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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bernard David Naughton; Ebru Akgul;
    Publisher: SAGE Publishing

    The entry of falsified and substandard medicines into the legitimate pharmaceutical supply chain has negative impacts on healthcare systems, patient safety, and patient access to medicine. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of access to safe medicine through legitimate pharmaceutical supply chains and the willingness of criminals to target medical products such as PPE (personal protective equipment) and COVID-19 treatments. In this article, we analyse data from the United Kingdom (UK) national medicine alert and recall database to identify and understand recent cases of substandard and falsified medicine in the UK’s healthcare systems. Using the UK as a case study, we describe that national drug alert and recall data are useful in their current form to record and understand cases of substandard and falsified medicines in the supply chain. However, if regulatory agencies published further data, these drug recall databases may be useful to support longitudinal and international comparative medicine quality studies. We suggest that regulatory agencies publish the number of affected medicine packs in each recalled batch, as part of the recall process. This will help policy makers, practitioners, and researchers to better understand, monitor and compare the quality of medicines within legitimate supply chains.

  • Authors: 
    Patrick McCarthy; David Sammon; Ibrahim Alhassan;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited

    Digital Transformation has generated much research and curiosity recently, with the COVID-19 global pandemic accelerating its pace across all industry sectors. Current literature has not adequately provided a comprehensive understanding of Digital Transformation Leadership (DTL). The objective of this research is to explore the characteristics of DTL by undertaking a comprehensive review of Information Systems literature using a systematic procedure of identifying and coding 87 research papers, resulting in 600 coded excerpts, capturing the ‘who’ and ‘what’ of DTL. Our analysis identifies eight DTL characteristics, namely: digital strategist, digital culturalist, digital architect, customer centrist, organisational agilist, data advocate, business process optimiser and digital workplace landscaper. We discuss mapping the DTL characteristics to c-suite roles, presenting a taxonomy from the literature, of interest to both academics and practitioners. This research raises the awareness of the concept of DTL characteristics, especially amongst those in positions of leadership and decision making authority. © 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2011
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Irina Tikhanovich; Bo Liang; Cathal Seoighe; William R. Folk; Heinz-Peter Nasheuer;
    Publisher: American Society for Microbiology
    Country: Ireland

    ABSTRACT Small noncoding RNAs regulate a variety of cellular processes, including genomic imprinting, chromatin remodeling, replication, transcription, and translation. Here, we report small replication-regulating RNAs (srRNAs) that specifically inhibit DNA replication of the human BK polyomavirus (BKV) in vitro and in vivo . srRNAs from FM3A murine mammary tumor cells were enriched by DNA replication assay-guided fractionation and hybridization to the BKV noncoding control region (NCCR) and synthesized as cDNAs. Selective mutagenesis of the cDNA sequences and their putative targets suggests that the inhibition of BKV DNA replication is mediated by srRNAs binding to the viral NCCR, hindering early steps in the initiation of DNA replication. Ectopic expression of srRNAs in human cells inhibited BKV DNA replication in vivo . Additional srRNAs were designed and synthesized that specifically inhibit simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA replication in vitro . These observations point to novel mechanisms for regulating DNA replication and suggest the design of synthetic agents for inhibiting replication of polyomaviruses and possibly other viruses.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Tobias Mourier; Mukhtar Sadykov; Michael J. Carr; Gabriel Gonzalez; William W. Hall; Arnab Pain;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    The extensive sequence data generated from SARS-CoV-2 during the 2020 pandemic has facilitated the study of viral genome evolution over a brief period of time. This has highlighted instances of directional mutation pressures exerted on the SARS-CoV-2 genome from host antiviral defense systems. In this brief review we describe three such human defense mechanisms, the apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide-like proteins (APOBEC), adenosine deaminase acting on RNA proteins (ADAR), and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and discuss their potential implications on SARS-CoV-2 evolution. (c) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rachel P. Rosovsky; Kristen M. Sanfilippo; Tzu-Fei Wang; Sandeep K. Rajan; Surbhi Shah; Karlyn Martin; Fionnuala Ní Áinle; Menno V. Huisman; Beverley J. Hunt; Susan R. Kahn; +4 more
    Publisher: Wiley
    Country: Netherlands

    Abstract Background Best practice for prevention, diagnosis, and management of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) is unknown due to limited published data in this population. Objectives We aimed to assess current global practice and experience in management of COVID‐19–associated coagulopathy to identify information to guide prospective and randomized studies. Methods Physicians were queried about their current approach to prophylaxis, diagnosis, and treatment of VTE in patients with COVID‐19 using an online survey tool distributed through multiple international organizations between April 10 and 14, 2020. Results Five hundred fifteen physicians from 41 countries responded. The majority of respondents (78%) recommended prophylactic anticoagulation for all hospitalized patients with COVID‐19, with most recommending use of low‐molecular‐weight heparin or unfractionated heparin. Significant practice variation was found regarding the need for dose escalation of anticoagulation outside the setting of confirmed or suspected VTE. Respondents reported the use of bedside testing when unable to perform standard diagnostic imaging for diagnosis of VTE. Two hundred ninety‐one respondents reported observing thrombotic complications in their patients, with 64% noting that the complication was pulmonary embolism. Of the 44% of respondents who estimated incidence of thrombosis in patients with COVID‐19 in their hospital, estimates ranged widely from 1% to 50%. One hundred seventy‐four respondents noted bleeding complications (34% minor bleeding, 14% clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding, and 12% major bleeding). Conclusion Well‐designed epidemiologic studies are urgently needed to understand the incidence and risk factors of VTE and bleeding complications in patients with COVID‐19. Randomized clinical trials addressing use of anticoagulation are also needed.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Patrick Hassett; Gerard F. Curley; Maya Contreras; Claire Masterson; Brendan D. Higgins; Timothy O'Brien; James Devaney; Daniel O'Toole; John G. Laffey;
    Publisher: Springer-Verlag
    Project: EC | HA-NFKB-VILI (207777)

    Purpose Superoxide is produced by activated neutrophils during the inflammatory response to stimuli such as endotoxin, can directly or indirectly injure host cells, and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We wished to determine the potential for pulmonary overexpression of the extracellular isoform of superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) to reduce the severity of endotoxin-induced lung injury. Methods Animals were randomly allocated to undergo intratracheal instillation of (1) surfactant alone (vehicle); (2) adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors containing a null transgene (AAV-null); and (3) adeno-associated virus vectors containing the EC-SOD transgene (AAV-EC-SOD) and endotoxin was subsequently administered intratracheally. Two additional groups were randomized to receive (1) vehicle or (2) AAV-EC-SOD, and to undergo sham (vehicle) injury. The severity of the lung injury was assessed in all animals 24 h later. Results Endotoxin produced a severe lung injury compared to sham injury. The AAV vector encoding EC-SOD increased lung EC-SOD concentrations, and enhanced the antioxidant capacity of the lung. EC-SOD overexpression decreased the severity of endotoxin-induced ALI, reducing the decrement in systemic oxygenation and lung compliance, decreasing lung permeability and decreasing histologic injury. EC-SOD attenuated pulmonary inflammation, decreased bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophil counts, and reduced interleukin-6 and CINC-1 concentrations. The AAV vector itself did not contribute to inflammation or to lung injury. Conclusions Pulmonary overexpression of EC-SOD protects the lung against endotoxin-induced ALI. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00134-011-2309-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  • Publication . Other literature type . 2022
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Boudou, Martin;
    Publisher: Technological University Dublin
    Country: Ireland

    From March 2020, the Covid-19 pandemic revealed the inherent vulnerability of our modern society to emerging infectious diseases. Globalisation of products and high travel frequency contributed to the rapid spread of infection, and particularly in densely populated urban areas.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Luke A. J. O'Neill; Mihai G. Netea;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | TRAIN-OLD (833247), EC | Metabinnate (834370)

    Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccination has been reported to decrease susceptibility to respiratory tract infections, an effect proposed to be mediated by the general long-term boosting of innate immune mechanisms, also termed trained immunity. Here, we discuss the non-specific beneficial effects of BCG against viral infections and whether this vaccine may afford protection to COVID-19. Could the BCG vaccine be used to bridge the gap until a specific COVID-19 vaccine is developed? Luke O’Neill and Mihai Netea discuss the science behind this approach.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Fergal Kavanagh; C Connolly; Eric Farrell; D Callanan; D Brinkman; A Affendi; E Lang; Patrick Sheahan;
    Publisher: Cambridge University Press (CUP)

    AbstractBackgroundConcerns have emerged regarding infection transmission during flexible nasoendoscopy.MethodsInformation was gathered prospectively on flexible nasoendoscopy procedures performed between March and June 2020. Patients and healthcare workers were followed up to assess for coronavirus disease 2019 development. One-sided 97.5 per cent Poisson confidence intervals were calculated for upper limits of risk where zero events were observed.ResultsA total of 286 patients were recruited. The most common indication for flexible nasoendoscopy was investigation of ‘red flag’ symptoms (67 per cent). Forty-seven patients (16 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval = 13–21 per cent) had suspicious findings on flexible nasoendoscopy requiring further investigation. Twenty patients (7.1 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval = 4.4–11 per cent) had new cancer diagnoses. Zero coronavirus disease 2019 infections were recorded in the 273 patients. No. 27 endoscopists (the doctors and nurses who carried out the procedures) were followed up.The risk of developing coronavirus disease 2019 after flexible nasoendoscopy was determined to be 0–1.3 per cent.ConclusionThe risk of coronavirus disease 2019 transmission associated with performing flexible nasoendoscopy in asymptomatic patients, while using appropriate personal protective equipment, is very low. Additional data are required to confirm these findings in the setting of further disease surges.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Théo Bourgeron;
    Publisher: SAGE Publications
    Project: EC | MISFIRES (771217)

    Debates have grown around the initial COVID-19 response of radical right-wing governments such as those of the UK, the US and Brazil. These governments initially let the virus spread among the population and delayed the enforcement of strong social distancing measures such as a lockdown. Focusing on the UK’s early response to COVID-19, this article builds on Nicos Poulantzas’ Marxist theory of the state to highlight how this pandemic management doctrine stemmed from changes in the UK’s capitalist class. It traces the ideological grounding of this doctrine, relating it to the rise of libertarian think tanks in British conservative circles and shifts in the policy committees in charge of pandemic preparedness. It suggests that this pandemic response is an episode of the ongoing replacement of the dominant neoliberal accumulation regime with a new libertarian-authoritarian one and examines how this latter materialises the interests of an emerging group of ‘disaster capitalists’. Therefore, it takes the COVID-19 crisis as an example of how the reconfiguration of capitalist accumulation regimes articulates a new doctrine of catastrophe management, radical right-wing ideologies, libertarian-authoritarian institutions and the growing power of capitalist actors able to profit from extreme events.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
2,663 Research products, page 1 of 267
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bernard David Naughton; Ebru Akgul;
    Publisher: SAGE Publishing

    The entry of falsified and substandard medicines into the legitimate pharmaceutical supply chain has negative impacts on healthcare systems, patient safety, and patient access to medicine. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of access to safe medicine through legitimate pharmaceutical supply chains and the willingness of criminals to target medical products such as PPE (personal protective equipment) and COVID-19 treatments. In this article, we analyse data from the United Kingdom (UK) national medicine alert and recall database to identify and understand recent cases of substandard and falsified medicine in the UK’s healthcare systems. Using the UK as a case study, we describe that national drug alert and recall data are useful in their current form to record and understand cases of substandard and falsified medicines in the supply chain. However, if regulatory agencies published further data, these drug recall databases may be useful to support longitudinal and international comparative medicine quality studies. We suggest that regulatory agencies publish the number of affected medicine packs in each recalled batch, as part of the recall process. This will help policy makers, practitioners, and researchers to better understand, monitor and compare the quality of medicines within legitimate supply chains.

  • Authors: 
    Patrick McCarthy; David Sammon; Ibrahim Alhassan;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited

    Digital Transformation has generated much research and curiosity recently, with the COVID-19 global pandemic accelerating its pace across all industry sectors. Current literature has not adequately provided a comprehensive understanding of Digital Transformation Leadership (DTL). The objective of this research is to explore the characteristics of DTL by undertaking a comprehensive review of Information Systems literature using a systematic procedure of identifying and coding 87 research papers, resulting in 600 coded excerpts, capturing the ‘who’ and ‘what’ of DTL. Our analysis identifies eight DTL characteristics, namely: digital strategist, digital culturalist, digital architect, customer centrist, organisational agilist, data advocate, business process optimiser and digital workplace landscaper. We discuss mapping the DTL characteristics to c-suite roles, presenting a taxonomy from the literature, of interest to both academics and practitioners. This research raises the awareness of the concept of DTL characteristics, especially amongst those in positions of leadership and decision making authority. © 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2011
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Irina Tikhanovich; Bo Liang; Cathal Seoighe; William R. Folk; Heinz-Peter Nasheuer;
    Publisher: American Society for Microbiology
    Country: Ireland

    ABSTRACT Small noncoding RNAs regulate a variety of cellular processes, including genomic imprinting, chromatin remodeling, replication, transcription, and translation. Here, we report small replication-regulating RNAs (srRNAs) that specifically inhibit DNA replication of the human BK polyomavirus (BKV) in vitro and in vivo . srRNAs from FM3A murine mammary tumor cells were enriched by DNA replication assay-guided fractionation and hybridization to the BKV noncoding control region (NCCR) and synthesized as cDNAs. Selective mutagenesis of the cDNA sequences and their putative targets suggests that the inhibition of BKV DNA replication is mediated by srRNAs binding to the viral NCCR, hindering early steps in the initiation of DNA replication. Ectopic expression of srRNAs in human cells inhibited BKV DNA replication in vivo . Additional srRNAs were designed and synthesized that specifically inhibit simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA replication in vitro . These observations point to novel mechanisms for regulating DNA replication and suggest the design of synthetic agents for inhibiting replication of polyomaviruses and possibly other viruses.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Tobias Mourier; Mukhtar Sadykov; Michael J. Carr; Gabriel Gonzalez; William W. Hall; Arnab Pain;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    The extensive sequence data generated from SARS-CoV-2 during the 2020 pandemic has facilitated the study of viral genome evolution over a brief period of time. This has highlighted instances of directional mutation pressures exerted on the SARS-CoV-2 genome from host antiviral defense systems. In this brief review we describe three such human defense mechanisms, the apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide-like proteins (APOBEC), adenosine deaminase acting on RNA proteins (ADAR), and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and discuss their potential implications on SARS-CoV-2 evolution. (c) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rachel P. Rosovsky; Kristen M. Sanfilippo; Tzu-Fei Wang; Sandeep K. Rajan; Surbhi Shah; Karlyn Martin; Fionnuala Ní Áinle; Menno V. Huisman; Beverley J. Hunt; Susan R. Kahn; +4 more
    Publisher: Wiley
    Country: Netherlands

    Abstract Background Best practice for prevention, diagnosis, and management of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) is unknown due to limited published data in this population. Objectives We aimed to assess current global practice and experience in management of COVID‐19–associated coagulopathy to identify information to guide prospective and randomized studies. Methods Physicians were queried about their current approach to prophylaxis, diagnosis, and treatment of VTE in patients with COVID‐19 using an online survey tool distributed through multiple international organizations between April 10 and 14, 2020. Results Five hundred fifteen physicians from 41 countries responded. The majority of respondents (78%) recommended prophylactic anticoagulation for all hospitalized patients with COVID‐19, with most recommending use of low‐molecular‐weight heparin or unfractionated heparin. Significant practice variation was found regarding the need for dose escalation of anticoagulation outside the setting of confirmed or suspected VTE. Respondents reported the use of bedside testing when unable to perform standard diagnostic imaging for diagnosis of VTE. Two hundred ninety‐one respondents reported observing thrombotic complications in their patients, with 64% noting that the complication was pulmonary embolism. Of the 44% of respondents who estimated incidence of thrombosis in patients with COVID‐19 in their hospital, estimates ranged widely from 1% to 50%. One hundred seventy‐four respondents noted bleeding complications (34% minor bleeding, 14% clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding, and 12% major bleeding). Conclusion Well‐designed epidemiologic studies are urgently needed to understand the incidence and risk factors of VTE and bleeding complications in patients with COVID‐19. Randomized clinical trials addressing use of anticoagulation are also needed.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Patrick Hassett; Gerard F. Curley; Maya Contreras; Claire Masterson; Brendan D. Higgins; Timothy O'Brien; James Devaney; Daniel O'Toole; John G. Laffey;
    Publisher: Springer-Verlag
    Project: EC | HA-NFKB-VILI (207777)

    Purpose Superoxide is produced by activated neutrophils during the inflammatory response to stimuli such as endotoxin, can directly or indirectly injure host cells, and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We wished to determine the potential for pulmonary overexpression of the extracellular isoform of superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) to reduce the severity of endotoxin-induced lung injury. Methods Animals were randomly allocated to undergo intratracheal instillation of (1) surfactant alone (vehicle); (2) adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors containing a null transgene (AAV-null); and (3) adeno-associated virus vectors containing the EC-SOD transgene (AAV-EC-SOD) and endotoxin was subsequently administered intratracheally. Two additional groups were randomized to receive (1) vehicle or (2) AAV-EC-SOD, and to undergo sham (vehicle) injury. The severity of the lung injury was assessed in all animals 24 h later. Results Endotoxin produced a severe lung injury compared to sham injury. The AAV vector encoding EC-SOD increased lung EC-SOD concentrations, and enhanced the antioxidant capacity of the lung. EC-SOD overexpression decreased the severity of endotoxin-induced ALI, reducing the decrement in systemic oxygenation and lung compliance, decreasing lung permeability and decreasing histologic injury. EC-SOD attenuated pulmonary inflammation, decreased bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophil counts, and reduced interleukin-6 and CINC-1 concentrations. The AAV vector itself did not contribute to inflammation or to lung injury. Conclusions Pulmonary overexpression of EC-SOD protects the lung against endotoxin-induced ALI. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00134-011-2309-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  • Publication . Other literature type . 2022
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Boudou, Martin;
    Publisher: Technological University Dublin
    Country: Ireland

    From March 2020, the Covid-19 pandemic revealed the inherent vulnerability of our modern society to emerging infectious diseases. Globalisation of products and high travel frequency contributed to the rapid spread of infection, and particularly in densely populated urban areas.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Luke A. J. O'Neill; Mihai G. Netea;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | TRAIN-OLD (833247), EC | Metabinnate (834370)

    Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccination has been reported to decrease susceptibility to respiratory tract infections, an effect proposed to be mediated by the general long-term boosting of innate immune mechanisms, also termed trained immunity. Here, we discuss the non-specific beneficial effects of BCG against viral infections and whether this vaccine may afford protection to COVID-19. Could the BCG vaccine be used to bridge the gap until a specific COVID-19 vaccine is developed? Luke O’Neill and Mihai Netea discuss the science behind this approach.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Fergal Kavanagh; C Connolly; Eric Farrell; D Callanan; D Brinkman; A Affendi; E Lang; Patrick Sheahan;
    Publisher: Cambridge University Press (CUP)

    AbstractBackgroundConcerns have emerged regarding infection transmission during flexible nasoendoscopy.MethodsInformation was gathered prospectively on flexible nasoendoscopy procedures performed between March and June 2020. Patients and healthcare workers were followed up to assess for coronavirus disease 2019 development. One-sided 97.5 per cent Poisson confidence intervals were calculated for upper limits of risk where zero events were observed.ResultsA total of 286 patients were recruited. The most common indication for flexible nasoendoscopy was investigation of ‘red flag’ symptoms (67 per cent). Forty-seven patients (16 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval = 13–21 per cent) had suspicious findings on flexible nasoendoscopy requiring further investigation. Twenty patients (7.1 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval = 4.4–11 per cent) had new cancer diagnoses. Zero coronavirus disease 2019 infections were recorded in the 273 patients. No. 27 endoscopists (the doctors and nurses who carried out the procedures) were followed up.The risk of developing coronavirus disease 2019 after flexible nasoendoscopy was determined to be 0–1.3 per cent.ConclusionThe risk of coronavirus disease 2019 transmission associated with performing flexible nasoendoscopy in asymptomatic patients, while using appropriate personal protective equipment, is very low. Additional data are required to confirm these findings in the setting of further disease surges.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Théo Bourgeron;
    Publisher: SAGE Publications
    Project: EC | MISFIRES (771217)

    Debates have grown around the initial COVID-19 response of radical right-wing governments such as those of the UK, the US and Brazil. These governments initially let the virus spread among the population and delayed the enforcement of strong social distancing measures such as a lockdown. Focusing on the UK’s early response to COVID-19, this article builds on Nicos Poulantzas’ Marxist theory of the state to highlight how this pandemic management doctrine stemmed from changes in the UK’s capitalist class. It traces the ideological grounding of this doctrine, relating it to the rise of libertarian think tanks in British conservative circles and shifts in the policy committees in charge of pandemic preparedness. It suggests that this pandemic response is an episode of the ongoing replacement of the dominant neoliberal accumulation regime with a new libertarian-authoritarian one and examines how this latter materialises the interests of an emerging group of ‘disaster capitalists’. Therefore, it takes the COVID-19 crisis as an example of how the reconfiguration of capitalist accumulation regimes articulates a new doctrine of catastrophe management, radical right-wing ideologies, libertarian-authoritarian institutions and the growing power of capitalist actors able to profit from extreme events.