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13 Research products, page 1 of 2

  • COVID-19
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  • HAL - UPEC / UPEM
  • Transport Research

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  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    ZEGHNI, Sylvain;
    Publisher: Les Echos
    Country: France

    Le soutien aux économies émergentes au moment de la Covid-19 sera le prochain défi mondial. La coopération internationale devra créer des moyens durables de remédier aux inégalités et de renforcer la gouvernance mondiale.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    ASENSIO, César; AUMOND, Pierre; CAN, Arnaud; GASCO, Luis; LERCHER, Peter; WUNDERLY, Jean-Marc; LAVANDIER, Catherine; DE ARCAS, Guillermo; RIBEIRO, Carlos; MUNOZ, Patricio; +1 more
    Publisher: MDPI
    Country: France

    Many countries around the world have chosen lockdown and restrictions on people's mobility as the main strategies to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. These actions have significantly affected environmental noise and modified urban soundscapes, opening up an unprecedented opportunity for research in the field. In order to enable these investigations to be carried out in a more harmonized and consistent manner, this paper makes a proposal for a set of indicators that will enable to address the challenge from a number of different approaches. It proposes a minimum set of basic energetic indicators, and the taxonomy that will allow their communication and reporting. In addition, an extended set of descriptors is outlined which better enables the application of more novel approaches to the evaluation of the effect of this new soundscape on people's subjective perception.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    ATKINSON CLEMENT, Cyril; PIGALLE, Eléonore;
    Country: France

    Year 2020 will mark History, with the emergence of the new Covid-19 virus, and more importantly, the consequent political decisions to apply freedom restriction at such a largescale. Identifying the human behaviours during this extraordinary period represents a unique opportunity to both improve our fundamental knowledge and to improve future management of similar issues. Throughout almost all the duration of the French lockdown (from March 24, 2020 to May 10, 2020), we carried out an online survey on more than 12,000 individuals well distributed over the country. This online survey was performed by using both Lime-Survey and Google Forms services and was addressed to adults living in France. Statistical analyses combined classical inferential approach, mapping, clustering and text mining. The results showed that a significant part of the population moved out just before the lockdown (around 10% of our sample) and we highlighted three different profiles of participants. The results emphasised that the lockdown measures compliance was lower in two cases: (i) an unfavourable living environment (referring to social and economic inequity) associated with a high feeling of fear and a lack of trust towards Governmental measures; or (ii) the feeling that the risk was low due to the fact that others complied with the measures. In case a similar situation should occur again, it is recommended that Governments broadcast clear speeches to improve trust, limit fear and increase cooperative behaviours.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    BAL, Antonin; TRABAUD, Mary-Anne; FASSIER, Jean-Baptiste; RABILLOUD, Muriel; SAKER, Kahina; LANGLOIS-JACQUES, Carole; GUIBERT, Nicolas; PAUL, Adèle; ALFAIATE, Dulce; MASSARDIER-PILONCHERY, Amélie; +5 more
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Country: France

    Since the SARS-CoV-2 emergence in December 2019, one of the major concerns has been the duration of immune protection after a first episode. This question is of paramount importance for healthcare workers (HCWs), who are a highly exposed population and among the first targets of vaccination programmes. To date, the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in HCWs 6 months after disease onset (ADO) has not been studied with both a virus neutralisation btest and commercial assays.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    MONNET, Jérôme;
    Country: France

    Je propose ici sous une forme graphique et synthétique une analyse géographique du Grand Confinement, décrété en France de mars à mai 2020 comme mesure de protection de la population face à la pandémie du nouveau coronavirus COVID-19. Les croquis successifs représentent quatre grandes dimensions socio-spatiales du confinement, telles qu'elles ont été mises en oeuvre par le gouvernement national, vécues par la population à l'échelle du quartier et du domicile, et déployées entre usagers et prestataires de service dans l'hyper-espace qui connecte le lieu d'usage des appareils de communication avec une grande variété de périmètres virtuels, du proche au lointain. L'observation des choix politiques comme des tactiques habitantes et des innovations sociales face au confinement aboutit à l'identification des principales tendances qui pourraient s'opposer durant une sortie de crise qui risque d'être longue et chaotique. Texte original en libre accès: https://journals.openedition.org/cybergeo/34804. I propose here in a graphic and synthetic form a geographical analysis of the Great Containment, decreed in France from March to May 2020 as a measure to protect the population against the pandemic of the new coronavirus COVID-19. The successive sketches represent four major socio-spatial dimensions of containment, as implemented by the national government, experienced by the population at the neighbourhood and home scales, and deployed between users and service providers in the hyper-space that connects the place where communication devices are used with a wide variety of virtual perimeters, from near to far. The observation of the choices made by the State as well as dwellers' tactics and social innovations in the face of containment leads to the identification of the main trends that could come into conflict during a crisis exit that is likely to be long and chaotic. Propongo aquí en forma gráfica y sintética un análisis geográfico del Gran Confinamiento, decretado en Francia de marzo a mayo de 2020 como medida de protección de la población contra la pandemia del nuevo coronavirus COVID-19. Los sucesivos bocetos representan cuatro grandes dimensiones socioespaciales del confinamiento, tal como la aplica el gobierno nacional, como la experimenta la población a escala del vecindario y del hogar, y como se despliega entre usuarios y proveedores de servicios en el hiperespacio conectando el lugar de utilización de los dispositivos de comunicación con una amplia variedad de perímetros virtuales, desde cerca hasta lejos. La observación de las opciones políticas, así como de las tácticas habitantes y las innovaciones sociales frente al confinamiento, permite identificar las principales tendencias que podrían entrar en conflicto durante una salida de crisis que probablemente sea larga y caótica.

  • Other research product . 2020
    Open Access French
    Authors: 
    ALPEROVITCH, Annick; LAZAR, Philippe;
    Publisher: EDP Sciences
    Country: France

    La pandémie de COVID-19 a conduit certains acteurs reconnus de la médecine à renoncer aux méthodes codifiées de la recherche médicale au profit d'affirmations établies dans l'urgence et sans réelle évaluation scientifique. Autant l'on peut comprendre que certains praticiens recourent à ce qui leur est ainsi proposé, autant cette confusion entre action dans l'urgence et recherche scientifique serait lourde de conséquences si elle venait à se généraliser, et cela à de multiples points de vue : image et rôle de la science, qualité et éthique de la recherche médicale et en fin de compte sort des malades soumis à des traitements mal évalués. Ce sont ces questions qui motivent la mise au point qui suit sur les questions d'éthique associées de longue date aux « essais thérapeutiques », cette procédure rationnelle d'acquisition dans les meilleurs délais d'informations fiables sur les avantages et les risques des traitements dont on envisage l'éventuelle utilisation.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    ZEGHNI, Sylvain;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    L' apparition du Covid-19 en tant qu'urgence sanitaire mondiale et la crise socio-économique qui en résulte mettent à l'épreuve les structures mondiales de coopération. Ces défis donnent naissance à de nouvelles formes et expressions de solidarité transnational.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    TROUILLET-ASSANT, Sophie; ALBERT VEGA, Chloe; BAL, Antonin; NAZARE, Julie Anne; FASCIA, Pascal; PAUL, Adèle; MASSARDIER-PILONCHERY, Amélie; D AUBAREDE, Constance; GUIBERT, Nicolas; PITIOT, Virginie; +8 more
    Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP
    Country: France

    Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 threatens global public health, and there is an urgent public health need to assess acquired immunity to SARS-CoV-2. Serological tests might provide results that can be complementary to or confirm suspected COVID-19 cases and reveal previous infection. The performance of serological assays (sensitivity and specificity) has to be evaluated before their use in the general population. The neutralisation capacity of the produced antibodies also has to be evaluated.Methods and analysis We set up a prospective, multicentric clinical study to evaluate the performance of serological kits among a population of healthcare workers presenting mild symptoms suggestive of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Four hundred symptomatic healthcare workers will be included in the COVID-SER study. The values obtained from a control cohort included during the prepandemic time will be used as reference. A workflow was set up to study serological response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and to evaluate antibody neutralisation capacity in patients with a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The sensitivity and specificity of the tests will be assessed using molecular detection of the virus as a reference. The measurement of IgM and IgG antibodies will be performed once per week for 6 consecutive weeks and then at 6, 12, 18, 24 and 36 months after the diagnosis. The kinetics of IgM and IgG will determine the optimal period to perform serological testing. The proportion of false negative PCR tests in symptomatic subjects will be determined on the basis of subsequent seroconversions.Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained from the national review board for biomedical research in April 2020 (Comité de Protection des Personnes Sud Méditerranée I, Marseille, France) (ID RCB 2020-A00932-37). Results will be disseminated through presentations at scientific meetings and publications in peer-reviewed journals.Trial registration number NCT04341142.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    NGUYEN, Minh Hieu; ARMOOGUM, Jimmy; NGUYEN THI, Binh;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute - MDPI
    Country: France

    In response to insufficient understanding of the determinants of change in e-shopping behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic in developing countries, this paper used the data from 355 respondents, collected in Hanoi during the social distancing period (April 2020), to explore the factors associated with shopping online more frequently (i.e., representing the growth of e-shopping) for five product types (food, medical products, clothing, electronics, and books) in Hanoi, Vietnam. The results showed that nearly 80% of the respondents engaged in e-shopping more frequently than they did before the outbreak of COVID-19. As regards shopping online more frequently in general (i.e., for at least one product type), females were more likely to do so. In-store shopping enjoyment and a decrease in income were a facilitator and a deterrent, respectively. Regarding specific product types, completely working from home had a positive association with more frequent e-purchasing for electronics. Fear of disease encouraged higher frequencies of e-shopping for food and medical products. Notably, the shortage of physical supply was not a determinant of buying any product type online more frequently. As for the implications of our findings, supporting and encouraging low-income shoppers, older persons, and females to engage in e-shopping is necessary to limit the detrimental effects of the pandemic on their lives. The growth of internet purchasing expresses a need to manage the development of urban delivery services, to limit the uncontrolled proliferation of motorcycles. E-shopping requires delivery to complete the online-to-offline process; therefore, protecting the health of delivery drivers to ensure the safety of the whole online shopping process would be necessary.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Blanquart, Corinne; Chen, Chia-Lin; de URENA, José Maria; Delaplace, Marie; Gastineau, Pascal; Koning, Martin; LIEDTKE, Gernot; Pagliara, Francesca; YOSHINO, Naoyuki;
    Publisher: T20 Saudia
    Country: France

    _; This proposal adopts a holistic approach to strategic transport investment by discussing the wider economic impacts (WEIs) analysis method in terms of several dominant and emerging methods. The WEIs analysis goes beyond the effects captured in a standard cost-benefit analysis (CBA). A CBA addresses the market for transport services and infrastructure access but neglects the wider impacts on other markets. These wider impacts usually relate to agglomeration, market power, and the behavioral adaptions of firms and households. The high uncertainty in land use changes indicates that WEIs tend to occur in different forms on multiple spatial scales, varying by place and time. Additionally, some activities, such as education, have no direct market value, but may indirectly contribute to the overall economic output and human capital development in cities and regions. Given that the conventional elasticity methods are not goal oriented, it is important to ensure that the WEIs analysis accounts for the stakeholder-specific costs and benefits. Assuming that it is possible to consider all WEIs through theoretical models, major efforts should focus on establishing and maintaining appropriate methodologies and tools. The social and environmental data needed to address biodiversity issues should also be improved and promoted. Complementary to the WEIs, understanding how the behavior of agents changes in response to the new transport options will help clarify the long-term implications of transportation. This will suggest new strategies (territorial appropriation), approaches/ techniques to feasibility, and ?place-based? interrelations, that is, specific interrelations in places. This last aspect is especially important in the current context of the COVID-19 pandemic, which has affected and will likely change transportation behaviors and transport demand in the dynamic future.