As Empresas Familiares são uma forma única e particular de organização profundamente interessante devido ao seu próprio estilo de modelo de negócios, diferenças hierárquicas, valores e princípios. Consequentemente, a sua capacidade de inovar difere de outras formas de organização. Com a chegada da pandemia COVID-19, os modelos de negócios tiveram que atualizar as suas abordagens, inovando e agindo de acordo com os hábitos de consumo e restrições sanitárias. Mundialmente, algumas empresas tiveram que mudar, tendo na sua centralidade abordagens e mentalidades inovadoras, enquanto outras não conseguiram colocar esses mesmos mecanismos em ação. Esta dissertação e pesquisa tem como objetivo primordial analisar a capacidade de inovação das empresas familiares no que diz respeito à interação com o cliente e como a pandemia desequilibra o seu modelo. Além disso, com este estudo, espera-se que alguns resultados possam orientar outras empresas familiares sobre como enfrentar e interagir com algumas barreiras inovadoras e dar-lhes a capacidade de lidar com as mesmas. Family Businesses are a particular and unique form of organization deeply interesting due to their own business model style, hierarchical differences, values and principles. Consequently, their capacity to innovative differ from other types of organization. With the arrival of COVID-19 Pandemic, business models had to adapt their innovative approaches to act accordingly with consumer habits and sanitary restrictions. Worldwide, some businesses had to change, with innovative approaches and mindsets, while other could not bring those same mechanisms to action. This dissertation aims to analyze the capacity of family entities to innovation regarding their customer interaction and how the pandemic imbalance their model. Also, with this study, it is expected that some results might guide other family firms on how to deal and interact with the barriers and to give the capacity to deal with the same barriers.
A crise pandémica obrigou várias empresas a reinventar os seus modelos de negócio, de forma a responderem eficazmente a esta nova realidade. A presente dissertação é um estudo de caso da Delta Q, que tem como grande objetivo compreender o impacto da pandemia no negócio português da Delta Q e analisar os respetivos ajustamentos estratégicos. A Delta Q, enquanto uma das maiores empresas de cápsulas de café em Portugal, tem vindo ao longo dos últimos anos experienciado grandes mudanças nos hábitos dos consumidores e na concorrência. A pandemia veio acentuar esses desafios tendo originado novas formas de consumir e comprar café sobretudo a partir do online. O COVID-19 provocou elevadas perdas, mas também levou ao crescimento exponencial em algumas áreas de negócio. Assim, grande parte da estratégia desta empresa passou por investimentos nos canais em expansão, de modo a continuar com vantagem competitiva a longo-prazo. O presente estudo de caso, enquanto um instrumento pedagógico, visa aplicar conceitos de gestão e estratégia no modelo de negócio da Delta Q. No final do caso, os alunos serão capazes de compreender os principais fatores que afetaram o negócio, e posteriormente, identificar e aplicar as estratégias mais adequadas tendo em conta conceitos como vantagem competitiva, posicionamento dos concorrentes, capacidades dinâmicas e alinhamento estratégico. COVID-19 crisis forced several companies to rethink their business models, raising important questions about how firms can respond effectively to crises. The present thesis is a case study about Delta Q, exclusively oriented to the Portuguese market, that describes how the global pandemic affected their core business and analyzes the fundamental strategic adjustments implemented. Delta Q, one of the top-sellers of coffee capsules in Portugal, has experienced rapid changes in consumer behavior, demand and competition. The pandemic highly contributed to accelerating those changes and brought new dynamism, especially in the modern channel e-commerce. In order to compensate for big drops in some business areas caused by COVID-19, Delta Q leverages its presence in other segments to sustain a competitive advantage in the long-term. The case study, as a pedagogical instrument, aims to apply strategy and management concepts into the real Delta Q scenario to successfully manage the negative impacts of the pandemic and enhance the firm’s performance. At the end of the case, students will be able to exploit the main crisis drivers that affected Delta Q’s business to subsequently orchestrate the most relevant strategic reactions based on subjects of competitive advantage, competitor’s positioning, dynamic capabilities and strategic alignment.
Background: Our March 2021 edition of this review showed thoracic imaging computed tomography (CT) to be sensitive and moderately specific in diagnosing COVID-19 pneumonia. This new edition is an update of the review. Objectives: Our objectives were to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of thoracic imaging in people with suspected COVID-19; assess the rate of positive imaging in people who had an initial reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) negative result and a positive RT-PCR result on follow-up; and evaluate the accuracy of thoracic imaging for screening COVID-19 in asymptomatic individuals. The secondary objective was to assess threshold effects of index test positivity on accuracy. Search methods: We searched the COVID-19 Living Evidence Database from the University of Bern, the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register, The Stephen B. Thacker CDC Library, and repositories of COVID-19 publications through to 17 February 2021. We did not apply any language restrictions. Selection criteria: We included diagnostic accuracy studies of all designs, except for case-control, that recruited participants of any age group suspected to have COVID-19. Studies had to assess chest CT, chest X-ray, or ultrasound of the lungs for the diagnosis of COVID-19, use a reference standard that included RT-PCR, and report estimates of test accuracy or provide data from which we could compute estimates. We excluded studies that used imaging as part of the reference standard and studies that excluded participants with normal index test results. Data collection and analysis: The review authors independently and in duplicate screened articles, extracted data and assessed risk of bias and applicability concerns using QUADAS-2. We presented sensitivity and specificity per study on paired forest plots, and summarized pooled estimates in tables. We used a bivariate meta-analysis model where appropriate. Main results: We included 98 studies in this review. Of these, 94 were included for evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of thoracic imaging in the evaluation of people with suspected COVID-19. Eight studies were included for assessing the rate of positive imaging in individuals with initial RT-PCR negative results and positive RT-PCR results on follow-up, and 10 studies were included for evaluating the accuracy of thoracic imaging for imagining asymptomatic individuals. For all 98 included studies, risk of bias was high or unclear in 52 (53%) studies with respect to participant selection, in 64 (65%) studies with respect to reference standard, in 46 (47%) studies with respect to index test, and in 48 (49%) studies with respect to flow and timing. Concerns about the applicability of the evidence to: participants were high or unclear in eight (8%) studies; index test were high or unclear in seven (7%) studies; and reference standard were high or unclear in seven (7%) studies. Imaging in people with suspected COVID-19. We included 94 studies. Eighty-seven studies evaluated one imaging modality, and seven studies evaluated two imaging modalities. All studies used RT-PCR alone or in combination with other criteria (for example, clinical signs and symptoms, positive contacts) as the reference standard for the diagnosis of COVID-19. For chest CT (69 studies, 28285 participants, 14,342 (51%) cases), sensitivities ranged from 45% to 100%, and specificities from 10% to 99%. The pooled sensitivity of chest CT was 86.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 83.6 to 89.6), and pooled specificity was 78.3% (95% CI 73.7 to 82.3). Definition for index test positivity was a source of heterogeneity for sensitivity, but not specificity. Reference standard was not a source of heterogeneity. For chest X-ray (17 studies, 8529 participants, 5303 (62%) cases), the sensitivity ranged from 44% to 94% and specificity from 24 to 93%. The pooled sensitivity of chest X-ray was 73.1% (95% CI 64. to -80.5), and pooled specificity was 73.3% (95% CI 61.9 to 82.2). Definition for index test positivity was not found to be a source of heterogeneity. Definition for index test positivity and reference standard were not found to be sources of heterogeneity. For ultrasound of the lungs (15 studies, 2410 participants, 1158 (48%) cases), the sensitivity ranged from 73% to 94% and the specificity ranged from 21% to 98%. The pooled sensitivity of ultrasound was 88.9% (95% CI 84.9 to 92.0), and the pooled specificity was 72.2% (95% CI 58.8 to 82.5). Definition for index test positivity and reference standard were not found to be sources of heterogeneity. Indirect comparisons of modalities evaluated across all 94 studies indicated that chest CT and ultrasound gave higher sensitivity estimates than X-ray (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.001, respectively). Chest CT and ultrasound gave similar sensitivities (P=0.42). All modalities had similar specificities (CT versus X-ray P = 0.36; CT versus ultrasound P = 0.32; X-ray versus ultrasound P = 0.89). Imaging in PCR-negative people who subsequently became positive. For rate of positive imaging in individuals with initial RT-PCR negative results, we included 8 studies (7 CT, 1 ultrasound) with a total of 198 participants suspected of having COVID-19, all of whom had a final diagnosis of COVID-19. Most studies (7/8) evaluated CT. Of 177 participants with initially negative RT-PCR who had positive RT-PCR results on follow-up testing, 75.8% (95% CI 45.3 to 92.2) had positive CT findings. Imaging in asymptomatic PCR-positive people. For imaging asymptomatic individuals, we included 10 studies (7 CT, 1 X-ray, 2 ultrasound) with a total of 3548 asymptomatic participants, of whom 364 (10%) had a final diagnosis of COVID-19. For chest CT (7 studies, 3134 participants, 315 (10%) cases), the pooled sensitivity was 55.7% (95% CI 35.4 to 74.3) and the pooled specificity was 91.1% (95% CI 82.6 to 95.7). Authors' conclusions: Chest CT and ultrasound of the lungs are sensitive and moderately specific in diagnosing COVID-19. Chest X-ray is moderately sensitive and moderately specific in diagnosing COVID-19. Thus, chest CT and ultrasound may have more utility for ruling out COVID-19 than for differentiating SARS-CoV-2 infection from other causes of respiratory illness. The uncertainty resulting from high or unclear risk of bias and the heterogeneity of included studies limit our ability to confidently draw conclusions based on our results.
Purpose – The COVID-19 has brought with it valuable opportunities for the retail sector. Notably, online channels have assumed a key role for businesses that can rely less on physical channels due to the pandemic’s restrictions. Within this context, the study aims to identify the main antecedents leading to the formation of the male and female customers’ continuance intention of using online food delivery services (OFDS) in the restaurant industry. Design/methodology/approach – A web-based self-completion survey and a subsequent structural equation modelling have been employed on a sample of 360 participants. Findings – Findings reveal that perceived healthiness, quarantine procedures, perceived hygiene, perceived ease of app use and attitude significantly influence continuance intention. Moreover, the moderator analysis corroborates that male consumers’ continuance intention is mainly influenced by perceived healthiness, quarantine procedures and perceived hygiene. Conversely, female customers’ continuance intention is predicated on perceived healthiness and attitude. Research limitations/implications – Although the adoption of a sample of young customers (18–29 years) guarantees good research internal validity, findings are not generalizable. Practical implications – The study provides valuable contributions for restaurants related to the (1) creation/management of their own OFDS platforms; (2) selection of the right third-party platforms. Originality/value – The paper is one of the first studies examining the predictors impacting on customers’ OFDS continuance intention in the COVID-19 context by also focusing on gender differences.
Data set from the article Dozio E, Sitzia C, Pistelli L, Cardani R, Rigolini R, Ranucci M, Corsi Romanelli MM. Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products and Its Forms in COVID-19 Patients with and without Diabetes Mellitus: A Pilot Study on Their Role as Disease Biomarkers. J Clin Med. 2020 Nov 23;9(11):3785. doi: 10.3390/jcm9113785. PMID: 33238596; PMCID: PMC7700384. Abstract The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), a well-known player of diabetes mellitus (DM)-related morbidities, was supposed to be involved in coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), but no data exist about COVID-19, DM, and the soluble RAGE (sRAGE) forms. We quantified total sRAGE and its forms, the endogenously secretory esRAGE and the membrane-cleaved cRAGE, in COVID-19 patients with and without DM and in healthy individuals to explore how COVID-19 may affect these molecules and their potential role as biomarkers. Circulating sRAGE and esRAGE were quantified by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays. cRAGE was obtained by subtracting esRAGE from total sRAGE. sRAGE, esRAGE, cRAGE, and the cRAGE/esRAGE ratio did not differ between DM and non-DM patients and had the same trend when compared to healthy individuals. Levels of total sRAGE, cRAGE, and cRAGE/esRAGE ratio were upregulated, while esRAGE was downregulated. The lack of difference between DM and non-DM COVID-19 patients in the levels of sRAGE and its forms supports the hypothesis that in COVID-19 the RAGE system is modulated regardless of glycemic control. Identifying how sRAGE and its forms associate to COVID-19 prognosis and the potential of RAGE as a therapeutic target to control inflammatory burden seem of relevance to help treatment of COVID-19.
ImagineThe internet stops workingelectricity is cutthe many screens which connect you to the world turn blackyou no longer have access to your bank accountor functioning credits cardsthe walls behind which you retreated fade awayand you find yourself under the open skynow you are like menothing but a “dangerous body” on the streetwhat can you do now?what must you do now?out in the open where an invisible virus lurks?you roamroam the city forfoodinformationand means to protect those you love
This database includes the raw data linked with the paper ���Reading Skills of Children with Dyslexia Improved Less than Expected During the COVID-19 lockdown in Italy��� published in ���Children���. In this paper, we reported the modification of reading speed and accuracy in children with Specific Learning Disorders during the COVID-19 lockdown in Italy (measured with word, non-word and text reading standardized tests administered before and after the ���lockdown���) and answers to an ad hoc questionnaire regarding their experience during the lockdown period. The reading assessment was performed through three tasks. The first two tasks (i.e., reading aloud a list of words and a list of non-words) were derived from the Battery for the Assessment of Developmental Dyslexia and Dysorthography-2 (DDE-2 Battery by Sartori et al.) to assess reading speed (syllables per second) and accuracy (number of errors). The third task was derived from the Assessment of Reading and Comprehension Skills for Elementary and Middle School (MT-3-Clinic tasks by Cornoldi and Carretti) and it consists of reading a text aloud to assess reading speed (syllables per second) and accuracy (number of errors). An ad hoc questionnaire provided a detailed characterization of the online school delivered during the lockdown period (March���June 2020), including which kinds of remote education were implemented (e.g., online vs. pre-recorded lessons), major challenges in managing online school (e.g., online platform, connection, family management), and parents��� perception of their children learning trajectories. The questionnaire was filled in by parents as well as by children with the help of a dedicated researcher. Between 59 to 63% of children with dyslexia did not reach the average expected increase of reading skills. According to their parents, they also showed greater social isolation and fewer worries about the pandemic and the school���s closure. Our data indicate that children with dyslexia are at increased risk of consequences on their learning potential in case of school closure. They also seem to have a peculiar psychological experience of school closure. Funding: Ricerca Corrente 2020, Ministry of Health (Italy)
Abstract In this work, we formulate and analyze a new mathematical model for COVID-19 epidemic with isolated class in fractional order. This model is described by a system of fractional-order differential equations model and includes five classes, namely, S (susceptible class), E (exposed class), I (infected class), Q (isolated class), and R (recovered class). Dynamics and numerical approximations for the proposed fractional-order model are studied. Firstly, positivity and boundedness of the model are established. Secondly, the basic reproduction number of the model is calculated by using the next generation matrix approach. Then, asymptotic stability of the model is investigated. Lastly, we apply the adaptive predictor–corrector algorithm and fourth-order Runge–Kutta (RK4) method to simulate the proposed model. Consequently, a set of numerical simulations are performed to support the validity of the theoretical results. The numerical simulations indicate that there is a good agreement between theoretical results and numerical ones.