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3,472 Research products, page 1 of 348

  • COVID-19
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  • Hal-Diderot
  • HAL - UPEC / UPEM
  • COVID-19

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Christian Calvo-Henriquez; Byron Maldonado-Alvarado; Carlos M. Chiesa-Estomba; Irene Rivero-Fernández; Marta Sanz-Rodriguez; Ithzel Maria Villarreal; Miguel Rodriguez-Iglesias; Franklin Mariño-Sánchez; Alejandro Rivero-de-Aguilar; Jerome R. Lechien; +18 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; Objective: COVID-19 patients may present mild symptoms. The identification of paucisymptomatic patients is paramount in order to interrupt the transmission chain of the virus. Olfactory loss could be one of those early symptoms which might help in the diagnosis of COVID-19 patients. In this study, we aim to develop and validate a fast, inexpensive, reliable and easy-to-perform olfactory test for the screening of suspected COVID-19 patients. Study design: Phase I was a case–control study and Phase II a transversal descriptive study. Subjects and methods: Olfaction was assessed with the ethyl alcohol threshold test and symptoms with visual analogue scales. The study was designed in two phases: In Phase I, we compared confirmed COVID-19 patients and healthy controls. In Phase II, patients with suspected COVID-19 infection referred for testing were studied. Results: 275 participants were included in Phase I, 135 in Phase II. The ROC curve showed an AUC of 0.749 in Phase I, 0.737 in Phase II. The cutoff value which offered the highest amount of correctly classified patients was ≥ 2 (10% alcohol) for all age intervals. The odds ratio was 8.19 in Phase I, 6.56 in Phase II with a 75% sensitivity. When cases report normal sense of smell (VAS < 4), it misdiagnoses 57.89% of patients detected by the alcohol threshold test. Conclusion: The olfactory loss assessed with the alcohol threshold test has shown high sensitivity and odds ratio in both patients with confirmed COVID-19 illness and participants with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Moritz U. G. Kraemer; Chia-Hung Yang; Bernardo Gutierrez; Chieh-Hsi Wu; Brennan Klein; David M. Pigott; Louis du Plessis; Nuno R. Faria; Ruoran Li; William P. Hanage; +7 more
    Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science
    Countries: France, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Kingdom
    Project: NIH | MIDAS Center for Communic... (1U54GM088558-01)

    The ongoing COVID-19 outbreak has expanded rapidly throughout China. Major behavioral, clinical, and state interventions are underway currently to mitigate the epidemic and prevent the persistence of the virus in human populations in China and worldwide. It remains unclear how these unprecedented interventions, including travel restrictions, have affected COVID-19 spread in China. We use real-time mobility data from Wuhan and detailed case data including travel history to elucidate the role of case importation on transmission in cities across China and ascertain the impact of control measures. Early on, the spatial distribution of COVID-19 cases in China was well explained by human mobility data. Following the implementation of control measures, this correlation dropped and growth rates became negative in most locations, although shifts in the demographics of reported cases are still indicative of local chains of transmission outside Wuhan. This study shows that the drastic control measures implemented in China have substantially mitigated the spread of COVID-19. One sentence summary: The spread of COVID-19 in China was driven by human mobility early on and mitigated substantially by drastic control measures implemented since the end of January.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mahdi Ftouh; Nesrine Kalboussi; Nabil Abid; Souad Sfar; Nathalie Mignet; Badr Bahloul;
    Publisher: Hindawi Limited
    Country: France

    International audience; According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the coronavirus disease 2019, a respiratory viral illness linked to significant morbidity, mortality, production loss, and severe economic depression, was the third-largest cause of death in 2020. Respiratory viruses such as influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, SARS-CoV-2, and adenovirus, are among the most common causes of respiratory illness in humans, spreading as pandemics or epidemics throughout all continents. Nanotechnologies are particles in the nanometer range made from various compositions. They can be lipid-based, polymer-based, protein-based, or inorganic in nature, but they are all bioinspired and virus-like. In this review, we aimed to present a short review of the different nanoparticles currently studied, in particular those which led to publications in the field of respiratory viruses. We evaluated those which could be beneficial for respiratory disease-based viruses; those which already have contributed, such as lipid nanoparticles in the context of COVID-19; and those which will contribute in the future either as vaccines or antiviral drug delivery systems. We present a short assessment based on a critical selection of evidence indicating nanotechnology’s promise in the prevention and treatment of respiratory infections.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Birte Wassenberg;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    This paper retraces the author’s personal experience of the COVID-19 lockdown from March to July 2020 at the Franco-German border from a threefold perspective: that of a cross-border worker living in Kehl, Germany, and working in Strasbourg, France; that of a Franco-German citizen with a family and children of both French and German nationality; and that of a researcher specialized in border studies. The paper deals with national re-bordering policies and their direct personal and psychological consequences for borderlanders, and also questions whether such measures are adequate to contain the pandemic, especially in a context of European Union integration which is based on the principle of a “Europe without borders”.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Paul Brandily; Clément Brébion; Simon Briole; Laura Khoury;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: ANR | PGSE (ANR-17-EURE-0001)

    Mortality inequalities remain substantial in many countries, and large shocks such as pandemics could amplify them further. The unequal distribution of COVID-19 confirmed cases suggests that this is the case. Yet, evidence on the causal effect of the epidemic on mortality inequalities remains scarce. In this paper, we exploit exhaustive municipality-level data in France, one of the most severely hit country in the world, to identify a negative relationship between income and excess mortality within urban areas, that persists over COVID-19 waves. Over the year 2020, the poorest municipalities experienced a 30% higher increase in excess mortality. Our analyses can rule out an independent contribution of lockdown policies to this heterogeneous impact. Finally, we find evidence that both labour-market exposure and housing conditions are major determinants of the epidemic-induced effects of COVID-19 on mortality inequalities, but that their respective role depends on the state of the epidemic.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Cyrille Mathieu; Matteo Porotto; Tiago N. Figueira; Branka Horvat; Anne Moscona;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, Italy
    Project: NIH | MOLECULAR BASIS FOR PARAI... (5R29AI031971-03), ANR | ECOFECT (ANR-11-LABX-0048), ANR | Avenir L.S.E. (ANR-11-IDEX-0007), NIH | Engineering protease-resi... (5R01AI114736-04), NIH | Design of CNS-targeted pe... (5R33AI101333-04)

    International audience; Background. The emerging zoonotic paramyxovirus Nipah virus (NiV) causes severe respiratory and neurological disease inhumans, with high fatality rates. Nipah virus can be transmitted via person-to-person contact, posing a high risk for epidemic outbreaks. However, a broadly applicable approach for human NiV outbreaks in field settings is lacking.Methods. We engineered new antiviral lipopeptides and analyzed in vitro fusion inhibition to identify an optimal candidate forprophylaxis of NiV infection in the lower respiratory tract, and we assessed antiviral efficiency in 2 different animal models.Results. We show that lethal NiV infection can be prevented with lipopeptides delivered via the respiratory route in both hamsters and nonhuman primates. By targeting retention of peptides for NiV prophylaxis in the respiratory tract, we avoid its systemicdelivery in individuals who need only prevention, and thus we increase the safety of treatment and enhance utility of the intervention.Conclusions. The experiments provide a proof of concept for the use of antifusion lipopeptides for prophylaxis of lethal NiV.These results advance the goal of rational development of potent lipopeptide inhibitors with desirable pharmacokinetic and biodistribution properties and a safe effective delivery method to target NiV and other pathogenic viruses.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mathieu Bourgarel; Davies M. Pfukenyi; Vanina Boué; Loïc Talignani; Ngoni Chiweshe; Fodé Diop; Alexandre Caron; Gift Matope; Dorothée Missé; Florian Liegeois;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: ANR | TIMTAMDEN (ANR-14-CE14-0029)

    Bats carry a great diversity of zoonotic viruses with a high-impact on human health and livestock. Since the emergence of new coronaviruses and paramyxoviruses in humans (e.g. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Nipah virus), numerous studies clearly established that bats can maintain some of these viruses. Improving our understanding on the role of bats in the epidemiology of the pathogens they harbour is necessary to prevent cross-species spill over along the wild/domestic/human gradient. In this study, we screened bat faecal samples for the presence of Coronavirus and Paramyxovirus in two caves frequently visited by local people to collect manure and/or to hunt bats in Zimbabwe. We amplified partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes of Alpha and Betacoronavirus together with the partial polymerase gene of Paramyxovirus. Identified coronaviruses were related to pathogenic human strains and the paramyxovirus belonged to the recently described Jeilongvirus genus. Our results highlighted the importance of monitoring virus circulation in wildlife, especially bats, in the context of intense human-wildlife interfaces in order to strengthen prevention measures among local populations and to implement sentinel surveillance in sites with high zoonotic diseases transmission potential. Highlights • Coronavirus and Paramyxovirus circulate in Hipposideros bat species in Zimbabwe. • Importance of widening viral screening in under-investigated countries • Sentinel surveillance in sites with high zoonotic transmission potential

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    David Gouyon; Hervé Panetto;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; This special issue of INSIGHT section is dedicated to the eighth edition of the French Systems Engineering Academia-Industry meetings, organized by AFIS (Association Française d'Ingénierie Système), the French chapter of INCOSE, and supported by French universities as a regular series, usually every two years. This edition was held in Nancy in December 2018. These meetings, which is composed of workshops and plenary lectures, provides the opportunity for both academics and industrials to:-debate on systems engineering practices, education and competences development for professional situations,-develop and promote research in systems engineering. The first article of this special section, by Eric Levrat, Eric Bonjour, David Gouyon, Pascale Marangé, Frédérique Mayer, Hervé Panetto and Jean-Claude Tucoulou, is dedicated to a presentation of the events that occurred during the meetings: a pre-forum, a forum, conferences, workshops, a doctoral workshop, the AFIS thesis price, and the celebration of the 20 th anniversary of AFIS. Among these events, a major one for AFIS is the RobAfis Challenge, which occurs each year since 2006. The article by Jean-Claude Tucoulou and David Gouyon aims at presenting the 13 th edition of RobAfis, and results. An originality of this edition is the consideration of the footprint of the solution: the system platform had to be based on material or product with a low ecological footprint, reused or recycled, and had to be recyclable itself. Among other novelties of this edition, the Alain Faisandier prize was initiated, for the best quality of the development document and implementation of systems engineering processes. The other articles of this special issue concern the main contributions presented in another major event of the forum, the doctoral workshop that have held during the meetings, aiming to provide an overview of the French research in the domain of Systems Engineering. For this issue of INSIGHT, doctoral students and their supervisors have been invited to submit an extended version of their presentations in order to emphasize the research aspects of Systems Engineering. Eleven research papers have been selected to be included in this edition in order to promote research on systems engineering approaches. The first research paper, by Mourad Harrat, Elaheh Maleki, Farouk Belkadi and Alain Bernard, is entitled Extended Enterprise model for PSS within a Systems Engineering perspective. It focuses on the representation of the organizational capabilities as part of the Product-Service Systems (PSS) enabling systems. Two UML diagrams are proposed to clarify the structure and to characterize the collaborative processes behind this virtual organization. The proposed modeling framework is be used as a background for the design and management of collaborations along the PSS lifecycle.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Valentina Picot; Thomas Bénet; Melina Messaoudi; Jean-Noel Telles; Monidarin Chou; Tekchheng Eap; Jianwei Wang; Kunling Shen; Jean-William Pape; Vanessa Rouzier; +20 more
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Country: France

    Background Data on the etiologies of pneumonia among children are inadequate, especially in developing countries. The principal objective is to undertake a multicenter incident case–control study of <5-year-old children hospitalized with pneumonia in developing and emerging countries, aiming to identify the causative agents involved in pneumonia while assessing individual and microbial factors associated with the risk of severe pneumonia. Methods/design A multicenter case–control study, based on the GABRIEL network, is ongoing. Ten study sites are located in 9 countries over 3 continents: Brazil, Cambodia, China, Haiti, India, Madagascar, Mali, Mongolia, and Paraguay. At least 1,000 incident cases and 1,000 controls will be enrolled and matched for age and date. Cases are hospitalized children <5 years with radiologically confirmed pneumonia, and the controls are children without any features suggestive of pneumonia. Respiratory specimens are collected from all enrolled subjects to identify 19 viruses and 5 bacteria. Whole blood from pneumonia cases is being tested for 3 major bacteria. S. pneumoniae-positive specimens are serotyped. Urine samples from cases only are tested for detection of antimicrobial activity. The association between procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and pathogens is being evaluated. A discovery platform will enable pathogen identification in undiagnosed samples. Discussion This multicenter study will provide descriptive results for better understanding of pathogens responsible for pneumonia among children in developing countries. The identification of determinants related to microorganisms associated with pneumonia and its severity should facilitate treatment and prevention. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12879-014-0635-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Giuliano Bobba; Nicolas Hubé;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing
    Countries: France, Italy, France
    Project: EC | DEMOS (822590)

    This chapter addresses the general research questions of the book, namely the possibility that populists in Europe can profit from a peculiar crisis such as COVID-19, and it wonders whether populists reacted in a similar way across countries or whether the institutional role they play at the national level has affected their reactions. Findings show that while populists have tried to take advantage of the crisis situation, the impossibility of taking ownership of the COVID-19 issue has made the crisis hard to be exploited. In particular, populists in power have tried to depoliticize the pandemic, whereas radical right-populists in opposition tried to politicize the crisis without gaining relevant public support though.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
3,472 Research products, page 1 of 348
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Christian Calvo-Henriquez; Byron Maldonado-Alvarado; Carlos M. Chiesa-Estomba; Irene Rivero-Fernández; Marta Sanz-Rodriguez; Ithzel Maria Villarreal; Miguel Rodriguez-Iglesias; Franklin Mariño-Sánchez; Alejandro Rivero-de-Aguilar; Jerome R. Lechien; +18 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; Objective: COVID-19 patients may present mild symptoms. The identification of paucisymptomatic patients is paramount in order to interrupt the transmission chain of the virus. Olfactory loss could be one of those early symptoms which might help in the diagnosis of COVID-19 patients. In this study, we aim to develop and validate a fast, inexpensive, reliable and easy-to-perform olfactory test for the screening of suspected COVID-19 patients. Study design: Phase I was a case–control study and Phase II a transversal descriptive study. Subjects and methods: Olfaction was assessed with the ethyl alcohol threshold test and symptoms with visual analogue scales. The study was designed in two phases: In Phase I, we compared confirmed COVID-19 patients and healthy controls. In Phase II, patients with suspected COVID-19 infection referred for testing were studied. Results: 275 participants were included in Phase I, 135 in Phase II. The ROC curve showed an AUC of 0.749 in Phase I, 0.737 in Phase II. The cutoff value which offered the highest amount of correctly classified patients was ≥ 2 (10% alcohol) for all age intervals. The odds ratio was 8.19 in Phase I, 6.56 in Phase II with a 75% sensitivity. When cases report normal sense of smell (VAS < 4), it misdiagnoses 57.89% of patients detected by the alcohol threshold test. Conclusion: The olfactory loss assessed with the alcohol threshold test has shown high sensitivity and odds ratio in both patients with confirmed COVID-19 illness and participants with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Moritz U. G. Kraemer; Chia-Hung Yang; Bernardo Gutierrez; Chieh-Hsi Wu; Brennan Klein; David M. Pigott; Louis du Plessis; Nuno R. Faria; Ruoran Li; William P. Hanage; +7 more
    Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science
    Countries: France, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Kingdom
    Project: NIH | MIDAS Center for Communic... (1U54GM088558-01)

    The ongoing COVID-19 outbreak has expanded rapidly throughout China. Major behavioral, clinical, and state interventions are underway currently to mitigate the epidemic and prevent the persistence of the virus in human populations in China and worldwide. It remains unclear how these unprecedented interventions, including travel restrictions, have affected COVID-19 spread in China. We use real-time mobility data from Wuhan and detailed case data including travel history to elucidate the role of case importation on transmission in cities across China and ascertain the impact of control measures. Early on, the spatial distribution of COVID-19 cases in China was well explained by human mobility data. Following the implementation of control measures, this correlation dropped and growth rates became negative in most locations, although shifts in the demographics of reported cases are still indicative of local chains of transmission outside Wuhan. This study shows that the drastic control measures implemented in China have substantially mitigated the spread of COVID-19. One sentence summary: The spread of COVID-19 in China was driven by human mobility early on and mitigated substantially by drastic control measures implemented since the end of January.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mahdi Ftouh; Nesrine Kalboussi; Nabil Abid; Souad Sfar; Nathalie Mignet; Badr Bahloul;
    Publisher: Hindawi Limited
    Country: France

    International audience; According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the coronavirus disease 2019, a respiratory viral illness linked to significant morbidity, mortality, production loss, and severe economic depression, was the third-largest cause of death in 2020. Respiratory viruses such as influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, SARS-CoV-2, and adenovirus, are among the most common causes of respiratory illness in humans, spreading as pandemics or epidemics throughout all continents. Nanotechnologies are particles in the nanometer range made from various compositions. They can be lipid-based, polymer-based, protein-based, or inorganic in nature, but they are all bioinspired and virus-like. In this review, we aimed to present a short review of the different nanoparticles currently studied, in particular those which led to publications in the field of respiratory viruses. We evaluated those which could be beneficial for respiratory disease-based viruses; those which already have contributed, such as lipid nanoparticles in the context of COVID-19; and those which will contribute in the future either as vaccines or antiviral drug delivery systems. We present a short assessment based on a critical selection of evidence indicating nanotechnology’s promise in the prevention and treatment of respiratory infections.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Birte Wassenberg;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    This paper retraces the author’s personal experience of the COVID-19 lockdown from March to July 2020 at the Franco-German border from a threefold perspective: that of a cross-border worker living in Kehl, Germany, and working in Strasbourg, France; that of a Franco-German citizen with a family and children of both French and German nationality; and that of a researcher specialized in border studies. The paper deals with national re-bordering policies and their direct personal and psychological consequences for borderlanders, and also questions whether such measures are adequate to contain the pandemic, especially in a context of European Union integration which is based on the principle of a “Europe without borders”.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Paul Brandily; Clément Brébion; Simon Briole; Laura Khoury;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: ANR | PGSE (ANR-17-EURE-0001)

    Mortality inequalities remain substantial in many countries, and large shocks such as pandemics could amplify them further. The unequal distribution of COVID-19 confirmed cases suggests that this is the case. Yet, evidence on the causal effect of the epidemic on mortality inequalities remains scarce. In this paper, we exploit exhaustive municipality-level data in France, one of the most severely hit country in the world, to identify a negative relationship between income and excess mortality within urban areas, that persists over COVID-19 waves. Over the year 2020, the poorest municipalities experienced a 30% higher increase in excess mortality. Our analyses can rule out an independent contribution of lockdown policies to this heterogeneous impact. Finally, we find evidence that both labour-market exposure and housing conditions are major determinants of the epidemic-induced effects of COVID-19 on mortality inequalities, but that their respective role depends on the state of the epidemic.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Cyrille Mathieu; Matteo Porotto; Tiago N. Figueira; Branka Horvat; Anne Moscona;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, Italy
    Project: NIH | MOLECULAR BASIS FOR PARAI... (5R29AI031971-03), ANR | ECOFECT (ANR-11-LABX-0048), ANR | Avenir L.S.E. (ANR-11-IDEX-0007), NIH | Engineering protease-resi... (5R01AI114736-04), NIH | Design of CNS-targeted pe... (5R33AI101333-04)

    International audience; Background. The emerging zoonotic paramyxovirus Nipah virus (NiV) causes severe respiratory and neurological disease inhumans, with high fatality rates. Nipah virus can be transmitted via person-to-person contact, posing a high risk for epidemic outbreaks. However, a broadly applicable approach for human NiV outbreaks in field settings is lacking.Methods. We engineered new antiviral lipopeptides and analyzed in vitro fusion inhibition to identify an optimal candidate forprophylaxis of NiV infection in the lower respiratory tract, and we assessed antiviral efficiency in 2 different animal models.Results. We show that lethal NiV infection can be prevented with lipopeptides delivered via the respiratory route in both hamsters and nonhuman primates. By targeting retention of peptides for NiV prophylaxis in the respiratory tract, we avoid its systemicdelivery in individuals who need only prevention, and thus we increase the safety of treatment and enhance utility of the intervention.Conclusions. The experiments provide a proof of concept for the use of antifusion lipopeptides for prophylaxis of lethal NiV.These results advance the goal of rational development of potent lipopeptide inhibitors with desirable pharmacokinetic and biodistribution properties and a safe effective delivery method to target NiV and other pathogenic viruses.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mathieu Bourgarel; Davies M. Pfukenyi; Vanina Boué; Loïc Talignani; Ngoni Chiweshe; Fodé Diop; Alexandre Caron; Gift Matope; Dorothée Missé; Florian Liegeois;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: ANR | TIMTAMDEN (ANR-14-CE14-0029)

    Bats carry a great diversity of zoonotic viruses with a high-impact on human health and livestock. Since the emergence of new coronaviruses and paramyxoviruses in humans (e.g. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Nipah virus), numerous studies clearly established that bats can maintain some of these viruses. Improving our understanding on the role of bats in the epidemiology of the pathogens they harbour is necessary to prevent cross-species spill over along the wild/domestic/human gradient. In this study, we screened bat faecal samples for the presence of Coronavirus and Paramyxovirus in two caves frequently visited by local people to collect manure and/or to hunt bats in Zimbabwe. We amplified partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes of Alpha and Betacoronavirus together with the partial polymerase gene of Paramyxovirus. Identified coronaviruses were related to pathogenic human strains and the paramyxovirus belonged to the recently described Jeilongvirus genus. Our results highlighted the importance of monitoring virus circulation in wildlife, especially bats, in the context of intense human-wildlife interfaces in order to strengthen prevention measures among local populations and to implement sentinel surveillance in sites with high zoonotic diseases transmission potential. Highlights • Coronavirus and Paramyxovirus circulate in Hipposideros bat species in Zimbabwe. • Importance of widening viral screening in under-investigated countries • Sentinel surveillance in sites with high zoonotic transmission potential

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    David Gouyon; Hervé Panetto;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; This special issue of INSIGHT section is dedicated to the eighth edition of the French Systems Engineering Academia-Industry meetings, organized by AFIS (Association Française d'Ingénierie Système), the French chapter of INCOSE, and supported by French universities as a regular series, usually every two years. This edition was held in Nancy in December 2018. These meetings, which is composed of workshops and plenary lectures, provides the opportunity for both academics and industrials to:-debate on systems engineering practices, education and competences development for professional situations,-develop and promote research in systems engineering. The first article of this special section, by Eric Levrat, Eric Bonjour, David Gouyon, Pascale Marangé, Frédérique Mayer, Hervé Panetto and Jean-Claude Tucoulou, is dedicated to a presentation of the events that occurred during the meetings: a pre-forum, a forum, conferences, workshops, a doctoral workshop, the AFIS thesis price, and the celebration of the 20 th anniversary of AFIS. Among these events, a major one for AFIS is the RobAfis Challenge, which occurs each year since 2006. The article by Jean-Claude Tucoulou and David Gouyon aims at presenting the 13 th edition of RobAfis, and results. An originality of this edition is the consideration of the footprint of the solution: the system platform had to be based on material or product with a low ecological footprint, reused or recycled, and had to be recyclable itself. Among other novelties of this edition, the Alain Faisandier prize was initiated, for the best quality of the development document and implementation of systems engineering processes. The other articles of this special issue concern the main contributions presented in another major event of the forum, the doctoral workshop that have held during the meetings, aiming to provide an overview of the French research in the domain of Systems Engineering. For this issue of INSIGHT, doctoral students and their supervisors have been invited to submit an extended version of their presentations in order to emphasize the research aspects of Systems Engineering. Eleven research papers have been selected to be included in this edition in order to promote research on systems engineering approaches. The first research paper, by Mourad Harrat, Elaheh Maleki, Farouk Belkadi and Alain Bernard, is entitled Extended Enterprise model for PSS within a Systems Engineering perspective. It focuses on the representation of the organizational capabilities as part of the Product-Service Systems (PSS) enabling systems. Two UML diagrams are proposed to clarify the structure and to characterize the collaborative processes behind this virtual organization. The proposed modeling framework is be used as a background for the design and management of collaborations along the PSS lifecycle.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Valentina Picot; Thomas Bénet; Melina Messaoudi; Jean-Noel Telles; Monidarin Chou; Tekchheng Eap; Jianwei Wang; Kunling Shen; Jean-William Pape; Vanessa Rouzier; +20 more
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Country: France

    Background Data on the etiologies of pneumonia among children are inadequate, especially in developing countries. The principal objective is to undertake a multicenter incident case–control study of <5-year-old children hospitalized with pneumonia in developing and emerging countries, aiming to identify the causative agents involved in pneumonia while assessing individual and microbial factors associated with the risk of severe pneumonia. Methods/design A multicenter case–control study, based on the GABRIEL network, is ongoing. Ten study sites are located in 9 countries over 3 continents: Brazil, Cambodia, China, Haiti, India, Madagascar, Mali, Mongolia, and Paraguay. At least 1,000 incident cases and 1,000 controls will be enrolled and matched for age and date. Cases are hospitalized children <5 years with radiologically confirmed pneumonia, and the controls are children without any features suggestive of pneumonia. Respiratory specimens are collected from all enrolled subjects to identify 19 viruses and 5 bacteria. Whole blood from pneumonia cases is being tested for 3 major bacteria. S. pneumoniae-positive specimens are serotyped. Urine samples from cases only are tested for detection of antimicrobial activity. The association between procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and pathogens is being evaluated. A discovery platform will enable pathogen identification in undiagnosed samples. Discussion This multicenter study will provide descriptive results for better understanding of pathogens responsible for pneumonia among children in developing countries. The identification of determinants related to microorganisms associated with pneumonia and its severity should facilitate treatment and prevention. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12879-014-0635-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Giuliano Bobba; Nicolas Hubé;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing
    Countries: France, Italy, France
    Project: EC | DEMOS (822590)

    This chapter addresses the general research questions of the book, namely the possibility that populists in Europe can profit from a peculiar crisis such as COVID-19, and it wonders whether populists reacted in a similar way across countries or whether the institutional role they play at the national level has affected their reactions. Findings show that while populists have tried to take advantage of the crisis situation, the impossibility of taking ownership of the COVID-19 issue has made the crisis hard to be exploited. In particular, populists in power have tried to depoliticize the pandemic, whereas radical right-populists in opposition tried to politicize the crisis without gaining relevant public support though.