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74 Research products, page 1 of 8

  • COVID-19
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  • 2013-2022
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  • Mémoires en Sciences de l'Information et de la Communication

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    MANG, Sebastian; KALENKA, Armin; BROMAN, Lars Mikael; SUPADY, Alexander; SWOL, Justyna; DANZIGER, Guy; BECKER, André; HÖRSCH, Sabrina; MERTKE, Thilo; KAISER, Ralf; +101 more
    Publisher: Wiley
    Countries: France, Netherlands, France, France

    Abstract Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is a means to support patients with acute respiratory failure. Initially, recommendations to treat severe cases of pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) with ECLS have been restrained. In the meantime, ECLS has been shown to produce similar outcomes in patients with severe COVID‐19 compared to existing data on ARDS mortality. We performed an international email survey to assess how ECLS providers worldwide have previously used ECLS during the treatment of critically ill patients with COVID‐19. A questionnaire with 45 questions (covering, e.g., indication, technical aspects, benefit, and reasons for treatment discontinuation), mostly multiple choice, was distributed by email to ECLS centers. The survey was approved by the European branch of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO); 276 ECMO professionals from 98 centers in 30 different countries on four continents reported that they employed ECMO for very severe COVID‐19 cases, mostly in veno‐venous configuration (87%). The most common reason to establish ECLS was isolated hypoxemic respiratory failure (50%), followed by a combination of hypoxemia and hypercapnia (39%). Only a small fraction of patients required veno‐arterial cannulation due to heart failure (3%). Time on ECLS varied between less than 2 and more than 4 weeks. The main reason to discontinue ECLS treatment prior to patient’s recovery was lack of clinical improvement (53%), followed by major bleeding, mostly intracranially (13%). Only 4% of respondents reported that triage situations, lack of staff or lack of oxygenators, were responsible for discontinuation of ECLS support. Most ECLS physicians (51%, IQR 30%) agreed that patients with COVID‐19‐induced ARDS (CARDS) benefitted from ECLS. Overall mortality of COVID‐19 patients on ECLS was estimated to be about 55%. ECLS has been utilized successfully during the COVID‐19 pandemic to stabilize CARDS patients in hypoxemic or hypercapnic lung failure. Age and multimorbidity limited the use of ECLS. Triage situations were rarely a concern. ECLS providers stated that patients with severe COVID‐19 benefitted from ECLS. 276 ECMO professionals from 98 centers worldwide participated in this EuroELSO‐associated online survey investigating the use of ECMO for severe COVID‐19. Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) for severe COVID‐19 was used predominantly in veno‐venous configuration (87%) to treat isolated hypoxic respiratory failure (50%). Age and multimorbidity limited the use of ECLS. Overall mortality of COVID‐19 patients on ECLS was estimated to be about 55%.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    A. Wollenberg; Carsten Flohr; Dagmar Simon; Michael J. Cork; Jacob P. Thyssen; Thomas Bieber; M S de Bruin-Weller; S Weidinger; Mette Deleuran; Alain Taieb; +23 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, France, Netherlands

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex disease with elevated risk of respiratory comorbidities.1,2 Severely affected patients are often treated with immune-modulating systemic drugs.3,4 On March 11th 2020, the World Health Organization declared the 2019 novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-Cov-2) epidemic to be a pandemic. The number of cases worldwide is increasing exponentially and poses a major health threat, especially for those who are elderly, immuno-compromised, or have comorbidities. This also applies to AD patients on systemic immune-modulating treatment. In these days of uncertainty, reallocation of medical resources, curfew, hoarding, and shutdown of normal social life, patients, caregivers and doctors ask questions regarding the continuation of systemic immune-modulating treatment of AD patients. The ETFAD decided to address some of these questions here.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Valerian L Altersberger; Lotte J. Stolze; Mirjam Rachel Heldner; Hilde Hénon; Nicolas Martinez-Majander; Christian Hametner; Annika Nordanstig; Andrea Zini; Stefania Nannoni; Bruno Gonçalves; +28 more
    Publisher: Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
    Countries: Netherlands, France

    Background and Purpose: Timely reperfusion is an important goal in treatment of eligible patients with acute ischemic stroke. However, during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, prehospital and in-hospital emergency procedures faced unprecedented challenges, which might have caused a decline in the number of acute reperfusion therapy applied and led to a worsening of key quality measures for this treatment during lockdown. Methods: This prospective multicenter cohort study used data from the TRISP (Thrombolysis in Ischemic Stroke Patients) registry of patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with reperfusion therapies, that is, intravenous thrombolysis or endovascular therapy. We compared prehospital and in-hospital time-based performance measures (stroke-onset-to-admission, admission-to-treatment, admission-to-image, and image-to-treatment time) during the first 6 weeks after announcement of lockdown (lockdown period) with the same period in 2019 (reference period). Secondary outcomes included stroke severity (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale) after 24 hours and occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (following the ECASS [European-Australasian Acute Stroke Study]-II criteria). Results: Across 20 stroke centers, 540 patients were treated with intravenous thrombolysis/endovascular therapy during lockdown period compared with 578 patients during reference period (−7% [95% CI, 5%–9%]). Performance measures did not change significantly during the lockdown period (2020/2019 minutes median: onset-to-admission 133/145; admission-to-treatment 51/48). Same was true for admission-to-image (20/19) and image-to-treatment (31/30) time in patients with available time of first image (n=871, 77.9%). Median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale on admission (2020/2019: 11/11) and after 24 hours (2020/2019: 6/5) and percentage of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (2020/2019: 6.2/5.7) did not differ significantly between both periods. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic lockdown resulted in a mild decline in the number of patients with stroke treated with acute reperfusion therapies. More importantly, the solid stability of key quality performance measures between the 2020 and 2019 period may indicate resilience of acute stroke care service during the lockdown, at least in well-established European stroke centers. Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Parma, Valentina; Ohla, Kathrin; Veldhuizen, Maria G; Niv, Masha Y; Kelly, Christine E; Bakke, Alyssa J; Cooper, Keiland W; Bouysset, Cédric; Pirastu, Nicola; Dibattista, Michele; +141 more
    Countries: France, United Kingdom, United States, Spain, Germany, France, Belgium, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Turkey ...

    Correction: Chemical Senses, Volume 46, 2021, bjab050, https://doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjab050 Published: 08 December 2021 Recent anecdotal and scientific reports have provided evidence of a link between COVID-19 and chemosensory impairments, such as anosmia. However, these reports have downplayed or failed to distinguish potential effects on taste, ignored chemesthesis, and generally lacked quantitative measurements. Here, we report the development, implementation, and initial results of a multilingual, international questionnaire to assess self-reported quantity and quality of perception in 3 distinct chemosensory modalities (smell, taste, and chemesthesis) before and during COVID-19. In the first 11 days after questionnaire launch, 4039 participants (2913 women, 1118 men, and 8 others, aged 19-79) reported a COVID-19 diagnosis either via laboratory tests or clinical assessment. Importantly, smell, taste, and chemesthetic function were each significantly reduced compared to their status before the disease. Difference scores (maximum possible change +/- 100) revealed a mean reduction of smell (-79.7 +/- 28.7, mean +/- standard deviation), taste (-69.0 +/- 32.6), and chemesthetic (-37.3 +/- 36.2) function during COVID-19. Qualitative changes in olfactory ability (parosmia and phantosmia) were relatively rare and correlated with smell loss. Importantly, perceived nasal obstruction did not account for smell loss. Furthermore, chemosensory impairments were similar between participants in the laboratory test and clinical assessment groups. These results show that COVID-19-associated chemosensory impairment is not limited to smell but also affects taste and chemesthesis.The multimodal impact of COVID-19 and the lack of perceived nasal obstruction suggest that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus strain 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may disrupt sensory-neural mechanisms. Peer reviewed

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Marek Ostaszewski; Anna Niarakis; Alexander Mazein; Inna Kuperstein; Robert Phair; Aurelio Orta-Resendiz; Vidisha Singh; Sara Sadat Aghamiri; Marcio Luis Acencio; Enrico Glaab; +122 more
    Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
    Country: France

    AbstractWe describe a large-scale community effort to build an open-access, interoperable, and computable repository of COVID-19 molecular mechanisms - the COVID-19 Disease Map. We discuss the tools, platforms, and guidelines necessary for the distributed development of its contents by a multi-faceted community of biocurators, domain experts, bioinformaticians, and computational biologists. We highlight the role of relevant databases and text mining approaches in the enrichment and validation of the curated mechanisms. We describe the contents of the Map and their relevance to the molecular pathophysiology of COVID-19 and the analytical and computational modelling approaches that can be applied for mechanistic data interpretation and predictions. We conclude by demonstrating concrete applications of our work through several use cases and highlight new testable hypotheses.; We describe a large-scale community effort to build an open-access, interoperable, and computable repository of COVID-19 molecular mechanisms - the COVID-19 Disease Map. We discuss the tools, platforms, and guidelines necessary for the distributed development of its contents by a multi-faceted community of biocurators, domain experts, bioinformaticians, and computational biologists. We highlight the role of relevant databases and text mining approaches in the enrichment and validation of the curated mechanisms. We describe the contents of the Map and their relevance to the molecular pathophysiology of COVID-19 and the analytical and computational modelling approaches that can be applied for mechanistic data interpretation and predictions. We conclude by demonstrating concrete applications of our work through several use cases and highlight new testable hypotheses.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Behzad Iravani; Artin Arshamian; Aharon Ravia; Eva Mishor; Kobi Snitz; Sagit Shushan; Yehudah Roth; Ofer Perl; Danielle Honigstein; Reut Weissgross; +15 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Netherlands, France, Italy
    Project: EC | SocioSmell (670798)

    Abstract In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, countries have implemented various strategies to reduce and slow the spread of the disease in the general population. For countries that have implemented restrictions on its population in a stepwise manner, monitoring of COVID-19 prevalence is of importance to guide the decision on when to impose new, or when to abolish old, restrictions. We are here determining whether measures of odor intensity in a large sample can serve as one such measure. Online measures of how intense common household odors are perceived and symptoms of COVID-19 were collected from 2440 Swedes. Average odor intensity ratings were then compared to predicted COVID-19 population prevalence over time in the Swedish population and were found to closely track each other (r = −0.83). Moreover, we found that there was a large difference in rated intensity between individuals with and without COVID-19 symptoms and the number of symptoms was related to odor intensity ratings. Finally, we found that individuals progressing from reporting no symptoms to subsequently reporting COVID-19 symptoms demonstrated a large drop in olfactory performance. These data suggest that measures of odor intensity, if obtained in a large and representative sample, can be used as an indicator of COVID-19 disease in the general population. Importantly, this simple measure could easily be implemented in countries without widespread access to COVID-19 testing or implemented as a fast early response before widespread testing can be facilitated.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Elias Salem; Sara Hägglund; Hervé Cassard; Tifenn Corre; Katarina Näslund; Charlotte Foret; David Gauthier; Anne Pinard; Maxence Delverdier; Siamak Zohari; +3 more
    Publisher: American Society for Microbiology
    Country: France

    The recently discovered influenza D virus (IDV) of the Orthomyxoviridae family has been detected in swine and ruminants with a worldwide distribution. Cattle are considered to be the primary host and reservoir, and previous studies suggested a tropism of IDV for the upper respiratory tract and a putative role in the bovine respiratory disease complex. This study aimed to characterize the pathogenicity of IDV in naive calves as well as the ability of this virus to transmit by air. Eight naive calves were infected by aerosol with a recent French isolate, D/bovine/France/5920/2014. Results show that IDV replicates not only in the upper respiratory tract but also in the lower respiratory tract (LRT), inducing moderate bronchopneumonia with restricted lesions of interstitial pneumonia. Inoculation was followed by IDV-specific IgG1 production as early as 10 days postchallenge and likely both Th1 and Th2 responses. Study of the innate immune response in the LRT of IDV-infected calves indicated the overexpression of pathogen recognition receptors and of chemokines CCL2, CCL3, and CCL4, but without overexpression of genes involved in the type I interferon pathway. Finally, virological examination of three aerosol-sentinel animals, housed 3 m apart from inoculated calves (and thus subject to infection by aerosol transmission), and IDV detection in air samples collected in different areas showed that IDV can be airborne transmitted and infect naive contact calves on short distances. This study suggests that IDV is a respiratory virus with moderate pathogenicity and probably a high level of transmission. It consequently can be considered predisposing to or a cofactor of respiratory disease. IMPORTANCE Influenza D virus (IDV), a new genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family, has a broad geographical distribution and can infect several animal species. Cattle are so far considered the primary host for IDV, but the pathogenicity and the prevalence of this virus are still unclear. We demonstrated that under experimental conditions (in a controlled environment and in the absence of coinfecting pathogens), IDV is able to cause mild to moderate disease and targets both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. The virus can transmit by direct as well as aerosol contacts. While this study evidenced overexpression of pathogen recognition receptors and chemokines in the lower respiratory tract, IDV-specific IgG1 production as early as 10 days postchallenge, and likely both Th1 and Th2 responses, further studies are warranted to better understand the immune responses triggered by IDV and its role as part of the bovine respiratory disease complex.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gordon, David E.; Hiatt, Joseph; Bouhaddou, Mehdi; Rezelj, Veronica V.; Ulferts, Svenja; Braberg, Hannes; Jureka, Alexander S.; Obernier, Kirsten; Guo, Jeffrey Z.; Batra, Jyoti; +190 more
    Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science
    Countries: United Kingdom, Sweden, France
    Project: NIH | Uncovering differential f... (1F32CA239336-01), NIH | STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF... (5R01GM024485-12), NIH | Harnessing the RNA-Cleavi... (1F30AI143401-01A1), NIH | HPMI: Host Pathogen Mappi... (3U19AI135990-04S1), NIH | Structural Basis of Vesic... (2R01NS089713-05), NIH | Cytoscape: A Modeling Pla... (3R01HG009979-17S2), NIH | Molecular mechanisms of t... (1F32GM137463-01), UKRI | Elucidating the role of S... (BB/S009566/1), NIH | MEDICAL SCIENTIIST TRAINI... (5T32GM007618-27), NIH | Novel VP30-host Interacti... (5R01AI143292-02),...

    INTRODUCTION The emergence of three lethal coronaviruses in <20 years and the urgency of the COVID-19 pandemic have prompted efforts to develop new therapeutic strategies, including by repurposing existing agents. After performing a comparative analysis of the three pathogenic human coronaviruses severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1), SARS-CoV-2, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), we identified shared biology and host-directed drug targets to prioritize therapeutics with potential for rapid deployment against current and future coronavirus outbreaks. RATIONALE Expanding on our recent SARS-CoV-2 interactome, we mapped the virus-host protein-protein interactions for SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV and assessed the cellular localization of each viral protein across the three strains. We conducted two genetic screens of SARS-CoV-2 interactors to prioritize functionally-relevant host factors and structurally characterized one virus-host interaction. We then tested the clinical relevance of three more host factors by assessing risk in genetic cohorts or observing effectiveness of host factor–targeting drugs in real-world evidence. RESULTS Quantitative comparison of the 389 interactors of SARS-CoV-2, 366 of SARS-CoV-1, and 296 of MERS-CoV highlighted interactions with host processes that are conserved across all three viruses, including where nonorthologous proteins from different virus strains seem to fill similar roles. We also localized each individually-expressed viral protein by microscopy and then raised and validated antisera against 14 SARS-CoV-2 proteins to determine their localization during infection. On the basis of two independent genetic perturbation screens, we identified 73 host factors that, when depleted, caused significant changes in SARS-CoV-2 replication. From this list of potential drug targets, we validated the biological and clinical relevance of Tom70, IL17RA, PGES-2, and SigmaR1. A 3-Å cryo–electron microscopy structure of Tom70, a mitochondrial import receptor, in complex with SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b, provides insight into how ORF9b may modulate the host immune response. Using curated genome-wide association study data, we found that individuals with genotypes corresponding to higher soluble IL17RA levels in plasma are at decreased risk of COVID-19 hospitalization. To demonstrate the value of our data for drug repurposing, we identified SARS-CoV-2 patients who were prescribed drugs against prioritized targets and asked how they fared compared with carefully matched patients treated with clinically similar drugs that do not inhibit SARS-CoV-2. Both indomethacin, an inhibitor of host factor PGES-2, and typical antipsychotics, selected for their interaction with sigma receptors, showed effectiveness against COVID-19 compared with celecoxib and atypical antipsychotics, respectively. CONCLUSION By employing an integrative and collaborative approach, we identified conserved mechanisms across three pathogenic coronavirus strains and further investigated potential drug targets. This versatile approach is broadly applicable to other infectious agents and disease areas. Overview of the approaches taken for systemic and functional comparison of pathogenic human coronaviruses. (Left) Viral-human protein-protein interaction network mapping, viral protein localization studies, and functional genetic screens provide key insights into the shared and individual characteristics of each virus. (Right) Structural studies and hypothesis testing in clinical datasets demonstrate the utility of this approach for prioritizing therapeutic strategies. Nsp, nonstructural protein; ORF, open reading frame; ER, endoplasmic reticulum. The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a grave threat to public health and the global economy. SARS-CoV-2 is closely related to the more lethal but less transmissible coronaviruses SARS-CoV-1 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Here, we have carried out comparative viral-human protein-protein interaction and viral protein localization analyses for all three viruses. Subsequent functional genetic screening identified host factors that functionally impinge on coronavirus proliferation, including Tom70, a mitochondrial chaperone protein that interacts with both SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b, an interaction we structurally characterized using cryo–electron microscopy. Combining genetically validated host factors with both COVID-19 patient genetic data and medical billing records identified molecular mechanisms and potential drug treatments that merit further molecular and clinical study. How lethal coronaviruses engage hosts Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is closely related to the deadly coronaviruses SARS-CoV-1 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Considerable efforts are focused on developing treatments, and therapies that work across coronaviruses would be particularly valuable. Shedding light on the host factors hijacked by the viruses, Gordon et al. mapped the interactions between viral and human proteins for SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, and MERS-CoV; analyzed the localization of viral proteins in human cells; and used genetic screening to identify host factors that either enhance or inhibit viral infection. For a subset of the interactions essential for the virus life cycle, the authors determined the cryo–electron microscopy structures and mined patient data to understand how targeting host factors may be relevant to clinical outcomes. Science, this issue p. eabe9403 Comparison of host interactions of three lethal coronaviruses identifies commonly hijacked pathways and potential drug targets.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pascal Barbry; Christoph Muus; Malte D Luecken; Gökcen Eraslan; Avinash Waghray; Graham Heimberg; Lisa Sikkema; Yoshihiko Kobayashi; Eeshit Dhaval Vaishnav; Ayshwarya Subramanian; +93 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    ABSTRACTThe COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, creates an urgent need for identifying molecular mechanisms that mediate viral entry, propagation, and tissue pathology. Cell membrane bound angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and associated proteases, transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and Cathepsin L (CTSL), were previously identified as mediators of SARS-CoV2 cellular entry. Here, we assess the cell type-specific RNA expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2, and CTSL through an integrated analysis of 107 single-cell and single-nucleus RNA-Seq studies, including 22 lung and airways datasets (16 unpublished), and 85 datasets from other diverse organs. Joint expression of ACE2 and the accessory proteases identifies specific subsets of respiratory epithelial cells as putative targets of viral infection in the nasal passages, airways, and alveoli. Cells that co-express ACE2 and proteases are also identified in cells from other organs, some of which have been associated with COVID-19 transmission or pathology, including gut enterocytes, corneal epithelial cells, cardiomyocytes, heart pericytes, olfactory sustentacular cells, and renal epithelial cells. Performing the first meta-analyses of scRNA-seq studies, we analyzed 1,176,683 cells from 282 nasal, airway, and lung parenchyma samples from 164 donors spanning fetal, childhood, adult, and elderly age groups, associate increased levels of ACE2, TMPRSS2, and CTSL in specific cell types with increasing age, male gender, and smoking, all of which are epidemiologically linked to COVID-19 susceptibility and outcomes. Notably, there was a particularly low expression of ACE2 in the few young pediatric samples in the analysis. Further analysis reveals a gene expression program shared by ACE2+TMPRSS2+ cells in nasal, lung and gut tissues, including genes that may mediate viral entry, subtend key immune functions, and mediate epithelial-macrophage cross-talk. Amongst these are IL6, its receptor and co-receptor, IL1R, TNF response pathways, and complement genes. Cell type specificity in the lung and airways and smoking effects were conserved in mice. Our analyses suggest that differences in the cell type-specific expression of mediators of SARS-CoV-2 viral entry may be responsible for aspects of COVID-19 epidemiology and clinical course, and point to putative molecular pathways involved in disease susceptibility and pathogenesis.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nacira Laamiri; Pia Fällgren; Siamak Zohari; Jaouher Ben Ali; Abdeljelil Ghram; Mikael Leijon; Issam Hmila;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    ABSTRACT A novel oligonucleotide suspension microarray (Luminex microsphere system) was developed for the rapid detection of avian respiratory viruses of major clinical importance. This test was optimized and validated with 70 clinical samples. The developed tool was accurate for high-throughput detection and differentiation of the most important avian respiratory viruses: avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infection bronchitis virus (IBV), and infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) in single- and mixed-virus infections. A multiplex reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), followed by a monoplex or a multiplex Luminex assays, were realized using a Luminex 200 analyzer instrument. The sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the multiplex DNA suspension microarray system were evaluated. The results showed no significant differences in the median fluorescence intensity (MFI) value in monoplex and multiplex Luminex assays. The sensitivity and specificity proved to be completely concordant with monoplex real-time RT-PCR. We demonstrated that the multiplex DNA suspension microarray system is an accurate, high-throughput, and relatively simple method for the rapid detection of the main respiratory viruses of poultry.

Advanced search in Research products
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The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
74 Research products, page 1 of 8
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    MANG, Sebastian; KALENKA, Armin; BROMAN, Lars Mikael; SUPADY, Alexander; SWOL, Justyna; DANZIGER, Guy; BECKER, André; HÖRSCH, Sabrina; MERTKE, Thilo; KAISER, Ralf; +101 more
    Publisher: Wiley
    Countries: France, Netherlands, France, France

    Abstract Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is a means to support patients with acute respiratory failure. Initially, recommendations to treat severe cases of pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) with ECLS have been restrained. In the meantime, ECLS has been shown to produce similar outcomes in patients with severe COVID‐19 compared to existing data on ARDS mortality. We performed an international email survey to assess how ECLS providers worldwide have previously used ECLS during the treatment of critically ill patients with COVID‐19. A questionnaire with 45 questions (covering, e.g., indication, technical aspects, benefit, and reasons for treatment discontinuation), mostly multiple choice, was distributed by email to ECLS centers. The survey was approved by the European branch of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO); 276 ECMO professionals from 98 centers in 30 different countries on four continents reported that they employed ECMO for very severe COVID‐19 cases, mostly in veno‐venous configuration (87%). The most common reason to establish ECLS was isolated hypoxemic respiratory failure (50%), followed by a combination of hypoxemia and hypercapnia (39%). Only a small fraction of patients required veno‐arterial cannulation due to heart failure (3%). Time on ECLS varied between less than 2 and more than 4 weeks. The main reason to discontinue ECLS treatment prior to patient’s recovery was lack of clinical improvement (53%), followed by major bleeding, mostly intracranially (13%). Only 4% of respondents reported that triage situations, lack of staff or lack of oxygenators, were responsible for discontinuation of ECLS support. Most ECLS physicians (51%, IQR 30%) agreed that patients with COVID‐19‐induced ARDS (CARDS) benefitted from ECLS. Overall mortality of COVID‐19 patients on ECLS was estimated to be about 55%. ECLS has been utilized successfully during the COVID‐19 pandemic to stabilize CARDS patients in hypoxemic or hypercapnic lung failure. Age and multimorbidity limited the use of ECLS. Triage situations were rarely a concern. ECLS providers stated that patients with severe COVID‐19 benefitted from ECLS. 276 ECMO professionals from 98 centers worldwide participated in this EuroELSO‐associated online survey investigating the use of ECMO for severe COVID‐19. Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) for severe COVID‐19 was used predominantly in veno‐venous configuration (87%) to treat isolated hypoxic respiratory failure (50%). Age and multimorbidity limited the use of ECLS. Overall mortality of COVID‐19 patients on ECLS was estimated to be about 55%.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    A. Wollenberg; Carsten Flohr; Dagmar Simon; Michael J. Cork; Jacob P. Thyssen; Thomas Bieber; M S de Bruin-Weller; S Weidinger; Mette Deleuran; Alain Taieb; +23 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, France, Netherlands

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex disease with elevated risk of respiratory comorbidities.1,2 Severely affected patients are often treated with immune-modulating systemic drugs.3,4 On March 11th 2020, the World Health Organization declared the 2019 novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-Cov-2) epidemic to be a pandemic. The number of cases worldwide is increasing exponentially and poses a major health threat, especially for those who are elderly, immuno-compromised, or have comorbidities. This also applies to AD patients on systemic immune-modulating treatment. In these days of uncertainty, reallocation of medical resources, curfew, hoarding, and shutdown of normal social life, patients, caregivers and doctors ask questions regarding the continuation of systemic immune-modulating treatment of AD patients. The ETFAD decided to address some of these questions here.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Valerian L Altersberger; Lotte J. Stolze; Mirjam Rachel Heldner; Hilde Hénon; Nicolas Martinez-Majander; Christian Hametner; Annika Nordanstig; Andrea Zini; Stefania Nannoni; Bruno Gonçalves; +28 more
    Publisher: Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
    Countries: Netherlands, France

    Background and Purpose: Timely reperfusion is an important goal in treatment of eligible patients with acute ischemic stroke. However, during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, prehospital and in-hospital emergency procedures faced unprecedented challenges, which might have caused a decline in the number of acute reperfusion therapy applied and led to a worsening of key quality measures for this treatment during lockdown. Methods: This prospective multicenter cohort study used data from the TRISP (Thrombolysis in Ischemic Stroke Patients) registry of patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with reperfusion therapies, that is, intravenous thrombolysis or endovascular therapy. We compared prehospital and in-hospital time-based performance measures (stroke-onset-to-admission, admission-to-treatment, admission-to-image, and image-to-treatment time) during the first 6 weeks after announcement of lockdown (lockdown period) with the same period in 2019 (reference period). Secondary outcomes included stroke severity (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale) after 24 hours and occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (following the ECASS [European-Australasian Acute Stroke Study]-II criteria). Results: Across 20 stroke centers, 540 patients were treated with intravenous thrombolysis/endovascular therapy during lockdown period compared with 578 patients during reference period (−7% [95% CI, 5%–9%]). Performance measures did not change significantly during the lockdown period (2020/2019 minutes median: onset-to-admission 133/145; admission-to-treatment 51/48). Same was true for admission-to-image (20/19) and image-to-treatment (31/30) time in patients with available time of first image (n=871, 77.9%). Median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale on admission (2020/2019: 11/11) and after 24 hours (2020/2019: 6/5) and percentage of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (2020/2019: 6.2/5.7) did not differ significantly between both periods. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic lockdown resulted in a mild decline in the number of patients with stroke treated with acute reperfusion therapies. More importantly, the solid stability of key quality performance measures between the 2020 and 2019 period may indicate resilience of acute stroke care service during the lockdown, at least in well-established European stroke centers. Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Parma, Valentina; Ohla, Kathrin; Veldhuizen, Maria G; Niv, Masha Y; Kelly, Christine E; Bakke, Alyssa J; Cooper, Keiland W; Bouysset, Cédric; Pirastu, Nicola; Dibattista, Michele; +141 more
    Countries: France, United Kingdom, United States, Spain, Germany, France, Belgium, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Turkey ...

    Correction: Chemical Senses, Volume 46, 2021, bjab050, https://doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjab050 Published: 08 December 2021 Recent anecdotal and scientific reports have provided evidence of a link between COVID-19 and chemosensory impairments, such as anosmia. However, these reports have downplayed or failed to distinguish potential effects on taste, ignored chemesthesis, and generally lacked quantitative measurements. Here, we report the development, implementation, and initial results of a multilingual, international questionnaire to assess self-reported quantity and quality of perception in 3 distinct chemosensory modalities (smell, taste, and chemesthesis) before and during COVID-19. In the first 11 days after questionnaire launch, 4039 participants (2913 women, 1118 men, and 8 others, aged 19-79) reported a COVID-19 diagnosis either via laboratory tests or clinical assessment. Importantly, smell, taste, and chemesthetic function were each significantly reduced compared to their status before the disease. Difference scores (maximum possible change +/- 100) revealed a mean reduction of smell (-79.7 +/- 28.7, mean +/- standard deviation), taste (-69.0 +/- 32.6), and chemesthetic (-37.3 +/- 36.2) function during COVID-19. Qualitative changes in olfactory ability (parosmia and phantosmia) were relatively rare and correlated with smell loss. Importantly, perceived nasal obstruction did not account for smell loss. Furthermore, chemosensory impairments were similar between participants in the laboratory test and clinical assessment groups. These results show that COVID-19-associated chemosensory impairment is not limited to smell but also affects taste and chemesthesis.The multimodal impact of COVID-19 and the lack of perceived nasal obstruction suggest that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus strain 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may disrupt sensory-neural mechanisms. Peer reviewed

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Marek Ostaszewski; Anna Niarakis; Alexander Mazein; Inna Kuperstein; Robert Phair; Aurelio Orta-Resendiz; Vidisha Singh; Sara Sadat Aghamiri; Marcio Luis Acencio; Enrico Glaab; +122 more
    Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
    Country: France

    AbstractWe describe a large-scale community effort to build an open-access, interoperable, and computable repository of COVID-19 molecular mechanisms - the COVID-19 Disease Map. We discuss the tools, platforms, and guidelines necessary for the distributed development of its contents by a multi-faceted community of biocurators, domain experts, bioinformaticians, and computational biologists. We highlight the role of relevant databases and text mining approaches in the enrichment and validation of the curated mechanisms. We describe the contents of the Map and their relevance to the molecular pathophysiology of COVID-19 and the analytical and computational modelling approaches that can be applied for mechanistic data interpretation and predictions. We conclude by demonstrating concrete applications of our work through several use cases and highlight new testable hypotheses.; We describe a large-scale community effort to build an open-access, interoperable, and computable repository of COVID-19 molecular mechanisms - the COVID-19 Disease Map. We discuss the tools, platforms, and guidelines necessary for the distributed development of its contents by a multi-faceted community of biocurators, domain experts, bioinformaticians, and computational biologists. We highlight the role of relevant databases and text mining approaches in the enrichment and validation of the curated mechanisms. We describe the contents of the Map and their relevance to the molecular pathophysiology of COVID-19 and the analytical and computational modelling approaches that can be applied for mechanistic data interpretation and predictions. We conclude by demonstrating concrete applications of our work through several use cases and highlight new testable hypotheses.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Behzad Iravani; Artin Arshamian; Aharon Ravia; Eva Mishor; Kobi Snitz; Sagit Shushan; Yehudah Roth; Ofer Perl; Danielle Honigstein; Reut Weissgross; +15 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Netherlands, France, Italy
    Project: EC | SocioSmell (670798)

    Abstract In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, countries have implemented various strategies to reduce and slow the spread of the disease in the general population. For countries that have implemented restrictions on its population in a stepwise manner, monitoring of COVID-19 prevalence is of importance to guide the decision on when to impose new, or when to abolish old, restrictions. We are here determining whether measures of odor intensity in a large sample can serve as one such measure. Online measures of how intense common household odors are perceived and symptoms of COVID-19 were collected from 2440 Swedes. Average odor intensity ratings were then compared to predicted COVID-19 population prevalence over time in the Swedish population and were found to closely track each other (r = −0.83). Moreover, we found that there was a large difference in rated intensity between individuals with and without COVID-19 symptoms and the number of symptoms was related to odor intensity ratings. Finally, we found that individuals progressing from reporting no symptoms to subsequently reporting COVID-19 symptoms demonstrated a large drop in olfactory performance. These data suggest that measures of odor intensity, if obtained in a large and representative sample, can be used as an indicator of COVID-19 disease in the general population. Importantly, this simple measure could easily be implemented in countries without widespread access to COVID-19 testing or implemented as a fast early response before widespread testing can be facilitated.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Elias Salem; Sara Hägglund; Hervé Cassard; Tifenn Corre; Katarina Näslund; Charlotte Foret; David Gauthier; Anne Pinard; Maxence Delverdier; Siamak Zohari; +3 more
    Publisher: American Society for Microbiology
    Country: France

    The recently discovered influenza D virus (IDV) of the Orthomyxoviridae family has been detected in swine and ruminants with a worldwide distribution. Cattle are considered to be the primary host and reservoir, and previous studies suggested a tropism of IDV for the upper respiratory tract and a putative role in the bovine respiratory disease complex. This study aimed to characterize the pathogenicity of IDV in naive calves as well as the ability of this virus to transmit by air. Eight naive calves were infected by aerosol with a recent French isolate, D/bovine/France/5920/2014. Results show that IDV replicates not only in the upper respiratory tract but also in the lower respiratory tract (LRT), inducing moderate bronchopneumonia with restricted lesions of interstitial pneumonia. Inoculation was followed by IDV-specific IgG1 production as early as 10 days postchallenge and likely both Th1 and Th2 responses. Study of the innate immune response in the LRT of IDV-infected calves indicated the overexpression of pathogen recognition receptors and of chemokines CCL2, CCL3, and CCL4, but without overexpression of genes involved in the type I interferon pathway. Finally, virological examination of three aerosol-sentinel animals, housed 3 m apart from inoculated calves (and thus subject to infection by aerosol transmission), and IDV detection in air samples collected in different areas showed that IDV can be airborne transmitted and infect naive contact calves on short distances. This study suggests that IDV is a respiratory virus with moderate pathogenicity and probably a high level of transmission. It consequently can be considered predisposing to or a cofactor of respiratory disease. IMPORTANCE Influenza D virus (IDV), a new genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family, has a broad geographical distribution and can infect several animal species. Cattle are so far considered the primary host for IDV, but the pathogenicity and the prevalence of this virus are still unclear. We demonstrated that under experimental conditions (in a controlled environment and in the absence of coinfecting pathogens), IDV is able to cause mild to moderate disease and targets both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. The virus can transmit by direct as well as aerosol contacts. While this study evidenced overexpression of pathogen recognition receptors and chemokines in the lower respiratory tract, IDV-specific IgG1 production as early as 10 days postchallenge, and likely both Th1 and Th2 responses, further studies are warranted to better understand the immune responses triggered by IDV and its role as part of the bovine respiratory disease complex.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gordon, David E.; Hiatt, Joseph; Bouhaddou, Mehdi; Rezelj, Veronica V.; Ulferts, Svenja; Braberg, Hannes; Jureka, Alexander S.; Obernier, Kirsten; Guo, Jeffrey Z.; Batra, Jyoti; +190 more
    Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science
    Countries: United Kingdom, Sweden, France
    Project: NIH | Uncovering differential f... (1F32CA239336-01), NIH | STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF... (5R01GM024485-12), NIH | Harnessing the RNA-Cleavi... (1F30AI143401-01A1), NIH | HPMI: Host Pathogen Mappi... (3U19AI135990-04S1), NIH | Structural Basis of Vesic... (2R01NS089713-05), NIH | Cytoscape: A Modeling Pla... (3R01HG009979-17S2), NIH | Molecular mechanisms of t... (1F32GM137463-01), UKRI | Elucidating the role of S... (BB/S009566/1), NIH | MEDICAL SCIENTIIST TRAINI... (5T32GM007618-27), NIH | Novel VP30-host Interacti... (5R01AI143292-02),...

    INTRODUCTION The emergence of three lethal coronaviruses in <20 years and the urgency of the COVID-19 pandemic have prompted efforts to develop new therapeutic strategies, including by repurposing existing agents. After performing a comparative analysis of the three pathogenic human coronaviruses severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1), SARS-CoV-2, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), we identified shared biology and host-directed drug targets to prioritize therapeutics with potential for rapid deployment against current and future coronavirus outbreaks. RATIONALE Expanding on our recent SARS-CoV-2 interactome, we mapped the virus-host protein-protein interactions for SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV and assessed the cellular localization of each viral protein across the three strains. We conducted two genetic screens of SARS-CoV-2 interactors to prioritize functionally-relevant host factors and structurally characterized one virus-host interaction. We then tested the clinical relevance of three more host factors by assessing risk in genetic cohorts or observing effectiveness of host factor–targeting drugs in real-world evidence. RESULTS Quantitative comparison of the 389 interactors of SARS-CoV-2, 366 of SARS-CoV-1, and 296 of MERS-CoV highlighted interactions with host processes that are conserved across all three viruses, including where nonorthologous proteins from different virus strains seem to fill similar roles. We also localized each individually-expressed viral protein by microscopy and then raised and validated antisera against 14 SARS-CoV-2 proteins to determine their localization during infection. On the basis of two independent genetic perturbation screens, we identified 73 host factors that, when depleted, caused significant changes in SARS-CoV-2 replication. From this list of potential drug targets, we validated the biological and clinical relevance of Tom70, IL17RA, PGES-2, and SigmaR1. A 3-Å cryo–electron microscopy structure of Tom70, a mitochondrial import receptor, in complex with SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b, provides insight into how ORF9b may modulate the host immune response. Using curated genome-wide association study data, we found that individuals with genotypes corresponding to higher soluble IL17RA levels in plasma are at decreased risk of COVID-19 hospitalization. To demonstrate the value of our data for drug repurposing, we identified SARS-CoV-2 patients who were prescribed drugs against prioritized targets and asked how they fared compared with carefully matched patients treated with clinically similar drugs that do not inhibit SARS-CoV-2. Both indomethacin, an inhibitor of host factor PGES-2, and typical antipsychotics, selected for their interaction with sigma receptors, showed effectiveness against COVID-19 compared with celecoxib and atypical antipsychotics, respectively. CONCLUSION By employing an integrative and collaborative approach, we identified conserved mechanisms across three pathogenic coronavirus strains and further investigated potential drug targets. This versatile approach is broadly applicable to other infectious agents and disease areas. Overview of the approaches taken for systemic and functional comparison of pathogenic human coronaviruses. (Left) Viral-human protein-protein interaction network mapping, viral protein localization studies, and functional genetic screens provide key insights into the shared and individual characteristics of each virus. (Right) Structural studies and hypothesis testing in clinical datasets demonstrate the utility of this approach for prioritizing therapeutic strategies. Nsp, nonstructural protein; ORF, open reading frame; ER, endoplasmic reticulum. The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a grave threat to public health and the global economy. SARS-CoV-2 is closely related to the more lethal but less transmissible coronaviruses SARS-CoV-1 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Here, we have carried out comparative viral-human protein-protein interaction and viral protein localization analyses for all three viruses. Subsequent functional genetic screening identified host factors that functionally impinge on coronavirus proliferation, including Tom70, a mitochondrial chaperone protein that interacts with both SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b, an interaction we structurally characterized using cryo–electron microscopy. Combining genetically validated host factors with both COVID-19 patient genetic data and medical billing records identified molecular mechanisms and potential drug treatments that merit further molecular and clinical study. How lethal coronaviruses engage hosts Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is closely related to the deadly coronaviruses SARS-CoV-1 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Considerable efforts are focused on developing treatments, and therapies that work across coronaviruses would be particularly valuable. Shedding light on the host factors hijacked by the viruses, Gordon et al. mapped the interactions between viral and human proteins for SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, and MERS-CoV; analyzed the localization of viral proteins in human cells; and used genetic screening to identify host factors that either enhance or inhibit viral infection. For a subset of the interactions essential for the virus life cycle, the authors determined the cryo–electron microscopy structures and mined patient data to understand how targeting host factors may be relevant to clinical outcomes. Science, this issue p. eabe9403 Comparison of host interactions of three lethal coronaviruses identifies commonly hijacked pathways and potential drug targets.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pascal Barbry; Christoph Muus; Malte D Luecken; Gökcen Eraslan; Avinash Waghray; Graham Heimberg; Lisa Sikkema; Yoshihiko Kobayashi; Eeshit Dhaval Vaishnav; Ayshwarya Subramanian; +93 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    ABSTRACTThe COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, creates an urgent need for identifying molecular mechanisms that mediate viral entry, propagation, and tissue pathology. Cell membrane bound angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and associated proteases, transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and Cathepsin L (CTSL), were previously identified as mediators of SARS-CoV2 cellular entry. Here, we assess the cell type-specific RNA expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2, and CTSL through an integrated analysis of 107 single-cell and single-nucleus RNA-Seq studies, including 22 lung and airways datasets (16 unpublished), and 85 datasets from other diverse organs. Joint expression of ACE2 and the accessory proteases identifies specific subsets of respiratory epithelial cells as putative targets of viral infection in the nasal passages, airways, and alveoli. Cells that co-express ACE2 and proteases are also identified in cells from other organs, some of which have been associated with COVID-19 transmission or pathology, including gut enterocytes, corneal epithelial cells, cardiomyocytes, heart pericytes, olfactory sustentacular cells, and renal epithelial cells. Performing the first meta-analyses of scRNA-seq studies, we analyzed 1,176,683 cells from 282 nasal, airway, and lung parenchyma samples from 164 donors spanning fetal, childhood, adult, and elderly age groups, associate increased levels of ACE2, TMPRSS2, and CTSL in specific cell types with increasing age, male gender, and smoking, all of which are epidemiologically linked to COVID-19 susceptibility and outcomes. Notably, there was a particularly low expression of ACE2 in the few young pediatric samples in the analysis. Further analysis reveals a gene expression program shared by ACE2+TMPRSS2+ cells in nasal, lung and gut tissues, including genes that may mediate viral entry, subtend key immune functions, and mediate epithelial-macrophage cross-talk. Amongst these are IL6, its receptor and co-receptor, IL1R, TNF response pathways, and complement genes. Cell type specificity in the lung and airways and smoking effects were conserved in mice. Our analyses suggest that differences in the cell type-specific expression of mediators of SARS-CoV-2 viral entry may be responsible for aspects of COVID-19 epidemiology and clinical course, and point to putative molecular pathways involved in disease susceptibility and pathogenesis.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nacira Laamiri; Pia Fällgren; Siamak Zohari; Jaouher Ben Ali; Abdeljelil Ghram; Mikael Leijon; Issam Hmila;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    ABSTRACT A novel oligonucleotide suspension microarray (Luminex microsphere system) was developed for the rapid detection of avian respiratory viruses of major clinical importance. This test was optimized and validated with 70 clinical samples. The developed tool was accurate for high-throughput detection and differentiation of the most important avian respiratory viruses: avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infection bronchitis virus (IBV), and infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) in single- and mixed-virus infections. A multiplex reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), followed by a monoplex or a multiplex Luminex assays, were realized using a Luminex 200 analyzer instrument. The sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the multiplex DNA suspension microarray system were evaluated. The results showed no significant differences in the median fluorescence intensity (MFI) value in monoplex and multiplex Luminex assays. The sensitivity and specificity proved to be completely concordant with monoplex real-time RT-PCR. We demonstrated that the multiplex DNA suspension microarray system is an accurate, high-throughput, and relatively simple method for the rapid detection of the main respiratory viruses of poultry.