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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Das, Darpan; Babik, Kelsey R.; Moynihan, Emma; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy;

    A series of experiments in stationary and moving passenger railcars was conducted to measure the removal rates of particles in the size ranges of SARS-CoV-2 viral aerosols, and the air changes per hour provided by the existing and modified air handling systems. The effect of ventilation and air filtration systems on removal rates and their effects on estimated probability (i.e., risk) of infection was evaluated in a range of representative conditions: (1) for two different ratios of recirculated air (RA) to outdoor air (OA) (90:10 RA:OA and 67:33 RA:OA); (2) using minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) filters with standard (MERV-8) and increased (MERV-13) filtration ratings; and (3) in the presence and absence of a portable high-efficiency particulate-air (HEPA) room air purifier system operated at clean air delivery rate (CADR) of 150 and 550 cfm. The higher-efficiency MERV-13 filters significantly increased particle removal rates on average by 3.8 to 8.4 hr−1 across particle sizes ranging from 0.3 to 10 µm (p < 0.01) compared to MERV-8 filters. The different RA:OA ratios and the use of a portable HEPA air purifier system had little effect on particle removal rates. MERV-13 filters reduced the estimated probability of infection by 42% compared to the MERV-8 filter. The use of a HEPA-air purifier with a MERV-13 filter causes a 50% reduction in the estimated probability of infection. Upgrading the efficiency of HVAC filters from MERV-8 to MERV-13 in public transit vehicles is the most effective exposure control method resulting in a clear reduction in the removal rates of aerosol particles and the estimated probability of infection.

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Other ORP type . 2022
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Other ORP type . 2023
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Other ORP type . 2023
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ figsharearrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Emeruwa, Iheanacho Obinnaya;

    The COVID-19 pandemic demonstrated the potential for healthcare systems to lack capacity to meet demand for critical care in times of crisis. Recent research suggests a rise in the utilization of intensive care unit (ICU) resources and the potential misallocation of resources to patients without clinical need or hope of benefit. Several authorities have published resource allocation policies to guide healthcare systems, commonly relying on measures of illness severity to determine the priority by which ICU resources would be allocated. This raises concerns about the properties of and the potential for allocation criteria to exacerbate racial disparities in clinical outcomes. Policymakers intend that such policies would maximize the number of lives saved by prioritizing provision of critical care services to patients most likely to benefit. This dissertation examines the interrater reliability of the University of California’s Scarce Resource Allocation Policy (SRAP) in determining the allocation priority of a cohort of consecutively admitted ICU patients at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Health System. Use of the SRAP had relatively poor reliability in determining allocation priority as laid out within the policy itself. A microsimulation model examined the likely impact of allocation decisions and likelihood of allocation of resources under four defined scenarios of resource constraint, for the outcome of ICU mortality. Mortality differed significantly across tested constraint levels compared to the case of no constraint (i.e., current capacity). Mortality was greater in subgroups with lower priority for constrained ICU resources. A mediation analysis examined if observed differences in mortality risk among racial groups are related to the use of SOFA scores or the selected comorbid conditions. Results suggest that these policy criteria do not mediate the effect of race on mortality. Understanding the projected outcomes related to use of these policies and the policy criteria that drive observed differences among patient groups can better inform policymakers in shaping protocols to maximize lives saved and avoid worsening healthcare disparities.

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    This newsletter focuses each month on some aspect of faculty development, including tips, resources and various opportunities designed to support faculty success at the Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine. In this issue: CME during Covid-19.

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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ VTechWorksarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sundaram, Suriya;

    EndALL-Virus by Suriya Sundaram In the midst of the real-life coronavirus ordeal, you are in a world where a virus has put humanity on the brink of extinction. The virus has taken everything you love from you. You have nothing left to lose. You are humanity's last hope... will you make the right decisions to save man-kind?

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ eScholarship - Unive...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ eScholarship - Unive...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Snyder, Mallika;

    Although the study of mortality is central to demography, comparatively little is known about its lived experience: how population-level mortality translates to individual experiences of loss within families and communities. Given the significance of bereavement for the health and socioeconomic outcomes of survivors, better understanding the impacts of mortality crises on family networks is crucial for predicting their longer-term consequences. The data required to study kin loss, however, is seldom available, leading many demographers to rely on computational approaches such as microsimulation to estimate the impact of these events.This dissertation presents microsimulation-based approaches to examining the impact of a mortality crisis, in this case COVID-19, on kin networks in the short and long term. The first study presents estimates of monthly excess kin loss by age and type of kin relation in 31 countries during the period of March 2020 to June 2021. These estimates demonstrate a generational pattern of kin loss reflecting COVID-19 age-specific excess mortality risk, and highlight the significant effect of excess mortality on family bereavement. The second study extends this estimation approach to 120 countries over the 2020-2021 period, documenting high rates of excess kin loss in many low-and-middle-income countries higher than or comparable to those observed in high-income countries. It also considers the extent to which differences in country estimates were shaped by both excess mortality and pre-existing kinship structure. The third study projects how "kinship memory'', the estimated share of national populations related to victims of COVID-19 excess mortality, may change over the next century in 120 countries around the world, and considers what this may mean for how this crisis is remembered in the future. These three studies combined highlight the significant burden of COVID-19 excess mortality in terms of bereavement experienced by surviving family members, and demonstrate the importance of computational approaches in helping better understand the experiences of populations for which limited data exists.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ eScholarship - Unive...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ eScholarship - Unive...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lam, Victor Loc;

    Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites and must rely on interactions with host proteins and machinery to produce progeny. Over time, hosts have developed innate immune responses as a first line of defense to control and limit viral infection. This has led to an arms race where viruses find new ways and adaptations to evade host defenses. SARS-CoV-2 encodes a protein called nsp14 which can modify viral mRNA caps to appear more host-like to evade innate immune sensors. Proteomics studies have also found that it binds to several host proteins, including SIRT5, as part of its life cycle but the purpose of this interaction is unknown. HIV and Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses (SIV) encode a protein called Vif to hijack the host E3 ubiquitin ligase complex to target APOBEC3G (A3G), a host antiviral protein, for proteasomal degradation and allow for successful viral replication. This dissertation ties together several different viruses, interactions, and innate immune evasion methods to contribute to our understanding of host-viral interactions. I developed a differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) assay as a potential screening tool for inhibitors of nsp14 that could be used to combat SARS-CoV-2. I also explored nsp14’s interaction with SIRT5 by contributing purified protein to the research effort. This nsp14/SIRT5 interaction was confirmed to have proviral effects, but the exact mechanism is still unknown. On interactions with HIV and SIV Vif and host A3G, I explored the mechanism behind how a single amino acid mutation in Vif allowed it to antagonize A3G in different species and cross a species barrier. By exploring these different variations of host-viral interactions, we gain a better understanding of viral life cycles and gain knowledge on how to counteract future pandemic viruses.

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    Authors: Chahal Bhullar, Monica;

    This study examines the student experience in the online classroom at a small, Northern California college during the COVID-19 pandemic, using a survey administered online and in person to students enrolled in targeted sections of general education courses at the college. By exploring student responses to specific instructional and support strategies used in virtual classrooms at the college during the pandemic, the study offers insight into those strategies which the students themselves identify as contributing factors to their success in the class.This perspective is relevant to colleges as they continue to refine, update, and create conditions in the online setting to assure an optimal learning environment. Though the colleges in the California Community College system were already engaged in this work prior to the pandemic, efforts were accelerated due to the pandemic. This rapid transition to online delivery of all services has led to new ways of serving that previously may not have seemed feasible, so the immediate future of distance education holds great promise. This study adds to the literature already available on lessons learned during the COVID-19 pandemic from student perspective.

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    Authors: Luna, Dante Michael;

    Concerto for Percussion and Orchestra follows an emotional trajectory akin to the K�bler-Ross model of the stages of grief, where the first movement represents a state of denial and anger, followed by a sense of depression and negotiation, and finally a feeling of acceptance and optimism. The soloist can be considered the protagonist of this abstract narrative, while the orchestra is the society around the protagonist. At first the soloist and orchestra are at odds with each other, symbolized by the use of contrasting textures and interruption, but by the end they become unified both emotionally and texturally. This piece serves as a reflection of the emotional rollercoaster experienced by many during the recent coronavirus pandemic. Composed for percussionist Daniel LaFrance with an intended premiere in November 2021.

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    Authors: Tanega, Brandon;

    COVID-19 Simulator by Brandon Tanega COVID-19 Simulator is a game that simulates our current pandemic and how different age groups have to go through their day to live their lives as normal as possible amidst the pandemic. This game can be used as a lesson to teach the player how to be cautious in their decision making as the desired end result of the game is to survive healthily.

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    Authors: Dreifuss, David; Huisman, Jana S.; Rusch, Johannes C.; Caduff, Lea; +8 Authors

    Files to reproduce the results of the preprint: "Estimated transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 variants from wastewater are robust to differential shedding"

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Das, Darpan; Babik, Kelsey R.; Moynihan, Emma; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy;

    A series of experiments in stationary and moving passenger railcars was conducted to measure the removal rates of particles in the size ranges of SARS-CoV-2 viral aerosols, and the air changes per hour provided by the existing and modified air handling systems. The effect of ventilation and air filtration systems on removal rates and their effects on estimated probability (i.e., risk) of infection was evaluated in a range of representative conditions: (1) for two different ratios of recirculated air (RA) to outdoor air (OA) (90:10 RA:OA and 67:33 RA:OA); (2) using minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) filters with standard (MERV-8) and increased (MERV-13) filtration ratings; and (3) in the presence and absence of a portable high-efficiency particulate-air (HEPA) room air purifier system operated at clean air delivery rate (CADR) of 150 and 550 cfm. The higher-efficiency MERV-13 filters significantly increased particle removal rates on average by 3.8 to 8.4 hr−1 across particle sizes ranging from 0.3 to 10 µm (p < 0.01) compared to MERV-8 filters. The different RA:OA ratios and the use of a portable HEPA air purifier system had little effect on particle removal rates. MERV-13 filters reduced the estimated probability of infection by 42% compared to the MERV-8 filter. The use of a HEPA-air purifier with a MERV-13 filter causes a 50% reduction in the estimated probability of infection. Upgrading the efficiency of HVAC filters from MERV-8 to MERV-13 in public transit vehicles is the most effective exposure control method resulting in a clear reduction in the removal rates of aerosol particles and the estimated probability of infection.

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    Authors: Emeruwa, Iheanacho Obinnaya;

    The COVID-19 pandemic demonstrated the potential for healthcare systems to lack capacity to meet demand for critical care in times of crisis. Recent research suggests a rise in the utilization of intensive care unit (ICU) resources and the potential misallocation of resources to patients without clinical need or hope of benefit. Several authorities have published resource allocation policies to guide healthcare systems, commonly relying on measures of illness severity to determine the priority by which ICU resources would be allocated. This raises concerns about the properties of and the potential for allocation criteria to exacerbate racial disparities in clinical outcomes. Policymakers intend that such policies would maximize the number of lives saved by prioritizing provision of critical care services to patients most likely to benefit. This dissertation examines the interrater reliability of the University of California’s Scarce Resource Allocation Policy (SRAP) in determining the allocation priority of a cohort of consecutively admitted ICU patients at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Health System. Use of the SRAP had relatively poor reliability in determining allocation priority as laid out within the policy itself. A microsimulation model examined the likely impact of allocation decisions and likelihood of allocation of resources under four defined scenarios of resource constraint, for the outcome of ICU mortality. Mortality differed significantly across tested constraint levels compared to the case of no constraint (i.e., current capacity). Mortality was greater in subgroups with lower priority for constrained ICU resources. A mediation analysis examined if observed differences in mortality risk among racial groups are related to the use of SOFA scores or the selected comorbid conditions. Results suggest that these policy criteria do not mediate the effect of race on mortality. Understanding the projected outcomes related to use of these policies and the policy criteria that drive observed differences among patient groups can better inform policymakers in shaping protocols to maximize lives saved and avoid worsening healthcare disparities.

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    This newsletter focuses each month on some aspect of faculty development, including tips, resources and various opportunities designed to support faculty success at the Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine. In this issue: CME during Covid-19.

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    Authors: Sundaram, Suriya;

    EndALL-Virus by Suriya Sundaram In the midst of the real-life coronavirus ordeal, you are in a world where a virus has put humanity on the brink of extinction. The virus has taken everything you love from you. You have nothing left to lose. You are humanity's last hope... will you make the right decisions to save man-kind?

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    Authors: Snyder, Mallika;

    Although the study of mortality is central to demography, comparatively little is known about its lived experience: how population-level mortality translates to individual experiences of loss within families and communities. Given the significance of bereavement for the health and socioeconomic outcomes of survivors, better understanding the impacts of mortality crises on family networks is crucial for predicting their longer-term consequences. The data required to study kin loss, however, is seldom available, leading many demographers to rely on computational approaches such as microsimulation to estimate the impact of these events.This dissertation presents microsimulation-based approaches to examining the impact of a mortality crisis, in this case COVID-19, on kin networks in the short and long term. The first study presents estimates of monthly excess kin loss by age and type of kin relation in 31 countries during the period of March 2020 to June 2021. These estimates demonstrate a generational pattern of kin loss reflecting COVID-19 age-specific excess mortality risk, and highlight the significant effect of excess mortality on family bereavement. The second study extends this estimation approach to 120 countries over the 2020-2021 period, documenting high rates of excess kin loss in many low-and-middle-income countries higher than or comparable to those observed in high-income countries. It also considers the extent to which differences in country estimates were shaped by both excess mortality and pre-existing kinship structure. The third study projects how "kinship memory'', the estimated share of national populations related to victims of COVID-19 excess mortality, may change over the next century in 120 countries around the world, and considers what this may mean for how this crisis is remembered in the future. These three studies combined highlight the significant burden of COVID-19 excess mortality in terms of bereavement experienced by surviving family members, and demonstrate the importance of computational approaches in helping better understand the experiences of populations for which limited data exists.

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    Authors: Lam, Victor Loc;

    Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites and must rely on interactions with host proteins and machinery to produce progeny. Over time, hosts have developed innate immune responses as a first line of defense to control and limit viral infection. This has led to an arms race where viruses find new ways and adaptations to evade host defenses. SARS-CoV-2 encodes a protein called nsp14 which can modify viral mRNA caps to appear more host-like to evade innate immune sensors. Proteomics studies have also found that it binds to several host proteins, including SIRT5, as part of its life cycle but the purpose of this interaction is unknown. HIV and Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses (SIV) encode a protein called Vif to hijack the host E3 ubiquitin ligase complex to target APOBEC3G (A3G), a host antiviral protein, for proteasomal degradation and allow for successful viral replication. This dissertation ties together several different viruses, interactions, and innate immune evasion methods to contribute to our understanding of host-viral interactions. I developed a differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) assay as a potential screening tool for inhibitors of nsp14 that could be used to combat SARS-CoV-2. I also explored nsp14’s interaction with SIRT5 by contributing purified protein to the research effort. This nsp14/SIRT5 interaction was confirmed to have proviral effects, but the exact mechanism is still unknown. On interactions with HIV and SIV Vif and host A3G, I explored the mechanism behind how a single amino acid mutation in Vif allowed it to antagonize A3G in different species and cross a species barrier. By exploring these different variations of host-viral interactions, we gain a better understanding of viral life cycles and gain knowledge on how to counteract future pandemic viruses.

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    Authors: Chahal Bhullar, Monica;

    This study examines the student experience in the online classroom at a small, Northern California college during the COVID-19 pandemic, using a survey administered online and in person to students enrolled in targeted sections of general education courses at the college. By exploring student responses to specific instructional and support strategies used in virtual classrooms at the college during the pandemic, the study offers insight into those strategies which the students themselves identify as contributing factors to their success in the class.This perspective is relevant to colleges as they continue to refine, update, and create conditions in the online setting to assure an optimal learning environment. Though the colleges in the California Community College system were already engaged in this work prior to the pandemic, efforts were accelerated due to the pandemic. This rapid transition to online delivery of all services has led to new ways of serving that previously may not have seemed feasible, so the immediate future of distance education holds great promise. This study adds to the literature already available on lessons learned during the COVID-19 pandemic from student perspective.

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    Authors: Luna, Dante Michael;

    Concerto for Percussion and Orchestra follows an emotional trajectory akin to the K�bler-Ross model of the stages of grief, where the first movement represents a state of denial and anger, followed by a sense of depression and negotiation, and finally a feeling of acceptance and optimism. The soloist can be considered the protagonist of this abstract narrative, while the orchestra is the society around the protagonist. At first the soloist and orchestra are at odds with each other, symbolized by the use of contrasting textures and interruption, but by the end they become unified both emotionally and texturally. This piece serves as a reflection of the emotional rollercoaster experienced by many during the recent coronavirus pandemic. Composed for percussionist Daniel LaFrance with an intended premiere in November 2021.

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    Authors: Tanega, Brandon;