paper empirically explores the differences between commuters’ and teleworkers’ time allocations during their workdays, and the instant enjoyment experienced while doing such activities, with a focus on gender differences. Using detailed information from the UK Time Use Survey for the years 2014-2015, the results show a statistically significant cut in female and male paid work time associated with teleworking. On the other hand, teleworkers spend more time than commuters in unpaid work and leisure activities. The results also reveal a cut in women’s experienced enjoyment while doing telework, while male teleworkers enjoy their leisure more than do commuters. These results suggest that confinement policies promoting teleworking may impact not only worker time allocations, but also individual well-being, and such an impact may differ between men and women, leading to intrahousehold imbalances.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Cazotto, Gabriel; Araujo, Lyanna;
    Country: Germany

    O artigo apresenta um estudo a mercê das exportações brasileiras durante a pandemia do COVID-19. A forma mais eficiente que o governo encontrou para conter a contaminação e o número de mortes é o lockdown, que foi estabelecido no país. Entretanto, ocasionou fortes impactos na oferta e demanda de bens e produtos. A partir da paralisação do serviço industrial, induziu uma diminuição das manufaturas, e consequentemente, o seu consumo e suas exportações. O setor agropecuário cresceu nesse período, exportando cada vez mais produtos, atendendo a demanda por alimentos de vários países, mas a demanda interna ficou prejudicada, produzindo uma alta na maioria dos bens alimentícios. Um dos setores mais importante é o de serviços, que representa cerca de mais 70% no Produto Interno Bruto – PIB na qual caiu significativamente durante os dois primeiros trimestres do ano, somente no terceiro trimestre o PIB se valorizou frente ao período anterior. As expectativas para 2021, são de melhores resultados, a esperança é para que a vacina chegue no primeiro semestre e assim, aumente o consumo e encaminhando uma repercussão positiva para a economia brasileira, que tanto foi prejudicada.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Katafuchi, Yuya;
    Country: Germany

    This study analyzes how the behavioral changes associated with novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have affected residential land prices. Under previous pandemics (e.g., Spanish flu and SARS), avoidance of real estate transactions accompanied by going-out behavior and contraction of the real economy have caused a decrease in residential land prices. On the other hand, under the COVID-19 pandemic, it has been reported that residential land prices were stable or increasing due to behavioral changes such as the promotion of work-from-home (WFH). In order to confirm this phenomenon, this study first constructs a yearly panel dataset of Japan with the average published land price at the prefectural level as the dependent variable and treatment variables based on policy interventions for COVID-19, or WFH implementation. Second, this study uses the dataset to examine the relationship between land prices and changes in these conditions before and after the pandemic using the difference-in-differences method. The results of the above empirical analysis suggest that residential land prices were higher in prefectures where policy interventions related to COVID-19 were more robust than in other prefectures and where WFH was promoted more. This result supports the upward trend in residential land prices during the COVID-19 pandemic in the prefectures where policy interventions on COVID-19, including requests for WFH, are more implemented and where WFH is more prevalent.

  • Open Access Swedish
    Authors: 
    Possnert, Samuel; Rahmani, Baback;
    Country: Sweden

    Bakgrund: Den krävande intensivvårdsmiljön utsätter intensivvårdssjuksköterskor för en hög stress och graden av utbrändhet hos intensivvårdssjuksköterskor är högre än annan vård-och omsorgspersonal. Indirekt exponering till trauma i dessa miljöer kopplat med utbrändhet och minskad tillfredsställelse från empatiskt arbete kan bidra till empatisk utmattning med konsekvenser för personalens hälsa och patientvården. Covid-19 pandemin har utmanat den moderna intensivvården och specialistsjuksköterskor i frontlinjen har belastats med högre arbetsbördor, med ökade risker för empatisk utmattning som följd. Syfte: Att undersöka graden av empatisk utmattning hos intensivvårdssjuksköterskor under en pågående Covid-19 pandemi och jämföra resultatet med tidigare studier. Metod: Studiedesign var en enkätstudie med ett Google forms webb-formulär baserat på självskattningsinstrumentet Professional Quality of Life Scale. Det består av tre delskalor, som på svenska benämns medkänsletillfredsställelse, empatisk utmattning och utbrändhet. Deltagare i studien var 47 intensivvårdssjuksköterskor från Central IVA och Neurologi IVA på Sahlgrenska sjukhuset samt IVA på Mölndals sjukhus. Dataanalys genomfördes med hjälp av SPSS. Resultat: Föreliggande resultat jämfördes med referensdata från 30 studier med sammanlagt 5612 respondenter med skilda professioner inom vård och omsorg. Inga statistiskt signifikanta skillnader kunde observeras vid jämförelse med dessa referensdata för delskalorna medkänsletillfredsställelse och utbrändhet. Däremot var medelvärdet signifikant högre för de 47 IVA sjuksköterskorna beträffande delskalan empatisk utmattning (p <0,00001). Slutsats: Bortfallet i studien är stort vilket medför problem för generalisering. Den relativt stora skillnaden i empatisk utmattning i jämförelse med referensdata indikerar dock att detta bör uppmärksammas vidare i fortsatt forskning om effekterna på arbetsmiljön bland IVA personal under Covid-19 pandemin. Background: The demanding critical care environment exposes critical care nurses to a higher level of stress and the degree of burnout in critical care nurses is higher than other care and nursing staff. Indirect exposure to trauma in these environments coupled with burnout and reduced satisfaction from empathic work can contribute to compassion fatigue with consequences for staff health and patient care. The Covid-19 pandemic has challenged modern critical care and specialist nurses on the front lines have been burdened with higher workloads, with increased risks of developing compassion fatigue as a result. Aim: To measure the degree of compassion fatigue in critical care nurses during an ongoing covid-19 pandemic and compare the results with earlier studies. Method: Study Design was a survey study using a Google Forms web-survey based on the Professional Quality of Life Scale self-assessment tool. It consists of three subscales, namely compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout. Participants in the study were 47 intensive care nurses from the Central ICU and Neurology ICU at Sahlgrenska Hospital and ICU at Mölndal Hospital. Data analysis was performed using SPSS. Results: The presented results were compared with reference data from 30 studies with a total of 5612 respondents with different professions in healthcare. No statistically significant differences could be observed when compared with reference data for the subscale compassion satisfaction and burnout. On the other hand, the mean value was significantly higher for the 47 ICU nurses regarding the subscale compassion fatigue (p <0.00001). Conclusion: The dropout rate in the study is large, which causes problems for generalization. However, the relatively large difference in compassion fatigue, when compared with reference data, indicates that this should be further noted in future research regarding the effects of the work environment on ICU staff during the Covid-19 pandemic.