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152 Research products, page 1 of 16

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  • Other research product . Other ORP type
    Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Moslinger, Emily;
    Country: Canada

    Background: Viral respiratory infections represent a significant burden of illness with high morbidity and mortality, which has been further magnified in recent years by the emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Viruses including SARS-CoV-2, Influenza A Virus (Flu-A), and Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) utilize the nasopharynx for viral entry, replication and infection. The nasopharynx epithelial cell mucous membrane harbors a diverse community of bacteria, called the nasal microbiota (NM). Flu-A can modulate changes in the NM community and lead to pathobiont enrichment. Therefore, here we aim to investigate the NM of individuals with SARS-CoV-2, Flu-A and RSV infection, and identify correlates between the NM community and viral load (VL) and SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC). Methods: Nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs were collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2, Flu-A, and RSV by validated real-time PCR (RT-PCR) assays. RNA extraction was performed using a Maxwell automatic nucleic acid extractor followed by 16S rRNA Illumina Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) library sample preparation for NGS on a MiSeq Sequencer. QIIME II, Microbiome Analyst and PRISM 9.0.0 were used for data analysis. Results: NP swabs from 118 SARS-CoV-2, 40 Flu-A, 26 RSV positive and 45 negative controls (NC) were included. An increase in alpha and beta bacterial diversity (p<0.001) was observed in the NM of SARS-CoV-2 patients and an enrichment in Streptococcus and Staphylococcus species and depletion of Bifidobacterium and Moraxella species compared to NC’s (p<0.001). Compared to Flu-A and RSV patients, SARS-CoV-2 positives showed enrichment in Streptococcus, and depletion in Haemophilus species (p<0.002). 73/118 SARS-CoV-2 specimens were further sequenced to identify VOC lineage and stratified by VL. No significance in bacterial richness, diversity, or abundance correlated to VL. Only a significant difference in beta diversity was observed between the alpha/delta and omicron cohorts (p<0.001). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the NM community is different in individuals with respiratory illness and distinct between SARS-CoV-2, Flu-A and RSV infected individuals. This study also demonstrated that NM beta diversity was different between individuals with different SARS-CoV-2 lineages, suggesting virus-NM interplay that may be important in explaining differences in transmission potentials and pathogenesis between SARS-CoV-2 VOCs.

  • Closed Access Croatian
    Authors: 
    Tomić, Petra;
    Country: Croatia

    Tema ovog rada je upravljanje rizikom odnosno krizama koji su obilježile 2020. godinu. Rad se sastoji od četiri dijela, a cilj je prikazati kako svijet, Europska unija, Republika Hrvatska i Grad Zagreb odgovaraju na predstojeće rizike te tijek događaja odnosno tijek njihovih radnji u suzbijanju rizika. U prvom dijelu polazi se od opće definicije rizika te objašnjavanje što rizik znači u suvremenom društvu. U drugom dijelu polazi se na konkretan rizik koji je pogodio cijeli svijet, a to je pandemija COVID – 19 te razmatra se i objašnjava pogled, radnja, politika i tijek događaja svijeta i Europske unije. Fokus ovog rada je u zadnjim dijelovima zbog specifičnosti Republike Hrvatske te Grada Zagreba i okolice jer osim COVID – 19, Grad Zagreb i okolica su pretrpjeli novi rizik, a to je prirodna katastrofa zvana potres te u ovom dijelu objašnjavaju se radnje u suzbijanju pandemije te usporedba akcija učinjene u svrhu suzbijanja pandemije COVID – 19 i u svrhu potresa.

  • Closed Access Italian
    Authors: 
    Cristina Valenti;
    Country: Italy

    Attività del Coordinamento Teatro Carcere Emilia Romagna nel corso dell'annualità 2020 in sette Istituti penitenziari della Regione: laboratori, spettacoli in presenza e in streaming, attività con le scuole. Con il sostegno di Regione Emilia Romagna, Ministero della Giustizia, Chiesa Valdese. Con il patrocinio di PRAP - Provveditorato Regionale dell'Emilia Romagna e Marche, Dipartimento delle Arti - Unibo. Un progetto di: Con...tatto associazione di volontariato (Forlì), Lady Godiva Teatro associazione (Ravenna), Le mani parlanti coop. sociale (Parma), Teatro dei Venti APS (Modena), Teatro del Pratello coop. sociale (Bologna), Teatro Nucleo coop. (Ferrara). CONSULENZA SCIENTIFICA: CRISTINA VALENTI. PRESENTAZIONE di Cristina Valenti (consulente scientifico) : STANZE DI TEATRO IN CARCERE AL TEMPO DEL CORONAVIRUS. Dopo l’immediata e pressoché totale sospensione delle attività, in seguito al DPCM dell’8 marzo 2020, che ha introdotto le misure per il contrasto al Covid-19, i registi del Coordinamento Teatro Carcere Emilia Romagna si sono impegnati a dare continuità al progetto “Padri e figli”, inaugurato nel 2018, sperimentando modalità di lavoro del tutto anomale. Incontri in remoto, videolezioni, epistolari teatrali, prove a distanza supportate da collegamenti via tablet e anche da radio locali hanno sostituito, laddove possibile, i laboratori in presenza, a dimostrazione dell’importanza che il lavoro teatrale in carcere ha assunto non solo per gli artisti, ma anche per gli attori detenuti e per l’istituzione, consapevole del valore del progetto e delle sue ricadute. A Castelfranco Emilia e a Modena il regista Stefano Tè ha continuato a sviluppare la drammaturgia dello spettacolo Padri e Figli lavorando sul confronto con due testi guida, Le avventure di Pinocchio e i Vangeli, attraverso sessioni di prove che sono riprese in aprile da remoto (con l’ausilio di collegamenti video via tablet) e in agosto in presenza, per arrivare a proporre il lavoro in ottobre a Gombola, nell’Appennino modenese, al termine di un periodo in residenza. A Ferrara i registi Horacio Czertok e Marco Luciano hanno ripreso a lavorare a distanza in marzo, con il laboratorio in forma epistolare Esercizi di libertà, per ricominciare ad agosto l’attività in presenza con le prove dello spettacolo Album di famiglia, ispirato alla tragedia di Amleto e alle sue riscritture novecentesche. A Bologna il lavoro del regista Paolo Billi con le attrici della sezione femminile si è sviluppato a partire da marzo in un Epistolario teatrale a distanza. Una fitta corrispondenza via mail che ha prodotto un’ampia raccolta di materiali drammaturgici e azioni fisiche lavorando sul copione Figlie di Lear. Da aprile la simulazione virtuale delle sedute di prove ha dato vita alla rubrica Prove a distanza, in onda settimanalmente su Radio Fujico, e a dicembre l’esperienza è stata ospitata nella trasmissione Natale liberi dentro, sulle stesse frequenze e sul canale di Teletricolore. A Forlì la regista Sabina Spazzoli ha inaugurato un’attività di videolezioni portando avanti, a partire da aprile, il lavoro sulla Tempesta di Shakespeare, interrotto a febbraio e ripreso in presenza a giugno. Si è invece fermata l’attività di Eugenio Sideri a Ravenna, dove il gruppo che ha lavorato con il regista fino all’inverno 2019 ha subito avvicendamenti e trasferimenti, ancor prima di incontrare l’emergenza Coronavirus che ha causato la sospensione degli incontri. Le attività sono riprese a settembre 2020 con un nuovo gruppo, per poi essere nuovamente sospese a novembre per l’aggravarsi della situazione sanitaria. Allo stesso modo durante tutto il 2020 l’attività di Corrado Vecchi a Parma non si è potuta svolgere neppure a distanza, in quanto nelle settimane antecedenti al lockdown il gruppo degli attori era in fase di formazione. Assai limitate sono state le attività in presenza, circoscritte ai primissimi mesi dell’anno e, in alcuni casi, all’autunno. Fra di esse, i laboratori con i minori e i giovani adulti dei Servizi di Giustizia Minorile, che hanno dato luogo allo spettacolo Le orme dei figli, presentato a Bologna, nel cortile dell’IPM, fra agosto e settembre. Molti gli eventi annullati, di cui abbiamo voluto comunque conservare traccia nel calendario contenuto in questa brochure. Nonostante l’emergenza sanitaria, le Stanze di Teatro in Carcere, giunte alla decima edizione, hanno proseguito e approfondito il rapporto teatro-carcere-scuola con il progetto Il Teatro Carcere incontra gli istituti superiori dell’Emilia Romagna, un percorso online realizzato su piattaforma Zoom nei mesi di aprile e maggio per riflettere sulla condizione della detenzione e sul valore della cultura e del teatro come fattori di trasformazione e di crescita.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2020
    Closed Access

    Ein kurzer Praxisbericht von heute und morgen Forscherinnen und Forscher sind eigenverantwortlich für die Einhaltung der guten wissenschaftlichen Praxis. Die Universitätsbibliothek Hildesheim begegnet ihnen im Forschungsdatenmanagement. Für die fortlaufende Unterstützung und Information zum Forschungsdatenmanagement (FDM) sind seit Beginn der Covid-19 Pandemie einfach vorhandene Formate für den digitalen Raum neu geformt worden. Der Support zum Datenmanagement wird vom Homeoffice aus geleistet. Es findet ständig Kontakt und Austausch mit den Forschenden statt, online mehr als früher vor Ort. Die Services sind geprägt durch Unterstützung bei der Erstellung von Datenmanagementplänen (RDMO). Forschungsnahe Services beschäftigen sich mit der Datenvielfalt, mit Karten, Texten, audiovisuellen Materialien, Fotosammlungen und Forschungssoftware, um nur einige Beispiele zu nennen. Hinzugekommen sind Beratungen im Bereich der Metadaten und fachspezifischen Metadatenschemata. Fragen sind immer auch, ob es rechtliche und ethische Hindernisse gibt, um Forschungsdaten zugänglich zu machen. Wie ist definiert, welche Daten aufbewahrt werden sollten und welche nicht.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    C. Sacerdoti Coen, I. Salvo;
    Publisher: Sun SITE Central Europe
    Country: Italy

    The Italian Conference on Theoretical Computer Science (ICTCS) is the annual conference of the Italian Chapter of the European Association for Theoretical Computer Science (IC-EATCS), The purpose of the meeting is to foster the cross-fertilization of ideas stemming from different areas of theoretical computer science. In particular, ICTCS provides an ideal environment where junior researchers and PhD students can meet senior researchers. The topics of interest include, but are not limited to, the following: agents, algorithms, argumentation, automata theory, complexity theory, computational logic, computational social choice, concurrency theory, cryptography, discrete mathematics, distributed computing, dynamical systems, formal methods, game theory, graph theory, knowledge representation, languages, model checking, process algebras, quantum computing, rewriting systems, security and trust, semantics, specification and verification, systems biology, theorem proving, type theory. The 22nd Italian Conference on Theoretical Computer Science (ICTCS 2021) has been hosted by the University of Bologna. Due to the worldwide evolution of COVID-19, it was held online on September 13–15, 2021. ICTCS 2021 received 38 submissions (25 regular papers and 13 communications), of which 28 were accepted for presentation at the conference and then published on http://ceurws.org/ (18 regular papers and 10 communications). Each submission was assessed by at least 3 reviewers, for a total of 69 reviewers (23 program committee members plus 46 additional reviewers) producing 114 reviews overall. The authors of the accepted contributions mostly came from Italy (16). Foreign contributions came from USA (2), India (2), Japan (1), Germany (1), Switzerland (1), and Algeria (1). 4 contributions are joint work between italian and foreign authors. ICTCS 2021 was attended by 68 people.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Evans, Paul C.; Davidson, Sean M.; Wojta, Johann; Bäck, Magnus; Bollini, Sveva; Brittan, Mairi; Catapano, Alberico L.; Chaudhry, Bill; Cluitmans, Matthijs; Gnecchi, Massimiliano; +13 more

    Here, we review the highlights of cardiovascular basic science published in 2021 and early 2022 on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology Council for Basic Cardiovascular Science. We begin with non-coding RNAs which have emerged as central regulators cardiovascular biology, and then discuss how technological developments in single-cell 'omics are providing new insights into cardiovascular development, inflammation, and disease. We also review recent discoveries on the biology of extracellular vesicles in driving either protective or pathogenic responses. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2021 recognized the importance of the molecular basis of mechanosensing and here we review breakthroughs in cardiovascular sensing of mechanical force. We also summarize discoveries in the field of atherosclerosis including the role of clonal haematopoiesis of indeterminate potential, and new mechanisms of crosstalk between hyperglycaemia, lipid mediators, and inflammation. The past 12 months also witnessed major advances in the field of cardiac arrhythmia including new mechanisms of fibrillation. We also focus on inducible pluripotent stem cell technology which has demonstrated disease causality for several genetic polymorphisms in long-QT syndrome and aortic valve disease, paving the way for personalized medicine approaches. Finally, the cardiovascular community has continued to better understand COVID-19 with significant advancement in our knowledge of cardiovascular tropism, molecular markers, the mechanism of vaccine-induced thrombotic complications and new anti-viral therapies that protect the cardiovascular system.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Massimiliano Musi;
    Publisher: Bonomo Editore
    Country: Italy

    The incessant changes in all areas of economy, science, politics and society, with a greater acceleration in recent years, are affecting also the transport regulation, one of the most stable of all the branches of law, having in mind that one of its areas, the Maritime Law, has maintained almost unchanged over the centuries many of the institutes and figures that most characterize it, such as general average, salvage, limitation of the liability of the shipowner, the charterparty, the bill of lading, the role of the master and the crew. In a world in which phenomena such as the Covid-19 pandemic, Brexit and the ever-increasing use of new technologies, despite being profoundly different from each other, have had and certainly do have a prominent role, operators in any sector find themselves having to face, often from one moment to the next, and therefore unexpectedly and in no time, a multiplicity of problems that are largely completely new, in order to avoid, or at least mitigate, the consequences of total or partial paralysis of their activities. Given the circumstances, legislators, national and international regulatory bodies and jurists are called upon to urgently reconsider and/or integrate the disciplines currently in force, both from the public and private aspects, taking into account the critical issues that are gradually emerging. Clearly, in a globalized context like the one we live in, characterized by a strong interconnection of activities and sectors with each other and where the interaction of multiple factors is inevitable, the panorama is of such complexity that, at the time being, no one is yet able to predict what future developments may be in detail, in the full awareness, however, that the playground is in constant becoming. The choice of the regulatory approach to be followed from time to time is far from easy, especially in the knowledge that on the one hand the evolution of legislation, geopolitics, technology and the behavior of operators on the relevant market are closely interconnected, and that on the other hand a not well shaped regulation could become an obstacle to the development of trade and, more generally, of global economy. New phenomena always give rise to unprecedented problems and, if it is not possible to give a full solution to them by means of the rules already in force, the legislators, making use of various forms of regulatory instruments, in terms both of quality and of extension of territorial effectiveness, should implement an evolution of the regulations, introducing new norms or modifying existing ones, also in light of the interests of the different stakeholders, often conflicting and variously declined, and of the practices that in some cases have been established and have remained constant and unchanged for a very long time. The multiplicity and multiformity of the problems that arise must not discourage, but rather act as a further stimulus: in such a tumultuous contingent situation, it is essential to maintain a certain order and an adequate methodological rigor in dealing with the individual problems, putting them into focus one by one, in order to then slowly expand the view and obtain an overall picture. In this perspective, the selected essays collected in this volume examine, in their dual scientific-academic and practical soul, both issues that arise as a result of the new phenomena mentioned above, and more “classic” topics of the matter, but analyzing them having regard to their most recent developments.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    Closed Access Dutch; Flemish
    Authors: 
    Reeskens, Tim; Muis, Quita; Sieben, Inge; Vandecasteele, Leen; Luijkx, Ruud; Halman, Loek;
  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Dórea, Fernanda C.; Vergne, Timothée; Brennan, Marnie; Schaik, Gerdien van; Barrett, Damien; Carmo, Luís Pedro; Robinson, Philip A.; Brodbelt, Dave C.; McIntyre, K. Marie;
  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Alemanno, A.; Bialasiewicz, L.;

    This article discusses some of the challenges posed by the introduction of COVID-19 certificates as a privileged tool for opening up mobility and access in order to restore a semblance of normality to social life. While at present there is no international consensus either on how - or why - such certificates should be used or on how they should be designed and applied, a growing number of countries have already introduced COVID-19 certificates in one form or another. Yet the scientific community as well as the World Health Organisation (WHO) have expressed caution, noting that such certificates might disproportionately discriminate against people on the basis of race, religion and socioeconomic background, as well as on the basis of age due to the sequencing of the vaccine rollout. Indeed, while the new COVID-19 certificates may appear to promise a magical solution enabling us to free up global mobility and reopen economies, they actually risk creating new borders and new forms of inequality through an exclusionary sorting and profiling mechanism that delimits "safe" from "unsafe" bodies, based on differential access to "immuno-privilege"- but also differential forms of "bio-securitisation". They also provide an illusion of pandemic safety - assuring citizens that through the "fetish" of the certificate "safe travel" can magically be reinstated. Securing territories and populations has always been, in Foucauldian terms, a matter of "making a division between good and bad circulation and maximizing the good circulation by diminishing the bad". We can therefore reasonably expect growing contestation, including before courts, around COVID-19 certificates in their different national and international iterations, as their inherently discriminatory nature and other unintended consequences such as those stemming from the use of persuasive - as opposed to the more traditional coercive - governmental power begin to unfold in their performative trajectory.