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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Brett Plouffe; Tamara Van Hooren; Michelle Barton; Michelle Barton; Nancy Nashid; Erkan Demirkaya; Erkan Demirkaya; Kambiz Norozi; Kambiz Norozi; Kambiz Norozi; +8 more
    Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
    Country: Canada

    Renal infarction is a rare finding in children. Associations between SARS-CoV-2 infections and thromboembolic events including renal infarcts have been described in adults. Although a similar association in children has not yet been described with this pandemic, the pediatric literature is still evolving with the recognition of new manifestations including the post-infectious Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). We report the rare event of multiple renal infarcts in a 6-year-old boy manifesting several features of MIS-C 9 weeks following a self-limiting febrile illness characteristic of COVID-19. An underlying Factor V Leiden mutation was identified in this child but felt to be insufficient on its own to explain his clinical presentation. As SARS-CoV-2 testing was delayed, the failure to identify viral RNA or antibodies may not exclude the virus' potential role in precipitating the infarct in this host. Given that renal infarcts have been described in adult patients with COVID-19, reporting this perplexing case where SARS-CoV-2 may have played a role, may help identify this potential complication.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Thiago de Paula Oliveira; Rafael de Andrade Moral;
    Publisher: Nature Portfolio
    Countries: Ireland, United Kingdom

    AbstractThe continuously growing number of COVID-19 cases pressures healthcare services worldwide. Accurate short-term forecasting is thus vital to support country-level policy making. The strategies adopted by countries to combat the pandemic vary, generating different uncertainty levels about the actual number of cases. Accounting for the hierarchical structure of the data and accommodating extra-variability is therefore fundamental. We introduce a new modelling framework to describe the pandemic’s course with great accuracy and provide short-term daily forecasts for every country in the world. We show that our model generates highly accurate forecasts up to seven days ahead and use estimated model components to cluster countries based on recent events. We introduce statistical novelty in terms of modelling the autoregressive parameter as a function of time, increasing predictive power and flexibility to adapt to each country. Our model can also be used to forecast the number of deaths, study the effects of covariates (such as lockdown policies), and generate forecasts for smaller regions within countries. Consequently, it has substantial implications for global planning and decision making. We present forecasts and make all results freely available to any country in the world through an online Shiny dashboard.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Luke A. J. O'Neill; Mihai G. Netea;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | TRAIN-OLD (833247), EC | Metabinnate (834370)

    Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccination has been reported to decrease susceptibility to respiratory tract infections, an effect proposed to be mediated by the general long-term boosting of innate immune mechanisms, also termed trained immunity. Here, we discuss the non-specific beneficial effects of BCG against viral infections and whether this vaccine may afford protection to COVID-19. Could the BCG vaccine be used to bridge the gap until a specific COVID-19 vaccine is developed? Luke O’Neill and Mihai Netea discuss the science behind this approach.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aessa Tumi; Hassan A. Khan; Sidra Awan; Kosta Ikonomou; Katija Ali; Kristina Frain; Irfan Ahmed;
    Publisher: Royal College of General Practitioners

    The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on patient lifestyles with new measures designed to reduce transmission of the virus drastically transforming life as we know it. Public health interventions — alongside advances in medical treatments, vaccine technology, and gene sequencing — have drastically reduced the impact of the pandemic across the world. Yet there has been relatively little focus on the potential role of physical activity (PA) in reducing disease burden during the pandemic. We discuss the latest evidence related to the role of exercise or physical pre-rehabilitation before infection and consider whether this may be an overlooked public health strategy. ### Living with COVID-19: ’Exercise is medicine.’ As we progress through the second year of the pandemic, there has been a renewed focus on adjustments that individuals and society will have to make as we continually adapt to life with COVID-19. Key public health messages regarding the importance of ’ hands, face, space and fresh air ‘ appear prominently on all government briefings but exercise, once famously quoted as being the ‘ miracle cure ’ by the Academy of Medical Royal Colleges, is conspicuously absent.1 Despite the evidence supporting the physical and mental health benefits of exercise at a population level, there remains a …

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rachel P. Rosovsky; Kristen M. Sanfilippo; Tzu-Fei Wang; Sandeep K. Rajan; Surbhi Shah; Karlyn Martin; Fionnuala Ní Áinle; Menno V. Huisman; Beverley J. Hunt; Susan R. Kahn; +4 more
    Country: Netherlands

    Abstract Background Best practice for prevention, diagnosis, and management of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) is unknown due to limited published data in this population. Objectives We aimed to assess current global practice and experience in management of COVID‐19–associated coagulopathy to identify information to guide prospective and randomized studies. Methods Physicians were queried about their current approach to prophylaxis, diagnosis, and treatment of VTE in patients with COVID‐19 using an online survey tool distributed through multiple international organizations between April 10 and 14, 2020. Results Five hundred fifteen physicians from 41 countries responded. The majority of respondents (78%) recommended prophylactic anticoagulation for all hospitalized patients with COVID‐19, with most recommending use of low‐molecular‐weight heparin or unfractionated heparin. Significant practice variation was found regarding the need for dose escalation of anticoagulation outside the setting of confirmed or suspected VTE. Respondents reported the use of bedside testing when unable to perform standard diagnostic imaging for diagnosis of VTE. Two hundred ninety‐one respondents reported observing thrombotic complications in their patients, with 64% noting that the complication was pulmonary embolism. Of the 44% of respondents who estimated incidence of thrombosis in patients with COVID‐19 in their hospital, estimates ranged widely from 1% to 50%. One hundred seventy‐four respondents noted bleeding complications (34% minor bleeding, 14% clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding, and 12% major bleeding). Conclusion Well‐designed epidemiologic studies are urgently needed to understand the incidence and risk factors of VTE and bleeding complications in patients with COVID‐19. Randomized clinical trials addressing use of anticoagulation are also needed.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Isabelle Bernard; Daniel Limonta; Lara K. Mahal; Tom C. Hobman;
    Publisher: MDPI
    Project: CIHR

    The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses a persistent threat to global public health. Although primarily a respiratory illness, extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 include gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal and neurological diseases. Recent studies suggest that dysfunction of the endothelium during COVID-19 may exacerbate these deleterious events by inciting inflammatory and microvascular thrombotic processes. Although controversial, there is evidence that SARS-CoV-2 may infect endothelial cells by binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) cellular receptor using the viral Spike protein. In this review, we explore current insights into the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection, endothelial dysfunction due to ACE2 downregulation, and deleterious pulmonary and extra-pulmonary immunothrombotic complications in severe COVID-19. We also discuss preclinical and clinical development of therapeutic agents targeting SARS-CoV-2-mediated endothelial dysfunction. Finally, we present evidence of SARS-CoV-2 replication in primary human lung and cardiac microvascular endothelial cells. Accordingly, in striving to understand the parameters that lead to severe disease in COVID-19 patients, it is important to consider how direct infection of endothelial cells by SARS-CoV-2 may contribute to this process.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2011
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Irina Tikhanovich; Bo Liang; Cathal Seoighe; William R. Folk; Heinz-Peter Nasheuer;
    Publisher: American Society for Microbiology Journals
    Country: Ireland

    ABSTRACT Small noncoding RNAs regulate a variety of cellular processes, including genomic imprinting, chromatin remodeling, replication, transcription, and translation. Here, we report small replication-regulating RNAs (srRNAs) that specifically inhibit DNA replication of the human BK polyomavirus (BKV) in vitro and in vivo . srRNAs from FM3A murine mammary tumor cells were enriched by DNA replication assay-guided fractionation and hybridization to the BKV noncoding control region (NCCR) and synthesized as cDNAs. Selective mutagenesis of the cDNA sequences and their putative targets suggests that the inhibition of BKV DNA replication is mediated by srRNAs binding to the viral NCCR, hindering early steps in the initiation of DNA replication. Ectopic expression of srRNAs in human cells inhibited BKV DNA replication in vivo . Additional srRNAs were designed and synthesized that specifically inhibit simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA replication in vitro . These observations point to novel mechanisms for regulating DNA replication and suggest the design of synthetic agents for inhibiting replication of polyomaviruses and possibly other viruses.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Husam M. Salah; Jwan A Naser; Giuseppe Calcaterra; Pier Paolo Bassareo; Jawahar L. Mehta;
    Publisher: Excerpta Medica
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Evelien Dekker; Han-Mo Chiu; Iris Lansdorp-Vogelaar; Luis E. Caro; Jason A. Dominitz; Stephen P Halloran; Cesare Hassan; Julia Ismael; Rodrigo Jover; Michal F. Kaminski; +13 more
    Country: Netherlands
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Justin Ashley; Graham Abra; Brigitte Schiller; Paul Bennett; Ali Poyan Mehr; Joanne M. Bargman; Christopher T. Chan;
    Publisher: Australia : Wiley-Blackwell Publishing
    Country: Australia

    Home dialysis therapies are flexible kidney replacement strategies with documented clinical benefits. While the incidence of end-stage kidney disease continues to increase globally, the use of home dialysis remains low in most developed countries. Multiple barriers to providing home dialysis have been noted in the published literature. Among known challenges, gaps in clinician knowledge are potentially addressable with a focused education strategy. Recent national surveys in the United States and Australia have highlighted the need for enhanced home dialysis knowledge especially among nephrologists who have recently completed training. Traditional in-person continuing professional educational programmes have had modest success in promoting home dialysis and are limited by scale and the present global COVID-19 pandemic. We hypothesize that the use of a ‘Hub and Spoke’ model of virtual home dialysis mentorship for nephrologists based on project ECHO would support home dialysis growth. We review the home dialysis literature, known educational gaps and plausible educational interventions to address current limitations in physician education Refereed/Peer-reviewed

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
7,392 Research products, page 1 of 740
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Brett Plouffe; Tamara Van Hooren; Michelle Barton; Michelle Barton; Nancy Nashid; Erkan Demirkaya; Erkan Demirkaya; Kambiz Norozi; Kambiz Norozi; Kambiz Norozi; +8 more
    Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
    Country: Canada

    Renal infarction is a rare finding in children. Associations between SARS-CoV-2 infections and thromboembolic events including renal infarcts have been described in adults. Although a similar association in children has not yet been described with this pandemic, the pediatric literature is still evolving with the recognition of new manifestations including the post-infectious Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). We report the rare event of multiple renal infarcts in a 6-year-old boy manifesting several features of MIS-C 9 weeks following a self-limiting febrile illness characteristic of COVID-19. An underlying Factor V Leiden mutation was identified in this child but felt to be insufficient on its own to explain his clinical presentation. As SARS-CoV-2 testing was delayed, the failure to identify viral RNA or antibodies may not exclude the virus' potential role in precipitating the infarct in this host. Given that renal infarcts have been described in adult patients with COVID-19, reporting this perplexing case where SARS-CoV-2 may have played a role, may help identify this potential complication.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Thiago de Paula Oliveira; Rafael de Andrade Moral;
    Publisher: Nature Portfolio
    Countries: Ireland, United Kingdom

    AbstractThe continuously growing number of COVID-19 cases pressures healthcare services worldwide. Accurate short-term forecasting is thus vital to support country-level policy making. The strategies adopted by countries to combat the pandemic vary, generating different uncertainty levels about the actual number of cases. Accounting for the hierarchical structure of the data and accommodating extra-variability is therefore fundamental. We introduce a new modelling framework to describe the pandemic’s course with great accuracy and provide short-term daily forecasts for every country in the world. We show that our model generates highly accurate forecasts up to seven days ahead and use estimated model components to cluster countries based on recent events. We introduce statistical novelty in terms of modelling the autoregressive parameter as a function of time, increasing predictive power and flexibility to adapt to each country. Our model can also be used to forecast the number of deaths, study the effects of covariates (such as lockdown policies), and generate forecasts for smaller regions within countries. Consequently, it has substantial implications for global planning and decision making. We present forecasts and make all results freely available to any country in the world through an online Shiny dashboard.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Luke A. J. O'Neill; Mihai G. Netea;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | TRAIN-OLD (833247), EC | Metabinnate (834370)

    Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccination has been reported to decrease susceptibility to respiratory tract infections, an effect proposed to be mediated by the general long-term boosting of innate immune mechanisms, also termed trained immunity. Here, we discuss the non-specific beneficial effects of BCG against viral infections and whether this vaccine may afford protection to COVID-19. Could the BCG vaccine be used to bridge the gap until a specific COVID-19 vaccine is developed? Luke O’Neill and Mihai Netea discuss the science behind this approach.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aessa Tumi; Hassan A. Khan; Sidra Awan; Kosta Ikonomou; Katija Ali; Kristina Frain; Irfan Ahmed;
    Publisher: Royal College of General Practitioners

    The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on patient lifestyles with new measures designed to reduce transmission of the virus drastically transforming life as we know it. Public health interventions — alongside advances in medical treatments, vaccine technology, and gene sequencing — have drastically reduced the impact of the pandemic across the world. Yet there has been relatively little focus on the potential role of physical activity (PA) in reducing disease burden during the pandemic. We discuss the latest evidence related to the role of exercise or physical pre-rehabilitation before infection and consider whether this may be an overlooked public health strategy. ### Living with COVID-19: ’Exercise is medicine.’ As we progress through the second year of the pandemic, there has been a renewed focus on adjustments that individuals and society will have to make as we continually adapt to life with COVID-19. Key public health messages regarding the importance of ’ hands, face, space and fresh air ‘ appear prominently on all government briefings but exercise, once famously quoted as being the ‘ miracle cure ’ by the Academy of Medical Royal Colleges, is conspicuously absent.1 Despite the evidence supporting the physical and mental health benefits of exercise at a population level, there remains a …

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rachel P. Rosovsky; Kristen M. Sanfilippo; Tzu-Fei Wang; Sandeep K. Rajan; Surbhi Shah; Karlyn Martin; Fionnuala Ní Áinle; Menno V. Huisman; Beverley J. Hunt; Susan R. Kahn; +4 more
    Country: Netherlands

    Abstract Background Best practice for prevention, diagnosis, and management of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) is unknown due to limited published data in this population. Objectives We aimed to assess current global practice and experience in management of COVID‐19–associated coagulopathy to identify information to guide prospective and randomized studies. Methods Physicians were queried about their current approach to prophylaxis, diagnosis, and treatment of VTE in patients with COVID‐19 using an online survey tool distributed through multiple international organizations between April 10 and 14, 2020. Results Five hundred fifteen physicians from 41 countries responded. The majority of respondents (78%) recommended prophylactic anticoagulation for all hospitalized patients with COVID‐19, with most recommending use of low‐molecular‐weight heparin or unfractionated heparin. Significant practice variation was found regarding the need for dose escalation of anticoagulation outside the setting of confirmed or suspected VTE. Respondents reported the use of bedside testing when unable to perform standard diagnostic imaging for diagnosis of VTE. Two hundred ninety‐one respondents reported observing thrombotic complications in their patients, with 64% noting that the complication was pulmonary embolism. Of the 44% of respondents who estimated incidence of thrombosis in patients with COVID‐19 in their hospital, estimates ranged widely from 1% to 50%. One hundred seventy‐four respondents noted bleeding complications (34% minor bleeding, 14% clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding, and 12% major bleeding). Conclusion Well‐designed epidemiologic studies are urgently needed to understand the incidence and risk factors of VTE and bleeding complications in patients with COVID‐19. Randomized clinical trials addressing use of anticoagulation are also needed.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Isabelle Bernard; Daniel Limonta; Lara K. Mahal; Tom C. Hobman;
    Publisher: MDPI
    Project: CIHR

    The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses a persistent threat to global public health. Although primarily a respiratory illness, extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 include gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal and neurological diseases. Recent studies suggest that dysfunction of the endothelium during COVID-19 may exacerbate these deleterious events by inciting inflammatory and microvascular thrombotic processes. Although controversial, there is evidence that SARS-CoV-2 may infect endothelial cells by binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) cellular receptor using the viral Spike protein. In this review, we explore current insights into the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection, endothelial dysfunction due to ACE2 downregulation, and deleterious pulmonary and extra-pulmonary immunothrombotic complications in severe COVID-19. We also discuss preclinical and clinical development of therapeutic agents targeting SARS-CoV-2-mediated endothelial dysfunction. Finally, we present evidence of SARS-CoV-2 replication in primary human lung and cardiac microvascular endothelial cells. Accordingly, in striving to understand the parameters that lead to severe disease in COVID-19 patients, it is important to consider how direct infection of endothelial cells by SARS-CoV-2 may contribute to this process.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2011
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Irina Tikhanovich; Bo Liang; Cathal Seoighe; William R. Folk; Heinz-Peter Nasheuer;
    Publisher: American Society for Microbiology Journals
    Country: Ireland

    ABSTRACT Small noncoding RNAs regulate a variety of cellular processes, including genomic imprinting, chromatin remodeling, replication, transcription, and translation. Here, we report small replication-regulating RNAs (srRNAs) that specifically inhibit DNA replication of the human BK polyomavirus (BKV) in vitro and in vivo . srRNAs from FM3A murine mammary tumor cells were enriched by DNA replication assay-guided fractionation and hybridization to the BKV noncoding control region (NCCR) and synthesized as cDNAs. Selective mutagenesis of the cDNA sequences and their putative targets suggests that the inhibition of BKV DNA replication is mediated by srRNAs binding to the viral NCCR, hindering early steps in the initiation of DNA replication. Ectopic expression of srRNAs in human cells inhibited BKV DNA replication in vivo . Additional srRNAs were designed and synthesized that specifically inhibit simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA replication in vitro . These observations point to novel mechanisms for regulating DNA replication and suggest the design of synthetic agents for inhibiting replication of polyomaviruses and possibly other viruses.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Husam M. Salah; Jwan A Naser; Giuseppe Calcaterra; Pier Paolo Bassareo; Jawahar L. Mehta;
    Publisher: Excerpta Medica
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Evelien Dekker; Han-Mo Chiu; Iris Lansdorp-Vogelaar; Luis E. Caro; Jason A. Dominitz; Stephen P Halloran; Cesare Hassan; Julia Ismael; Rodrigo Jover; Michal F. Kaminski; +13 more
    Country: Netherlands
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Justin Ashley; Graham Abra; Brigitte Schiller; Paul Bennett; Ali Poyan Mehr; Joanne M. Bargman; Christopher T. Chan;
    Publisher: Australia : Wiley-Blackwell Publishing
    Country: Australia

    Home dialysis therapies are flexible kidney replacement strategies with documented clinical benefits. While the incidence of end-stage kidney disease continues to increase globally, the use of home dialysis remains low in most developed countries. Multiple barriers to providing home dialysis have been noted in the published literature. Among known challenges, gaps in clinician knowledge are potentially addressable with a focused education strategy. Recent national surveys in the United States and Australia have highlighted the need for enhanced home dialysis knowledge especially among nephrologists who have recently completed training. Traditional in-person continuing professional educational programmes have had modest success in promoting home dialysis and are limited by scale and the present global COVID-19 pandemic. We hypothesize that the use of a ‘Hub and Spoke’ model of virtual home dialysis mentorship for nephrologists based on project ECHO would support home dialysis growth. We review the home dialysis literature, known educational gaps and plausible educational interventions to address current limitations in physician education Refereed/Peer-reviewed