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20,422 Research products, page 1 of 2,043

  • COVID-19
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  • 2013-2022
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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Brooke Fisher Liu; Jeannette I Iannacone;
    Publisher: Nicholson School of Communciation and Media

    With the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, we are facing another watershed moment for our field. There truly could not be a better time to be editing an open-access journal for the international community of risk and crisis communication scholars and practitioners. In this essay, we provide an update on the Journal’s status in terms of acceptance rates, global perspective, and readership rates.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Steven Birkmeyer; Bernd W. Wirtz; Paul F. Langer;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract Mobile health (mHealth) applications have become an important tool to support public health, especially in times of increased health awareness in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there is still uncertainty about what factors determine successful mHealth services from the users’ perspective. Based on the results of a systematic literature review, a qualitative content analysis of available apps and semi-structured user and expert interviews, we derive a structural model with antecedents on user attitudes towards mHealth and user satisfaction with the mHealth application. These variables determine users’ intention to continue using the application and their intention to recommend it to others. For verification, we tested the model with a sample of 249 German mHealth users from the “MyFitnessPal” community using structural equation modelling and found that all derived path relations have significant coefficients.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nora K. Schaal; Janine Zöllkau; Philip Hepp; Tanja Fehm; Carsten Hagenbeck;
    Country: Germany

    Abstract Purpose The COVID-19 vaccination is probably the most important source to fight the COVID-19 pandemic. However, recommendations and possibilities for vaccination for pregnant and breastfeeding women are inconsistent and dynamically changing. Methods An anonymous, online, cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant and breastfeeding women in Germany between 30th March and 19th April 2021 addressing COVID-19 vaccination attitudes including the underlying reasons for their decision. Additionally, anxiety regarding a SARS-CoV-2 infection and a symptomatic course of the infection were evaluated. Results In total, 2339 women (n = 1043 pregnant and n = 1296 breastfeeding) completed the survey. During pregnancy the majority (57.4%) are not in favour of receiving the vaccine, 28.8% are unsure and only 13.8% would get vaccinated at the time of the survey. In contrast, 47.2% would be in favour to receive the vaccine, if more scientific evidence on the safety of the vaccination during pregnancy would be available. Breastfeeding women show higher vaccination willingness (39.5% are in favour, 28.1% are unsure and 32.5% not in favour). The willingness to be vaccinated is significantly related to the women’s anxiety levels of getting infected and to develop disease symptoms. Main reasons for vaccination hesitancy are the women’s perception of limited vaccination-specific information, limited scientific evidence on vaccination safety and the fear to harm the fetus or infant. Conclusions The results provide important implications for obstetrical care during the pandemic as well as for official recommendations und information strategies regarding the COVID-19 vaccination.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Constanze A. Jakwerth; Martin Feuerherd; Ferdinand Guerth; Madlen Oelsner; Linda Schellhammer; Johanna Giglberger; Lisa Pechtold; Claudia Jerin; Luisa Kugler; Carolin Mogler; +9 more
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Countries: Germany, Switzerland

    Abstract SARS-CoV-2 has evolved to enter the host via the ACE2 receptor which is part of the kinin-kallikrein pathway. This complex pathway is only poorly understood in context of immune regulation but critical to control infection. This study examines SARS-CoV-2-infection and epithelial mechanisms of the kinin-kallikrein-system at the kinin B2 receptor level in SARS-CoV-2-infection that is of direct translational relevance. From acute SARS-CoV-2-positive study participants and -negative controls, transcriptomes of nasal curettages were analyzed. Primary airway epithelial cells (NHBEs) were infected with SARS-CoV-2 and treated with the approved B2R-antagonist icatibant. SARS-CoV-2 RNA RT-qPCR, cytotoxicity assays, plaque assays, and transcriptome analyses were performed. The treatment effect was further studied in a murine airway inflammation model in vivo. Here, we report a broad and strong upregulation of kallikreins and the kinin B2 receptor (B2R) in the nasal mucosa of acutely symptomatic SARS-CoV-2-positive study participants. A B2R-antagonist impeded SARS-CoV-2 replication and spread in NHBEs, as determined in plaque assays on Vero-E6 cells. B2R-antagonism reduced the expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2, G protein–coupled receptor signaling, and ion transport in vitro and in a murine airway inflammation in vivo model. In summary, this study provides evidence that treatment with B2R-antagonists protects airway epithelial cells from SARS-CoV-2 by inhibiting its replication and spread, through the reduction of ACE2 levels and the interference with several cellular signaling processes. Future clinical studies need to shed light on the airway protection potential of approved B2R-antagonists, like icatibant, in the treatment of early-stage COVID-19. Graphical Abstract Key messages Induction of kinin B2 receptor in the nose of SARS-CoV-2-positive patients. Treatment with B2R-antagonist protects airway epithelial cells from SARS-CoV-2. B2R-antagonist reduces ACE2 levels in vivo and ex vivo. Protection by B2R-antagonist is mediated by inhibiting viral replication and spread.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Riccardo E. Giunta; Konstantin Frank; Horacio Costa; Cenk Demirdöver; Giovanni Di Benedetto; Anna Elander; Mark Henley; Dylan J. Murray; Dirk J. Schaefer; Stephan Spendel; +2 more
    Publisher: Georg Thieme Verlag KG

    AbstractThe present article provides an overview of the current and expected effects of plastic surgery in Europe. It presents the experience of departments for plastic and reconstructive surgery, as evaluated by interviews with members of the Executive Committee (ExCo) of the European Society of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery (ESPRAS). The objective of this overview is to summmarise current information in our area of work and to make this accessible to a broad group of readers. As our knowledge is rapidly increasing during the current pandemic, it is evident that we can only provide a snapshot and this will inevitably be incomplete.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jidling, Carl;
    Publisher: Uppsala universitet, Avdelningen för systemteknik
    Country: Sweden

    This thesis is centred around Gaussian processes and large-scale optimisation, where the main contributions are presented in the included papers. Provided access to linear constraints (e.g. equilibrium conditions), we propose a constructive procedure to design the covariance function in a Gaussian process. The constraints are thereby explicitly incorporated with guaranteed fulfilment. One such construction is successfully applied to strain field reconstruction, where the goal is to describe the interior of a deformed object. Furthermore, we analyse the Gaussian process as a tool for X-ray computed tomography, a field of high importance primarily due to its central role in medical treatments. This provides insightful interpretations of traditional reconstruction algorithms. Large-scale optimisation is considered in two different contexts. First, we consider a stochastic environment, for which we suggest a new method inspired by the quasi-Newton framework. Promising results are demonstrated on real world benchmark problems. Secondly, we suggest an approach to solve an applied deterministic optimisation problem that arises within the design of electrical circuit boards. We reduce the memory requirements through a tailored algorithm, while also benefiting from other parts of the setting to ensure a high computational efficiency. The final paper scrutinises a publication from the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, in which the aim was to assess the effectiveness of different governmental interventions. We show that minor modifications in the input data have important impact on the results, and we argue that great caution is necessary when such models are used as a support for decision making.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jürgen Oßenbrügge;
    Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg

    Die COVID-19-Pandemie und die mit ihr verbundenen Masnahmen zur Eindammung haben weitreichende Effekte auf das Arbeitsleben, den Besuch von Bildungs- und Versorgungseinrichtungen, kulturelle Veranstaltungen und die offentlichen Raume. Auch die Nutzung des unmittelbaren Wohnumfeldes fur Spaziergange, die Spielplatze, Parks und andere Erholungs- und Treffpunkte sind betroffen. Gewissermasen uber Nacht verfluchtigen sich damit die Vorteile der vielfaltigen Gelegenheiten, Besuchs- und Kontaktmoglichkeiten, die wir als Bewohner von Stadten zu geniesen gewohnt sind.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2013
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Angela M. Caliendo; David N. Gilbert; Christine C. Ginocchio; Kimberly E. Hanson; Larissa S May; Thomas C. Quinn; Fred C. Tenover; David Alland; Anne J. Blaschke; Robert A. Bonomo; +8 more
    Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP)

    In this IDSA policy paper, we review the current diagnostic landscape, including unmet needs and emerging technologies, and assess the challenges to the development and clinical integration of improved tests. To fulfill the promise of emerging diagnostics, IDSA presents recommendations that address a host of identified barriers. Achieving these goals will require the engagement and coordination of a number of stakeholders, including Congress, funding and regulatory bodies, public health agencies, the diagnostics industry, healthcare systems, professional societies, and individual clinicians.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Igor Kos; Benedikt Balensiefer; Vadim Lesan; Dominic Kaddu-Mulindwa; Lorenz Thurner; Konstantin Christofyllakis; Joerg Thomas Bittenbring; Manfred Ahlgrimm; Martina Seiffert; Stefan Wagenpfeil; +11 more
    Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Inc.

    Abstract The pathogenesis of autoimmune complications triggered by SARS‐CoV2 has not been completely elucidated. Here, we performed an analysis of the cellular immune status, cell ratios, and monocyte populations of patients with COVID‐19 treated in the intensive care unit (ICU) (cohort 1, N = 23) and normal care unit (NCU) (cohort 2, n = 10) compared with control groups: patients treated in ICU for noninfectious reasons (cohort 3, n = 30) and patients treated in NCU for infections other than COVID‐19 (cohort 4, n = 21). Patients in cohort 1 presented significant differences in comparison with the other cohorts, including reduced frequencies of lymphocytes, reduced CD8+T‐cell count, reduced percentage of activated and intermediate monocytes and an increased B/T8 cell ratio. Over time, patients in cohort 1 who died presented with lower counts of B, T, CD4+T, CD8+T‐lymphocytes, NK cells, and activated monocytes. The B/T8 ratio was significantly lower in the group of survivors. In cohort 1, significantly higher levels of IgG1 and IgG3 were found, whereas cohort 3 presented higher levels of IgG3 compared to controls. Among many immune changes, an elevated B/T8‐cell ratio and a reduced rate of activated monocytes were mainly observed in patients with severe COVID‐19. Both parameters were associated with death in cohort 1. Patients with severe COVID‐19 present a particular set of immune changes in comparison to patients with mild disease and controls. These include consumption of certain monocyte and lymphocyte populations and an elevated B/T8 Ratio. COVID‐19 patients in general share a proinflammatory immunoglobulin profile with elevated proportions of IgG1 and/or IgG3.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Michael Meyer; Susanne Robra-Bissantz;
    Publisher: University of Maribor Press

    The global pandemic caused by the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) changes the lives of many people all over the world. In the context of stationary retail, a strong change of customer behavior occurs as mandatory safety measures like wearing facemasks and distance regulations have come into place. The sales personnel’s ability to understand and react to customers’ emotions is critical for service interactions and the customers’ overall satisfaction. Unfortunately, facemasks make it difficult to recognize other’s emotions and may lead to misinterpretation and confusion. To address this problem, this paper proposes the design of self-assessment interfaces that offer the customer an easy way to enter their emotions. As part of a Design Science Research (DSR) project, we designed three interfaces and evaluated them over the course of a design cycle. The results indicate that it is possible to use self-assessment technology in stationary retail to measure customer emotions.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
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arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
20,422 Research products, page 1 of 2,043
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Brooke Fisher Liu; Jeannette I Iannacone;
    Publisher: Nicholson School of Communciation and Media

    With the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, we are facing another watershed moment for our field. There truly could not be a better time to be editing an open-access journal for the international community of risk and crisis communication scholars and practitioners. In this essay, we provide an update on the Journal’s status in terms of acceptance rates, global perspective, and readership rates.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Steven Birkmeyer; Bernd W. Wirtz; Paul F. Langer;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract Mobile health (mHealth) applications have become an important tool to support public health, especially in times of increased health awareness in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there is still uncertainty about what factors determine successful mHealth services from the users’ perspective. Based on the results of a systematic literature review, a qualitative content analysis of available apps and semi-structured user and expert interviews, we derive a structural model with antecedents on user attitudes towards mHealth and user satisfaction with the mHealth application. These variables determine users’ intention to continue using the application and their intention to recommend it to others. For verification, we tested the model with a sample of 249 German mHealth users from the “MyFitnessPal” community using structural equation modelling and found that all derived path relations have significant coefficients.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nora K. Schaal; Janine Zöllkau; Philip Hepp; Tanja Fehm; Carsten Hagenbeck;
    Country: Germany

    Abstract Purpose The COVID-19 vaccination is probably the most important source to fight the COVID-19 pandemic. However, recommendations and possibilities for vaccination for pregnant and breastfeeding women are inconsistent and dynamically changing. Methods An anonymous, online, cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant and breastfeeding women in Germany between 30th March and 19th April 2021 addressing COVID-19 vaccination attitudes including the underlying reasons for their decision. Additionally, anxiety regarding a SARS-CoV-2 infection and a symptomatic course of the infection were evaluated. Results In total, 2339 women (n = 1043 pregnant and n = 1296 breastfeeding) completed the survey. During pregnancy the majority (57.4%) are not in favour of receiving the vaccine, 28.8% are unsure and only 13.8% would get vaccinated at the time of the survey. In contrast, 47.2% would be in favour to receive the vaccine, if more scientific evidence on the safety of the vaccination during pregnancy would be available. Breastfeeding women show higher vaccination willingness (39.5% are in favour, 28.1% are unsure and 32.5% not in favour). The willingness to be vaccinated is significantly related to the women’s anxiety levels of getting infected and to develop disease symptoms. Main reasons for vaccination hesitancy are the women’s perception of limited vaccination-specific information, limited scientific evidence on vaccination safety and the fear to harm the fetus or infant. Conclusions The results provide important implications for obstetrical care during the pandemic as well as for official recommendations und information strategies regarding the COVID-19 vaccination.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Constanze A. Jakwerth; Martin Feuerherd; Ferdinand Guerth; Madlen Oelsner; Linda Schellhammer; Johanna Giglberger; Lisa Pechtold; Claudia Jerin; Luisa Kugler; Carolin Mogler; +9 more
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Countries: Germany, Switzerland

    Abstract SARS-CoV-2 has evolved to enter the host via the ACE2 receptor which is part of the kinin-kallikrein pathway. This complex pathway is only poorly understood in context of immune regulation but critical to control infection. This study examines SARS-CoV-2-infection and epithelial mechanisms of the kinin-kallikrein-system at the kinin B2 receptor level in SARS-CoV-2-infection that is of direct translational relevance. From acute SARS-CoV-2-positive study participants and -negative controls, transcriptomes of nasal curettages were analyzed. Primary airway epithelial cells (NHBEs) were infected with SARS-CoV-2 and treated with the approved B2R-antagonist icatibant. SARS-CoV-2 RNA RT-qPCR, cytotoxicity assays, plaque assays, and transcriptome analyses were performed. The treatment effect was further studied in a murine airway inflammation model in vivo. Here, we report a broad and strong upregulation of kallikreins and the kinin B2 receptor (B2R) in the nasal mucosa of acutely symptomatic SARS-CoV-2-positive study participants. A B2R-antagonist impeded SARS-CoV-2 replication and spread in NHBEs, as determined in plaque assays on Vero-E6 cells. B2R-antagonism reduced the expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2, G protein–coupled receptor signaling, and ion transport in vitro and in a murine airway inflammation in vivo model. In summary, this study provides evidence that treatment with B2R-antagonists protects airway epithelial cells from SARS-CoV-2 by inhibiting its replication and spread, through the reduction of ACE2 levels and the interference with several cellular signaling processes. Future clinical studies need to shed light on the airway protection potential of approved B2R-antagonists, like icatibant, in the treatment of early-stage COVID-19. Graphical Abstract Key messages Induction of kinin B2 receptor in the nose of SARS-CoV-2-positive patients. Treatment with B2R-antagonist protects airway epithelial cells from SARS-CoV-2. B2R-antagonist reduces ACE2 levels in vivo and ex vivo. Protection by B2R-antagonist is mediated by inhibiting viral replication and spread.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Riccardo E. Giunta; Konstantin Frank; Horacio Costa; Cenk Demirdöver; Giovanni Di Benedetto; Anna Elander; Mark Henley; Dylan J. Murray; Dirk J. Schaefer; Stephan Spendel; +2 more
    Publisher: Georg Thieme Verlag KG

    AbstractThe present article provides an overview of the current and expected effects of plastic surgery in Europe. It presents the experience of departments for plastic and reconstructive surgery, as evaluated by interviews with members of the Executive Committee (ExCo) of the European Society of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery (ESPRAS). The objective of this overview is to summmarise current information in our area of work and to make this accessible to a broad group of readers. As our knowledge is rapidly increasing during the current pandemic, it is evident that we can only provide a snapshot and this will inevitably be incomplete.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jidling, Carl;
    Publisher: Uppsala universitet, Avdelningen för systemteknik
    Country: Sweden

    This thesis is centred around Gaussian processes and large-scale optimisation, where the main contributions are presented in the included papers. Provided access to linear constraints (e.g. equilibrium conditions), we propose a constructive procedure to design the covariance function in a Gaussian process. The constraints are thereby explicitly incorporated with guaranteed fulfilment. One such construction is successfully applied to strain field reconstruction, where the goal is to describe the interior of a deformed object. Furthermore, we analyse the Gaussian process as a tool for X-ray computed tomography, a field of high importance primarily due to its central role in medical treatments. This provides insightful interpretations of traditional reconstruction algorithms. Large-scale optimisation is considered in two different contexts. First, we consider a stochastic environment, for which we suggest a new method inspired by the quasi-Newton framework. Promising results are demonstrated on real world benchmark problems. Secondly, we suggest an approach to solve an applied deterministic optimisation problem that arises within the design of electrical circuit boards. We reduce the memory requirements through a tailored algorithm, while also benefiting from other parts of the setting to ensure a high computational efficiency. The final paper scrutinises a publication from the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, in which the aim was to assess the effectiveness of different governmental interventions. We show that minor modifications in the input data have important impact on the results, and we argue that great caution is necessary when such models are used as a support for decision making.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jürgen Oßenbrügge;
    Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg

    Die COVID-19-Pandemie und die mit ihr verbundenen Masnahmen zur Eindammung haben weitreichende Effekte auf das Arbeitsleben, den Besuch von Bildungs- und Versorgungseinrichtungen, kulturelle Veranstaltungen und die offentlichen Raume. Auch die Nutzung des unmittelbaren Wohnumfeldes fur Spaziergange, die Spielplatze, Parks und andere Erholungs- und Treffpunkte sind betroffen. Gewissermasen uber Nacht verfluchtigen sich damit die Vorteile der vielfaltigen Gelegenheiten, Besuchs- und Kontaktmoglichkeiten, die wir als Bewohner von Stadten zu geniesen gewohnt sind.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2013
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Angela M. Caliendo; David N. Gilbert; Christine C. Ginocchio; Kimberly E. Hanson; Larissa S May; Thomas C. Quinn; Fred C. Tenover; David Alland; Anne J. Blaschke; Robert A. Bonomo; +8 more
    Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP)

    In this IDSA policy paper, we review the current diagnostic landscape, including unmet needs and emerging technologies, and assess the challenges to the development and clinical integration of improved tests. To fulfill the promise of emerging diagnostics, IDSA presents recommendations that address a host of identified barriers. Achieving these goals will require the engagement and coordination of a number of stakeholders, including Congress, funding and regulatory bodies, public health agencies, the diagnostics industry, healthcare systems, professional societies, and individual clinicians.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Igor Kos; Benedikt Balensiefer; Vadim Lesan; Dominic Kaddu-Mulindwa; Lorenz Thurner; Konstantin Christofyllakis; Joerg Thomas Bittenbring; Manfred Ahlgrimm; Martina Seiffert; Stefan Wagenpfeil; +11 more
    Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Inc.

    Abstract The pathogenesis of autoimmune complications triggered by SARS‐CoV2 has not been completely elucidated. Here, we performed an analysis of the cellular immune status, cell ratios, and monocyte populations of patients with COVID‐19 treated in the intensive care unit (ICU) (cohort 1, N = 23) and normal care unit (NCU) (cohort 2, n = 10) compared with control groups: patients treated in ICU for noninfectious reasons (cohort 3, n = 30) and patients treated in NCU for infections other than COVID‐19 (cohort 4, n = 21). Patients in cohort 1 presented significant differences in comparison with the other cohorts, including reduced frequencies of lymphocytes, reduced CD8+T‐cell count, reduced percentage of activated and intermediate monocytes and an increased B/T8 cell ratio. Over time, patients in cohort 1 who died presented with lower counts of B, T, CD4+T, CD8+T‐lymphocytes, NK cells, and activated monocytes. The B/T8 ratio was significantly lower in the group of survivors. In cohort 1, significantly higher levels of IgG1 and IgG3 were found, whereas cohort 3 presented higher levels of IgG3 compared to controls. Among many immune changes, an elevated B/T8‐cell ratio and a reduced rate of activated monocytes were mainly observed in patients with severe COVID‐19. Both parameters were associated with death in cohort 1. Patients with severe COVID‐19 present a particular set of immune changes in comparison to patients with mild disease and controls. These include consumption of certain monocyte and lymphocyte populations and an elevated B/T8 Ratio. COVID‐19 patients in general share a proinflammatory immunoglobulin profile with elevated proportions of IgG1 and/or IgG3.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Michael Meyer; Susanne Robra-Bissantz;
    Publisher: University of Maribor Press

    The global pandemic caused by the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) changes the lives of many people all over the world. In the context of stationary retail, a strong change of customer behavior occurs as mandatory safety measures like wearing facemasks and distance regulations have come into place. The sales personnel’s ability to understand and react to customers’ emotions is critical for service interactions and the customers’ overall satisfaction. Unfortunately, facemasks make it difficult to recognize other’s emotions and may lead to misinterpretation and confusion. To address this problem, this paper proposes the design of self-assessment interfaces that offer the customer an easy way to enter their emotions. As part of a Design Science Research (DSR) project, we designed three interfaces and evaluated them over the course of a design cycle. The results indicate that it is possible to use self-assessment technology in stationary retail to measure customer emotions.