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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Gianpaolo Coro; Pasquale Bove; Anton Ellenbroek;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | Blue Cloud (862409)

    The COVID-19 pandemic has led to reduced anthropogenic pressure on ecosystems in several world areas, but resulting ecosystem responses in these areas have not been investigated. This paper presents an approach to make quick assessments of potential habitat changes in 2020 of eight marine species of commercial importance in the Adriatic Sea. Measurements from floating probes are interpolated through an advection-equation based model. The resulting distributions are then combined with species observations through an ecological niche model to estimate habitat distributions in the past years (2015-2018) at 0.1° spatial resolution. Habitat patterns over 2019 and 2020 are then extracted and explained in terms of specific environmental parameter changes. These changes are finally assessed for their potential dependency on climate change patterns and anthropogenic pressure change due to the pandemic. Our results demonstrate that the combined effect of climate change and the pandemic could have heterogeneous effects on habitat distributions: three species (Squilla mantis, Engraulis encrasicolus, and Solea solea) did not show significant niche distribution change; habitat suitability positively changed for Sepia officinalis, but negatively for Parapenaeus longirostris, due to increased temperature and decreasing dissolved oxygen (in the Adriatic) generally correlated with climate change; the combination of these trends with an average decrease in chlorophyll, probably due to the pandemic, extended the habitat distributions of Merluccius merluccius and Mullus barbatus but reduced Sardina pilchardus distribution. Although our results are based on approximated data and reliable at a macroscopic level, we present a very early insight of modifications that will possibly be observed years after the end of the pandemic when complete data will be available. Our approach is entirely based on Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable (FAIR) data and is general enough to be used for other species and areas.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bernard David Naughton; Ebru Akgul;
    Publisher: SAGE Publishing

    The entry of falsified and substandard medicines into the legitimate pharmaceutical supply chain has negative impacts on healthcare systems, patient safety, and patient access to medicine. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of access to safe medicine through legitimate pharmaceutical supply chains and the willingness of criminals to target medical products such as PPE (personal protective equipment) and COVID-19 treatments. In this article, we analyse data from the United Kingdom (UK) national medicine alert and recall database to identify and understand recent cases of substandard and falsified medicine in the UK’s healthcare systems. Using the UK as a case study, we describe that national drug alert and recall data are useful in their current form to record and understand cases of substandard and falsified medicines in the supply chain. However, if regulatory agencies published further data, these drug recall databases may be useful to support longitudinal and international comparative medicine quality studies. We suggest that regulatory agencies publish the number of affected medicine packs in each recalled batch, as part of the recall process. This will help policy makers, practitioners, and researchers to better understand, monitor and compare the quality of medicines within legitimate supply chains.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Eric A. Meyerowitz; Aaron Richterman; Isaac I. Bogoch; Nicola Low; Muge Cevik;
    Publisher: Elsevier Ltd.
    Project: EC | EpiPose (101003688), SNSF | Zika virus: causality, op... (176233), CIHR

    People with persistently asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection experience no symptoms throughout the course of infection, and pre-symptomatic individuals become infectious days before they report symptoms. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from individuals without symptoms contributes to pandemic spread, but the extent of transmission from persistently asymptomatic individuals remains unknown. We describe three methodological issues that hinder attempts to estimate this proportion. First, incomplete symptom assessment probably overestimates the asymptomatic fraction. Second, studies with inadequate follow-up misclassify pre-symptomatic individuals. Third, serological studies might identify people with previously unrecognised infection, but reliance on poorly defined antibody responses and retrospective symptom assessment might result in misclassification. We provide recommendations regarding definitions, detection, documentation, and follow-up to improve the identification and evaluation of people with persistently asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and their contacts. Accurate characterisation of the persistently asymptomatic fraction of infected individuals might shed light on COVID-19 pathogenesis and transmission dynamics, and inform public health responses.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Schäfer, Constantin;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | ISLAM-OPHOB-ISM (785934)

    Almanya’da COVID-19 salgını ile mücadele sürecinde alınan önlemleri protesto etmek için yapılan eylemlerde, popülist radikal sağcı parti “Almanya İçin Alternatif” (AfD) partisinin destekçileri protestocular arasında öne çıkmaktalar. Salgın sürecinin Almanya’daki sağ popülizmi nasıl etkileyeceğinin tartışıldığı bu dönemde, Germany Brief için Münster Üniversitesi’nden Siyaset Bilimci Dr. Constantin Schäfer AfD ve seçmenleri hakkında yazdı. AfD seçmeninin sosyo-demografik ve politik özelliklerine dayanarak seçmenleri “siyasi seçmen” ile “protestocu seçmen” olarak iki gruba ayıran Schäfer, yazısında salgın sürecinin AfD kitlesini hangi yönde etkileyebileceğini de değerlendiriyor. İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi AB Enstitüsü tarafından hazırlanan Almanya Notları kapsamında yayınlanmıştır, Daha fazla bilgi için: https://eu.bilgi.edu.tr/tr/publication/GRbrief/

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Júlia Vergara-Alert; Enric Vidal; Albert Bensaid; Joaquim Segalés;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Country: Spain
    Project: EC | ZAPI (115760)

    Emerging and re-emerging pathogens represent a substantial threat to public health, as demonstrated with numerous outbreaks over the past years, including the 2013-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus in western Africa. Coronaviruses are also a threat for humans, as evidenced in 2002/2003 with infection by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), which caused more than 8000 human infections with 10% fatality rate in 37 countries. Ten years later, a novel human coronavirus (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, MERS-CoV), associated with severe pneumonia, arose in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Until December 2016, MERS has accounted for more than 1800 cases and 35% fatality rate. Finding an animal model of disease is key to develop vaccines or antivirals against such emerging pathogens and to understand its pathogenesis. Knowledge of the potential role of domestic livestock and other animal species in the transmission of pathogens is of importance to understand the epidemiology of the disease. Little is known about MERS-CoV animal host range. In this paper, experimental data on potential hosts for MERS-CoV is reviewed. Advantages and limitations of different animal models are evaluated in relation to viral pathogenesis and transmission studies. Finally, the relevance of potential new target species is discussed.

  • Authors: 
    Patrick McCarthy; David Sammon; Ibrahim Alhassan;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited

    Digital Transformation has generated much research and curiosity recently, with the COVID-19 global pandemic accelerating its pace across all industry sectors. Current literature has not adequately provided a comprehensive understanding of Digital Transformation Leadership (DTL). The objective of this research is to explore the characteristics of DTL by undertaking a comprehensive review of Information Systems literature using a systematic procedure of identifying and coding 87 research papers, resulting in 600 coded excerpts, capturing the ‘who’ and ‘what’ of DTL. Our analysis identifies eight DTL characteristics, namely: digital strategist, digital culturalist, digital architect, customer centrist, organisational agilist, data advocate, business process optimiser and digital workplace landscaper. We discuss mapping the DTL characteristics to c-suite roles, presenting a taxonomy from the literature, of interest to both academics and practitioners. This research raises the awareness of the concept of DTL characteristics, especially amongst those in positions of leadership and decision making authority. © 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2011
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Irina Tikhanovich; Bo Liang; Cathal Seoighe; William R. Folk; Heinz-Peter Nasheuer;
    Publisher: American Society for Microbiology
    Country: Ireland

    ABSTRACT Small noncoding RNAs regulate a variety of cellular processes, including genomic imprinting, chromatin remodeling, replication, transcription, and translation. Here, we report small replication-regulating RNAs (srRNAs) that specifically inhibit DNA replication of the human BK polyomavirus (BKV) in vitro and in vivo . srRNAs from FM3A murine mammary tumor cells were enriched by DNA replication assay-guided fractionation and hybridization to the BKV noncoding control region (NCCR) and synthesized as cDNAs. Selective mutagenesis of the cDNA sequences and their putative targets suggests that the inhibition of BKV DNA replication is mediated by srRNAs binding to the viral NCCR, hindering early steps in the initiation of DNA replication. Ectopic expression of srRNAs in human cells inhibited BKV DNA replication in vivo . Additional srRNAs were designed and synthesized that specifically inhibit simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA replication in vitro . These observations point to novel mechanisms for regulating DNA replication and suggest the design of synthetic agents for inhibiting replication of polyomaviruses and possibly other viruses.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Tobias Mourier; Mukhtar Sadykov; Michael J. Carr; Gabriel Gonzalez; William W. Hall; Arnab Pain;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    The extensive sequence data generated from SARS-CoV-2 during the 2020 pandemic has facilitated the study of viral genome evolution over a brief period of time. This has highlighted instances of directional mutation pressures exerted on the SARS-CoV-2 genome from host antiviral defense systems. In this brief review we describe three such human defense mechanisms, the apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide-like proteins (APOBEC), adenosine deaminase acting on RNA proteins (ADAR), and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and discuss their potential implications on SARS-CoV-2 evolution. (c) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Linlin Zhang; McClane Howland; Rolf Hilgenfeld; Marc O. Anderson; Scott Eagon;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: EC | SCORE (101003627)
  • Publication . Other literature type . 2020
    Open Access Greek
    Authors: 
    Papadopoulou, Elli; Tsakonas, Giannis; Poulas, Konstantinos; Thanos, Dimitris; Karamitros, Timokratis;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | OpenAIRE-Advance (777541)

    Athena Research Center (ARC), in the context of activities undertaken between OpenAIRE National Open Access Desk, RDA National Node and ELIXIR-GR, organised a new series of informative and educational webinars around COVID-19 research. Τhe new series of digital events follows the first webinar held in April that aimed at collecting and promoting all efforts and knowledge around managing the virus crisis to the Greek scientific and academic community. In this series, the purpose focuses, also, on knowledge exchange based on Open Science practices and on training in research data management and software development. The digital events were in collaboration with the following scientific institutions: National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, National Center for Research & Technology Hellas, Hellenic Pasteur Institute, Biomedical Sciences Research Center “Alexander Fleming”, Biomedical Research Foundation of the Academy of Athens, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, Hellenic Academic Libraries Link, and the research infrastructure Inspired-RIs.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
7,945 Research products, page 1 of 795
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Gianpaolo Coro; Pasquale Bove; Anton Ellenbroek;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | Blue Cloud (862409)

    The COVID-19 pandemic has led to reduced anthropogenic pressure on ecosystems in several world areas, but resulting ecosystem responses in these areas have not been investigated. This paper presents an approach to make quick assessments of potential habitat changes in 2020 of eight marine species of commercial importance in the Adriatic Sea. Measurements from floating probes are interpolated through an advection-equation based model. The resulting distributions are then combined with species observations through an ecological niche model to estimate habitat distributions in the past years (2015-2018) at 0.1° spatial resolution. Habitat patterns over 2019 and 2020 are then extracted and explained in terms of specific environmental parameter changes. These changes are finally assessed for their potential dependency on climate change patterns and anthropogenic pressure change due to the pandemic. Our results demonstrate that the combined effect of climate change and the pandemic could have heterogeneous effects on habitat distributions: three species (Squilla mantis, Engraulis encrasicolus, and Solea solea) did not show significant niche distribution change; habitat suitability positively changed for Sepia officinalis, but negatively for Parapenaeus longirostris, due to increased temperature and decreasing dissolved oxygen (in the Adriatic) generally correlated with climate change; the combination of these trends with an average decrease in chlorophyll, probably due to the pandemic, extended the habitat distributions of Merluccius merluccius and Mullus barbatus but reduced Sardina pilchardus distribution. Although our results are based on approximated data and reliable at a macroscopic level, we present a very early insight of modifications that will possibly be observed years after the end of the pandemic when complete data will be available. Our approach is entirely based on Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable (FAIR) data and is general enough to be used for other species and areas.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bernard David Naughton; Ebru Akgul;
    Publisher: SAGE Publishing

    The entry of falsified and substandard medicines into the legitimate pharmaceutical supply chain has negative impacts on healthcare systems, patient safety, and patient access to medicine. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of access to safe medicine through legitimate pharmaceutical supply chains and the willingness of criminals to target medical products such as PPE (personal protective equipment) and COVID-19 treatments. In this article, we analyse data from the United Kingdom (UK) national medicine alert and recall database to identify and understand recent cases of substandard and falsified medicine in the UK’s healthcare systems. Using the UK as a case study, we describe that national drug alert and recall data are useful in their current form to record and understand cases of substandard and falsified medicines in the supply chain. However, if regulatory agencies published further data, these drug recall databases may be useful to support longitudinal and international comparative medicine quality studies. We suggest that regulatory agencies publish the number of affected medicine packs in each recalled batch, as part of the recall process. This will help policy makers, practitioners, and researchers to better understand, monitor and compare the quality of medicines within legitimate supply chains.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Eric A. Meyerowitz; Aaron Richterman; Isaac I. Bogoch; Nicola Low; Muge Cevik;
    Publisher: Elsevier Ltd.
    Project: EC | EpiPose (101003688), SNSF | Zika virus: causality, op... (176233), CIHR

    People with persistently asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection experience no symptoms throughout the course of infection, and pre-symptomatic individuals become infectious days before they report symptoms. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from individuals without symptoms contributes to pandemic spread, but the extent of transmission from persistently asymptomatic individuals remains unknown. We describe three methodological issues that hinder attempts to estimate this proportion. First, incomplete symptom assessment probably overestimates the asymptomatic fraction. Second, studies with inadequate follow-up misclassify pre-symptomatic individuals. Third, serological studies might identify people with previously unrecognised infection, but reliance on poorly defined antibody responses and retrospective symptom assessment might result in misclassification. We provide recommendations regarding definitions, detection, documentation, and follow-up to improve the identification and evaluation of people with persistently asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and their contacts. Accurate characterisation of the persistently asymptomatic fraction of infected individuals might shed light on COVID-19 pathogenesis and transmission dynamics, and inform public health responses.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Schäfer, Constantin;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | ISLAM-OPHOB-ISM (785934)

    Almanya’da COVID-19 salgını ile mücadele sürecinde alınan önlemleri protesto etmek için yapılan eylemlerde, popülist radikal sağcı parti “Almanya İçin Alternatif” (AfD) partisinin destekçileri protestocular arasında öne çıkmaktalar. Salgın sürecinin Almanya’daki sağ popülizmi nasıl etkileyeceğinin tartışıldığı bu dönemde, Germany Brief için Münster Üniversitesi’nden Siyaset Bilimci Dr. Constantin Schäfer AfD ve seçmenleri hakkında yazdı. AfD seçmeninin sosyo-demografik ve politik özelliklerine dayanarak seçmenleri “siyasi seçmen” ile “protestocu seçmen” olarak iki gruba ayıran Schäfer, yazısında salgın sürecinin AfD kitlesini hangi yönde etkileyebileceğini de değerlendiriyor. İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi AB Enstitüsü tarafından hazırlanan Almanya Notları kapsamında yayınlanmıştır, Daha fazla bilgi için: https://eu.bilgi.edu.tr/tr/publication/GRbrief/

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Júlia Vergara-Alert; Enric Vidal; Albert Bensaid; Joaquim Segalés;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Country: Spain
    Project: EC | ZAPI (115760)

    Emerging and re-emerging pathogens represent a substantial threat to public health, as demonstrated with numerous outbreaks over the past years, including the 2013-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus in western Africa. Coronaviruses are also a threat for humans, as evidenced in 2002/2003 with infection by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), which caused more than 8000 human infections with 10% fatality rate in 37 countries. Ten years later, a novel human coronavirus (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, MERS-CoV), associated with severe pneumonia, arose in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Until December 2016, MERS has accounted for more than 1800 cases and 35% fatality rate. Finding an animal model of disease is key to develop vaccines or antivirals against such emerging pathogens and to understand its pathogenesis. Knowledge of the potential role of domestic livestock and other animal species in the transmission of pathogens is of importance to understand the epidemiology of the disease. Little is known about MERS-CoV animal host range. In this paper, experimental data on potential hosts for MERS-CoV is reviewed. Advantages and limitations of different animal models are evaluated in relation to viral pathogenesis and transmission studies. Finally, the relevance of potential new target species is discussed.

  • Authors: 
    Patrick McCarthy; David Sammon; Ibrahim Alhassan;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited

    Digital Transformation has generated much research and curiosity recently, with the COVID-19 global pandemic accelerating its pace across all industry sectors. Current literature has not adequately provided a comprehensive understanding of Digital Transformation Leadership (DTL). The objective of this research is to explore the characteristics of DTL by undertaking a comprehensive review of Information Systems literature using a systematic procedure of identifying and coding 87 research papers, resulting in 600 coded excerpts, capturing the ‘who’ and ‘what’ of DTL. Our analysis identifies eight DTL characteristics, namely: digital strategist, digital culturalist, digital architect, customer centrist, organisational agilist, data advocate, business process optimiser and digital workplace landscaper. We discuss mapping the DTL characteristics to c-suite roles, presenting a taxonomy from the literature, of interest to both academics and practitioners. This research raises the awareness of the concept of DTL characteristics, especially amongst those in positions of leadership and decision making authority. © 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2011
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Irina Tikhanovich; Bo Liang; Cathal Seoighe; William R. Folk; Heinz-Peter Nasheuer;
    Publisher: American Society for Microbiology
    Country: Ireland

    ABSTRACT Small noncoding RNAs regulate a variety of cellular processes, including genomic imprinting, chromatin remodeling, replication, transcription, and translation. Here, we report small replication-regulating RNAs (srRNAs) that specifically inhibit DNA replication of the human BK polyomavirus (BKV) in vitro and in vivo . srRNAs from FM3A murine mammary tumor cells were enriched by DNA replication assay-guided fractionation and hybridization to the BKV noncoding control region (NCCR) and synthesized as cDNAs. Selective mutagenesis of the cDNA sequences and their putative targets suggests that the inhibition of BKV DNA replication is mediated by srRNAs binding to the viral NCCR, hindering early steps in the initiation of DNA replication. Ectopic expression of srRNAs in human cells inhibited BKV DNA replication in vivo . Additional srRNAs were designed and synthesized that specifically inhibit simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA replication in vitro . These observations point to novel mechanisms for regulating DNA replication and suggest the design of synthetic agents for inhibiting replication of polyomaviruses and possibly other viruses.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Tobias Mourier; Mukhtar Sadykov; Michael J. Carr; Gabriel Gonzalez; William W. Hall; Arnab Pain;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    The extensive sequence data generated from SARS-CoV-2 during the 2020 pandemic has facilitated the study of viral genome evolution over a brief period of time. This has highlighted instances of directional mutation pressures exerted on the SARS-CoV-2 genome from host antiviral defense systems. In this brief review we describe three such human defense mechanisms, the apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide-like proteins (APOBEC), adenosine deaminase acting on RNA proteins (ADAR), and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and discuss their potential implications on SARS-CoV-2 evolution. (c) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Linlin Zhang; McClane Howland; Rolf Hilgenfeld; Marc O. Anderson; Scott Eagon;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: EC | SCORE (101003627)
  • Publication . Other literature type . 2020
    Open Access Greek
    Authors: 
    Papadopoulou, Elli; Tsakonas, Giannis; Poulas, Konstantinos; Thanos, Dimitris; Karamitros, Timokratis;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | OpenAIRE-Advance (777541)

    Athena Research Center (ARC), in the context of activities undertaken between OpenAIRE National Open Access Desk, RDA National Node and ELIXIR-GR, organised a new series of informative and educational webinars around COVID-19 research. Τhe new series of digital events follows the first webinar held in April that aimed at collecting and promoting all efforts and knowledge around managing the virus crisis to the Greek scientific and academic community. In this series, the purpose focuses, also, on knowledge exchange based on Open Science practices and on training in research data management and software development. The digital events were in collaboration with the following scientific institutions: National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, National Center for Research & Technology Hellas, Hellenic Pasteur Institute, Biomedical Sciences Research Center “Alexander Fleming”, Biomedical Research Foundation of the Academy of Athens, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, Hellenic Academic Libraries Link, and the research infrastructure Inspired-RIs.