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8,712 Research products, page 1 of 872

  • COVID-19
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  • Other research products
  • 2013-2022
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  • COVID-19

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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Riccardo E. Giunta; Konstantin Frank; Horacio Costa; Cenk Demirdöver; Giovanni Di Benedetto; Anna Elander; Mark Henley; Dylan J. Murray; Dirk J. Schaefer; Stephan Spendel; +2 more
    Publisher: Georg Thieme Verlag KG

    AbstractThe present article provides an overview of the current and expected effects of plastic surgery in Europe. It presents the experience of departments for plastic and reconstructive surgery, as evaluated by interviews with members of the Executive Committee (ExCo) of the European Society of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery (ESPRAS). The objective of this overview is to summmarise current information in our area of work and to make this accessible to a broad group of readers. As our knowledge is rapidly increasing during the current pandemic, it is evident that we can only provide a snapshot and this will inevitably be incomplete.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jidling, Carl;
    Publisher: Uppsala universitet, Avdelningen för systemteknik
    Country: Sweden

    This thesis is centred around Gaussian processes and large-scale optimisation, where the main contributions are presented in the included papers. Provided access to linear constraints (e.g. equilibrium conditions), we propose a constructive procedure to design the covariance function in a Gaussian process. The constraints are thereby explicitly incorporated with guaranteed fulfilment. One such construction is successfully applied to strain field reconstruction, where the goal is to describe the interior of a deformed object. Furthermore, we analyse the Gaussian process as a tool for X-ray computed tomography, a field of high importance primarily due to its central role in medical treatments. This provides insightful interpretations of traditional reconstruction algorithms. Large-scale optimisation is considered in two different contexts. First, we consider a stochastic environment, for which we suggest a new method inspired by the quasi-Newton framework. Promising results are demonstrated on real world benchmark problems. Secondly, we suggest an approach to solve an applied deterministic optimisation problem that arises within the design of electrical circuit boards. We reduce the memory requirements through a tailored algorithm, while also benefiting from other parts of the setting to ensure a high computational efficiency. The final paper scrutinises a publication from the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, in which the aim was to assess the effectiveness of different governmental interventions. We show that minor modifications in the input data have important impact on the results, and we argue that great caution is necessary when such models are used as a support for decision making.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bernard David Naughton; Ebru Akgul;
    Publisher: SAGE Publishing

    The entry of falsified and substandard medicines into the legitimate pharmaceutical supply chain has negative impacts on healthcare systems, patient safety, and patient access to medicine. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of access to safe medicine through legitimate pharmaceutical supply chains and the willingness of criminals to target medical products such as PPE (personal protective equipment) and COVID-19 treatments. In this article, we analyse data from the United Kingdom (UK) national medicine alert and recall database to identify and understand recent cases of substandard and falsified medicine in the UK’s healthcare systems. Using the UK as a case study, we describe that national drug alert and recall data are useful in their current form to record and understand cases of substandard and falsified medicines in the supply chain. However, if regulatory agencies published further data, these drug recall databases may be useful to support longitudinal and international comparative medicine quality studies. We suggest that regulatory agencies publish the number of affected medicine packs in each recalled batch, as part of the recall process. This will help policy makers, practitioners, and researchers to better understand, monitor and compare the quality of medicines within legitimate supply chains.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kariem El-Boghdadly; Danny J.N. Wong; Ruth Owen; Mark D. Neuman; Stuart J. Pocock; J. B. Carlisle; C. Johnstone; P. Andruszkiewicz; Paul A. Baker; Bruce M Biccard; +13 more
    Publisher: Wiley
    Country: United Kingdom

    Summary Healthcare workers involved in aerosol‐generating procedures, such as tracheal intubation, may be at elevated risk of acquiring COVID‐19. However, the magnitude of this risk is unknown. We conducted a prospective international multicentre cohort study recruiting healthcare workers participating in tracheal intubation of patients with suspected or confirmed COVID‐19. Information on tracheal intubation episodes, personal protective equipment use, and subsequent provider health status was collected via self‐reporting. The primary endpoint was the incidence of laboratory‐confirmed COVID‐19 diagnosis or new symptoms requiring self‐isolation or hospitalisation after a tracheal intubation episode. Cox regression analysis examined associations between the primary endpoint and healthcare worker characteristics, procedure‐related factors, and personal protective equipment use. Between 23 March and 2 June 2020, 1718 healthcare workers from 503 hospitals in 17 countries reported 5148 tracheal intubation episodes. The overall incidence of the primary endpoint was 10.7% over a median (IQR [range]) follow‐up of 32 (18–48 [0–116]) days. The cumulative incidence within 7, 14 and 21 days of the first tracheal intubation episode was 3.6%, 6.1%, and 8.5%, respectively. The risk of the primary endpoint varied by country and was higher in females, but was not associated with other factors. Around 1 in 10 healthcare workers involved in tracheal intubation of patients with suspected or confirmed COVID‐19 subsequently reported a COVID‐19 outcome. This has human resource implications for institutional capacity to deliver essential healthcare services, and wider societal implications for COVID‐19 transmission.

  • Open Access Swedish
    Authors: 
    Hansson, Erik; Jakobsson, Kristina;
    Publisher: Samhällsmedicin och folkhälsa, Göteborgs universitet
    Country: Sweden

    Syftet med denna studie är att kartlägga olika strukturella förhållanden i Stockholm, Göteborg och Malmö som hypotetiskt skulle kunna bidra till den ökade Covid-19 frekvensen i vissa förorter. Kartorna visar att trångboddhet överlappar med lågt bilägande, låg utbildning, hög andel hushåll med både äldre och yngre medlemmar och hög andel undersköterskor och vårdbiträden. Denna rapport kan inte visa på orsakssamband mellan samhälleliga faktorer och spridning av covid-19, men belyser tydligt att det finns en strukturell ojämlikhet i våra storstäder, som kan ha betydelse för risken för smittspridningen. Åtgärder för att bryta smittkedjor är angelägna.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hildur Arnardottir; Hildur Arnardottir; Sven-Christian Pawelzik; Sven-Christian Pawelzik; Ulf Öhlund Wistbacka; Gonzalo Artiach; Gonzalo Artiach; Robin Hofmann; Robin Hofmann; Ingalill Reinholdsson; +7 more
    Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.

    Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 triggers an immune response with local inflammation in the lung, which may extend to a systemic hyperinflammatory reaction. Excessive inflammation has been reported in severe cases with respiratory failure and cardiovascular complications. In addition to the release of cytokines, referred to as cytokine release syndrome or “cytokine storm,” increased pro-inflammatory lipid mediators derived from the omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) arachidonic acid may cause an “eicosanoid storm,” which contributes to the uncontrolled systemic inflammation. Specialized pro-resolving mediators, which are derived from omega-3 PUFA, limit inflammatory reactions by an active process called resolution of inflammation. Here, the rationale for omega-3 PUFA supplementation in COVID-19 patients is presented along with a brief overview of the study protocol for the trial “Resolving Inflammatory Storm in COVID-19 Patients by Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids - A single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled feasibility study” (COVID-Omega-F). EudraCT: 2020-002293-28; clinicaltrials.gov: NCT04647604.

  • Authors: 
    Patrick McCarthy; David Sammon; Ibrahim Alhassan;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited

    Digital Transformation has generated much research and curiosity recently, with the COVID-19 global pandemic accelerating its pace across all industry sectors. Current literature has not adequately provided a comprehensive understanding of Digital Transformation Leadership (DTL). The objective of this research is to explore the characteristics of DTL by undertaking a comprehensive review of Information Systems literature using a systematic procedure of identifying and coding 87 research papers, resulting in 600 coded excerpts, capturing the ‘who’ and ‘what’ of DTL. Our analysis identifies eight DTL characteristics, namely: digital strategist, digital culturalist, digital architect, customer centrist, organisational agilist, data advocate, business process optimiser and digital workplace landscaper. We discuss mapping the DTL characteristics to c-suite roles, presenting a taxonomy from the literature, of interest to both academics and practitioners. This research raises the awareness of the concept of DTL characteristics, especially amongst those in positions of leadership and decision making authority. © 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Tobias Mourier; Mukhtar Sadykov; Michael J. Carr; Gabriel Gonzalez; William W. Hall; Arnab Pain;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    The extensive sequence data generated from SARS-CoV-2 during the 2020 pandemic has facilitated the study of viral genome evolution over a brief period of time. This has highlighted instances of directional mutation pressures exerted on the SARS-CoV-2 genome from host antiviral defense systems. In this brief review we describe three such human defense mechanisms, the apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide-like proteins (APOBEC), adenosine deaminase acting on RNA proteins (ADAR), and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and discuss their potential implications on SARS-CoV-2 evolution. (c) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  • Open Access Swedish
    Authors: 
    Lindström, Sigrid; Andersson, Michaela;
    Publisher: Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för ABM
    Country: Sweden

    In this master’s thesis we examine how the public libraries’ role and mission has been interpreted during the covid-19 pandemic and how the public libraries adapted to the situation. Public libraries are communal spaces meant for the public and according to the Swedish library law the public libraries should work especially towards a few specified prioritized target groups. Therefore, we also wanted to consider which groups needs that have been fulfilled or not, through the adjustments during the pandemic. The material of the study consists of interviews with 14 public library directors and 1 developer of public libraries services. We applied Fairclough’s framework for critical discourse analysis on our interview material. This framework was supplemented with Habermas term the public sphere and with the discourses about public libraries identified by Hedemark. In the thesis we identified reasons and arguments for how the public libraries readjusted their library activities and prioritized services. We also identified which discourses about libraries were noticeable in the library directors’ descriptions of the libraries’ role during the pandemic. Several discourses about libraries identified by Hedemark were common in the material. We also found a discourse that had not been identified by previous research, which we named the social meeting place discourse. We interpreted the prevalence of this discourse about libraries, which focuses on the social aspect of the library as a meeting place, as an effect of the pandemic. Since the libraries have not been able to function as meeting places during the pandemic, this function has become more noticeable. The closing of the libraries as meeting places has affected all the library users but has affected the libraries work towards the prioritized groups the most. In some areas of Sweden the public libraries have replaced some of the meeting place functions with new digital services. These adaptions vary greatly between different counties, which has meant that people have had different access to library services depending on where they live. This is a two years master's thesis in Library and information science.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Sandra Lockmer; Katarina Uttervall; Muhammad Kashif; Carina Svärd; Katarina Malmsten; Evellyn Fletcher-Torres; Evren Alici; Johan Lund; Hareth Nahi;
    Publisher: Wiley
Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
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arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
8,712 Research products, page 1 of 872
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Riccardo E. Giunta; Konstantin Frank; Horacio Costa; Cenk Demirdöver; Giovanni Di Benedetto; Anna Elander; Mark Henley; Dylan J. Murray; Dirk J. Schaefer; Stephan Spendel; +2 more
    Publisher: Georg Thieme Verlag KG

    AbstractThe present article provides an overview of the current and expected effects of plastic surgery in Europe. It presents the experience of departments for plastic and reconstructive surgery, as evaluated by interviews with members of the Executive Committee (ExCo) of the European Society of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery (ESPRAS). The objective of this overview is to summmarise current information in our area of work and to make this accessible to a broad group of readers. As our knowledge is rapidly increasing during the current pandemic, it is evident that we can only provide a snapshot and this will inevitably be incomplete.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jidling, Carl;
    Publisher: Uppsala universitet, Avdelningen för systemteknik
    Country: Sweden

    This thesis is centred around Gaussian processes and large-scale optimisation, where the main contributions are presented in the included papers. Provided access to linear constraints (e.g. equilibrium conditions), we propose a constructive procedure to design the covariance function in a Gaussian process. The constraints are thereby explicitly incorporated with guaranteed fulfilment. One such construction is successfully applied to strain field reconstruction, where the goal is to describe the interior of a deformed object. Furthermore, we analyse the Gaussian process as a tool for X-ray computed tomography, a field of high importance primarily due to its central role in medical treatments. This provides insightful interpretations of traditional reconstruction algorithms. Large-scale optimisation is considered in two different contexts. First, we consider a stochastic environment, for which we suggest a new method inspired by the quasi-Newton framework. Promising results are demonstrated on real world benchmark problems. Secondly, we suggest an approach to solve an applied deterministic optimisation problem that arises within the design of electrical circuit boards. We reduce the memory requirements through a tailored algorithm, while also benefiting from other parts of the setting to ensure a high computational efficiency. The final paper scrutinises a publication from the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, in which the aim was to assess the effectiveness of different governmental interventions. We show that minor modifications in the input data have important impact on the results, and we argue that great caution is necessary when such models are used as a support for decision making.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bernard David Naughton; Ebru Akgul;
    Publisher: SAGE Publishing

    The entry of falsified and substandard medicines into the legitimate pharmaceutical supply chain has negative impacts on healthcare systems, patient safety, and patient access to medicine. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of access to safe medicine through legitimate pharmaceutical supply chains and the willingness of criminals to target medical products such as PPE (personal protective equipment) and COVID-19 treatments. In this article, we analyse data from the United Kingdom (UK) national medicine alert and recall database to identify and understand recent cases of substandard and falsified medicine in the UK’s healthcare systems. Using the UK as a case study, we describe that national drug alert and recall data are useful in their current form to record and understand cases of substandard and falsified medicines in the supply chain. However, if regulatory agencies published further data, these drug recall databases may be useful to support longitudinal and international comparative medicine quality studies. We suggest that regulatory agencies publish the number of affected medicine packs in each recalled batch, as part of the recall process. This will help policy makers, practitioners, and researchers to better understand, monitor and compare the quality of medicines within legitimate supply chains.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kariem El-Boghdadly; Danny J.N. Wong; Ruth Owen; Mark D. Neuman; Stuart J. Pocock; J. B. Carlisle; C. Johnstone; P. Andruszkiewicz; Paul A. Baker; Bruce M Biccard; +13 more
    Publisher: Wiley
    Country: United Kingdom

    Summary Healthcare workers involved in aerosol‐generating procedures, such as tracheal intubation, may be at elevated risk of acquiring COVID‐19. However, the magnitude of this risk is unknown. We conducted a prospective international multicentre cohort study recruiting healthcare workers participating in tracheal intubation of patients with suspected or confirmed COVID‐19. Information on tracheal intubation episodes, personal protective equipment use, and subsequent provider health status was collected via self‐reporting. The primary endpoint was the incidence of laboratory‐confirmed COVID‐19 diagnosis or new symptoms requiring self‐isolation or hospitalisation after a tracheal intubation episode. Cox regression analysis examined associations between the primary endpoint and healthcare worker characteristics, procedure‐related factors, and personal protective equipment use. Between 23 March and 2 June 2020, 1718 healthcare workers from 503 hospitals in 17 countries reported 5148 tracheal intubation episodes. The overall incidence of the primary endpoint was 10.7% over a median (IQR [range]) follow‐up of 32 (18–48 [0–116]) days. The cumulative incidence within 7, 14 and 21 days of the first tracheal intubation episode was 3.6%, 6.1%, and 8.5%, respectively. The risk of the primary endpoint varied by country and was higher in females, but was not associated with other factors. Around 1 in 10 healthcare workers involved in tracheal intubation of patients with suspected or confirmed COVID‐19 subsequently reported a COVID‐19 outcome. This has human resource implications for institutional capacity to deliver essential healthcare services, and wider societal implications for COVID‐19 transmission.

  • Open Access Swedish
    Authors: 
    Hansson, Erik; Jakobsson, Kristina;
    Publisher: Samhällsmedicin och folkhälsa, Göteborgs universitet
    Country: Sweden

    Syftet med denna studie är att kartlägga olika strukturella förhållanden i Stockholm, Göteborg och Malmö som hypotetiskt skulle kunna bidra till den ökade Covid-19 frekvensen i vissa förorter. Kartorna visar att trångboddhet överlappar med lågt bilägande, låg utbildning, hög andel hushåll med både äldre och yngre medlemmar och hög andel undersköterskor och vårdbiträden. Denna rapport kan inte visa på orsakssamband mellan samhälleliga faktorer och spridning av covid-19, men belyser tydligt att det finns en strukturell ojämlikhet i våra storstäder, som kan ha betydelse för risken för smittspridningen. Åtgärder för att bryta smittkedjor är angelägna.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hildur Arnardottir; Hildur Arnardottir; Sven-Christian Pawelzik; Sven-Christian Pawelzik; Ulf Öhlund Wistbacka; Gonzalo Artiach; Gonzalo Artiach; Robin Hofmann; Robin Hofmann; Ingalill Reinholdsson; +7 more
    Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.

    Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 triggers an immune response with local inflammation in the lung, which may extend to a systemic hyperinflammatory reaction. Excessive inflammation has been reported in severe cases with respiratory failure and cardiovascular complications. In addition to the release of cytokines, referred to as cytokine release syndrome or “cytokine storm,” increased pro-inflammatory lipid mediators derived from the omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) arachidonic acid may cause an “eicosanoid storm,” which contributes to the uncontrolled systemic inflammation. Specialized pro-resolving mediators, which are derived from omega-3 PUFA, limit inflammatory reactions by an active process called resolution of inflammation. Here, the rationale for omega-3 PUFA supplementation in COVID-19 patients is presented along with a brief overview of the study protocol for the trial “Resolving Inflammatory Storm in COVID-19 Patients by Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids - A single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled feasibility study” (COVID-Omega-F). EudraCT: 2020-002293-28; clinicaltrials.gov: NCT04647604.

  • Authors: 
    Patrick McCarthy; David Sammon; Ibrahim Alhassan;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited

    Digital Transformation has generated much research and curiosity recently, with the COVID-19 global pandemic accelerating its pace across all industry sectors. Current literature has not adequately provided a comprehensive understanding of Digital Transformation Leadership (DTL). The objective of this research is to explore the characteristics of DTL by undertaking a comprehensive review of Information Systems literature using a systematic procedure of identifying and coding 87 research papers, resulting in 600 coded excerpts, capturing the ‘who’ and ‘what’ of DTL. Our analysis identifies eight DTL characteristics, namely: digital strategist, digital culturalist, digital architect, customer centrist, organisational agilist, data advocate, business process optimiser and digital workplace landscaper. We discuss mapping the DTL characteristics to c-suite roles, presenting a taxonomy from the literature, of interest to both academics and practitioners. This research raises the awareness of the concept of DTL characteristics, especially amongst those in positions of leadership and decision making authority. © 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Tobias Mourier; Mukhtar Sadykov; Michael J. Carr; Gabriel Gonzalez; William W. Hall; Arnab Pain;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    The extensive sequence data generated from SARS-CoV-2 during the 2020 pandemic has facilitated the study of viral genome evolution over a brief period of time. This has highlighted instances of directional mutation pressures exerted on the SARS-CoV-2 genome from host antiviral defense systems. In this brief review we describe three such human defense mechanisms, the apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide-like proteins (APOBEC), adenosine deaminase acting on RNA proteins (ADAR), and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and discuss their potential implications on SARS-CoV-2 evolution. (c) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  • Open Access Swedish
    Authors: 
    Lindström, Sigrid; Andersson, Michaela;
    Publisher: Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för ABM
    Country: Sweden

    In this master’s thesis we examine how the public libraries’ role and mission has been interpreted during the covid-19 pandemic and how the public libraries adapted to the situation. Public libraries are communal spaces meant for the public and according to the Swedish library law the public libraries should work especially towards a few specified prioritized target groups. Therefore, we also wanted to consider which groups needs that have been fulfilled or not, through the adjustments during the pandemic. The material of the study consists of interviews with 14 public library directors and 1 developer of public libraries services. We applied Fairclough’s framework for critical discourse analysis on our interview material. This framework was supplemented with Habermas term the public sphere and with the discourses about public libraries identified by Hedemark. In the thesis we identified reasons and arguments for how the public libraries readjusted their library activities and prioritized services. We also identified which discourses about libraries were noticeable in the library directors’ descriptions of the libraries’ role during the pandemic. Several discourses about libraries identified by Hedemark were common in the material. We also found a discourse that had not been identified by previous research, which we named the social meeting place discourse. We interpreted the prevalence of this discourse about libraries, which focuses on the social aspect of the library as a meeting place, as an effect of the pandemic. Since the libraries have not been able to function as meeting places during the pandemic, this function has become more noticeable. The closing of the libraries as meeting places has affected all the library users but has affected the libraries work towards the prioritized groups the most. In some areas of Sweden the public libraries have replaced some of the meeting place functions with new digital services. These adaptions vary greatly between different counties, which has meant that people have had different access to library services depending on where they live. This is a two years master's thesis in Library and information science.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Sandra Lockmer; Katarina Uttervall; Muhammad Kashif; Carina Svärd; Katarina Malmsten; Evellyn Fletcher-Torres; Evren Alici; Johan Lund; Hareth Nahi;
    Publisher: Wiley