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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    M Senarathna; Rohan Jayaratne; Lidia Morawska; Y Guo; D Bui; Sachith Abeysundara; Rohan Weerasooriya; Gayan Bowatte;
    Publisher: Avestia Publishing

    The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the complete lockdown of many cities worldwide. Lockdowns have significantly changed human behaviour, such as fewer or no industrial activities and limited road and air transport, affecting the environment. In this study, we aimed to assess the variability and trends of PM2.5 (mass concentration of airborne particulate matter < 2.5µm) and carbon monoxide (CO) before and during the COVID-19 lockdown period in Sri Lanka. Data were collected in “Urban Background”, “Public & Mixed Residential”, and “Primary Residential” areas using small sensor technology, "KOALA" air quality sensor units, from five locations, three in Kandy, and two in Colombo city. Daily averages (24h) and daytime averages (08:00 AM to 8:00 PM) were calculated for the period before (before March 20th) and during (March 20th to May 10th) the lockdown. Air pollutions level before & during COVID-19 lockdown were compared, then Mann-Kendall and Sen's slope tests were performed to determine trends of PM2.5 and CO, and the magnitude of the trend. Meteorological parameters were fairly similar before and during both cities' lockdown periods, while both PM2.5 and CO concentrations declined. The highest average reductions of PM2.5 and CO were observed in Colombo's “Urban Background” area (52.4% and 46.7%, respectively). In Kandy, “Urban Background” site had a higher reduction of PM2.5 and CO (30.2% and 41.2%, respectively), compared to “Primary Residential” (10% and 9%, respectively). The daily averages of the pollutants' concentrations were higher before the lockdown period compared to during. Overall, a significant downward trend was observed of air pollutants over the entire study period. In Sri Lanka, the COVID-19 lockdown improved air quality significantly in urban areas.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Milena Botlíková; Josef Botlík; Jana Stuchlíková;
    Publisher: EDP Sciences

    Research background: With the onset of the Covid-19 pandemic, there has been a complete collapse in demand in global markets due to restrictions on movement and market paralysis. Among the sectors most significantly affected is tourism, which is predominantly dependent on the movement of clients. The performance of the tourism industry fell to a minimum during the pandemic. Restaurants and accommodation facilities were closed almost overnight by government intervention. The restriction of free movement has also forced airlines to curb their activities. These companies can be considered as an important globalization element, enabling travel to distant destinations. Purpose of the article: The article deals with the effects of the pandemic on European Union airlines, as well as the tools adopted to restore air traffic. Based on the analysis, the development of transport flows in air transport before and during the pandemic was evaluated. Furthermore, tools and measures taken to stimulate air services were analyzed and models of possible impacts on the EU aviation industry and selected economic factors were predicted. Methods: Basic mathematical and statistical methods, correlation analysis, comparisons and predictions were used for the analysis. Findings & Value added: The situation brings problems associated with redundancies, i.e. rising unemployment, declining GDP, falling stock markets or airline bankruptcies as in the case of the British Flybe. Based on 2019 data, it can be estimated that in the period March-June 2020, the demand for EU27 passenger air transport decreased by approximately 100 million passengers.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jianhe Du; Hesham A. Rakha; Fethi Filali; Hoda Eldardiry;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract A dramatic reduction in traffic demand has been observed during the COVID-19 pandemic, producing noticeable declines in traffic delays, energy consumption, and emissions. This unprecedented event provides us with the chance to investigate how limiting the number of vehicles on the transportation network can contribute to a better environment. This paper quantifies the effects of reduced traffic demand on vehicle delays, fuel consumption, and emission levels. Microscopic simulation was used to model traffic for seven different networks. Our results show that decreased traffic demand contributes significantly to reducing delays and emissions, especially in congested urban areas. The results also show that another important contributing factor is the network configuration. Specifically, networks with lower connectivity and fewer routing alternatives or networks with lower roadway density are more sensitive to traffic demand drops in terms of reducing vehicle delays and emissions.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Akhtar, Nausheen; Kuriakose, Paulose N.;

    Smart Sustainable city is an emerging concept of a complex long-term vision to overcome the problems arising in the cities with the help of new technologies. Some of such problems in the transport sector include congestion, carbon emissions, and inadequate public transit service supply. One probable solution to these can be through optimum utilization of disruptive mobility, which has hit this sector like a storm. This chapter presents the scenario of App-Based Shared Mobility (ABSM) services in the city of Bengaluru and the consequent impact it is creating on the urban travel trends, travel behavior, and car ownership. These services generate city-level data, which can be utilized to judge various aspects of city-wide traffic to improve the overall mobility. Moreover, the change in consumer desire from ownership to the accessibility of goods and services has penetrated the transport sector in the form of Transport Network Companies (TNCs), which has great potential to impact the public transit ridership as well as private vehicle ownership which is further explored in the chapter.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lucy C.S. Budd; Stephen Ison; Nena Adrienne;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Country: United Kingdom

    The COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting travel restrictions and fall in consumer demand led to a dramatic and unprecedented reduction in passenger flights across Europe. As borders closed, national Governments advised against all but essential travel and passenger demand disappeared, European airlines were forced to quickly respond to the downturn and impose unprecedented cost saving measures to protect their business. The aim of this paper is to examine the ways in which major European passenger airlines responded to the height of the COVID-19 crisis in the period March – May 2020. Using data from Eurocontrol, the European network manager, the paper identifies the responses individual airline operators and parent companies took to contract and consolidate their operations. The findings show that changes to flight operations, rationalising the fleet, reducing staff numbers, and reconfiguring their networks and capacity were the most common responses. The paper concludes by discussing future considerations for airline business and management as European carriers seek to restructure their operations and adapt to a new post-COVID reality. Highlights • The COVID pandemic has had an unprecedented impact on airlines worldwide. • COVID has challenged conventional airline business strategy and disruption management techniques. • The ways in which 40 European airlines responded to the COVID-19 pandemic is examined. • Findings reveal that contraction and consolidation were key short-term responses. • Implications for post-COVID airline business and management are considered.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yi Qi; Jinli Liu; Tao Tao; Qun Zhao;

    In this paper, a national-wide study is conducted to investigate the impacts of COVID-19 on the public transit ridership in the top twenty metropolitan areas in the U.S. At first, COVID-19 composite index was developed to qualitatively measure the level of public fear toward COVID-19 in different metropolitan areas. After that, to analyze the impact of COVID-19 and some socioeconomic factors on transit ridership reduction during the COVID-19 pandemic, a random-effects panel data model was developed and the traditional correlation analysis was also conducted. According to the results of both analyses, it was found that the areas with higher median household income, a higher percentage of the population with a Bachelor’s degree or higher, higher employment rate, and a higher percentage of the Asian population are more likely to have more reductions in public transit ridership during the COVID-19 pandemic. On the other side, the areas with a higher percentage of the population in poverty, and a higher percentage of the Hispanic population are more likely to experience smaller reductions in public transit ridership.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ji-Hye Lee; Segun Goh; Jong Won Kim; Keumsook Lee; M. Y. Choi;
    Publisher: The Korean Physical Society

    During May and June 2015, an outbreak of the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) occurred in Korea, which raised the fear of contagion throughout society and suppressed the use of public transportation systems. Exploring daily ridership data of the Seoul bus transportation system, along with the number of infected patients and search volume in web portals, we observe that ridership decreased abruptly while attention was heavily focused online. Then this temporal reduction recovered exponentially with a characteristic time of 3 weeks when newly confirmed cases began to decrease. We also find with the data of ranked keywords of web portals that areas with severely reduced ridership tended to cluster and spatiotemporal variations of such clusters were highly associated with general hospitals where MERS patients were treated. On the other hand, the spatial reduction in ridership relaxed algebraically with the distance from a general hospital while the outbreak was severe. We further probe the influence of the epidemic outbreak in the framework of linear response theory, which relates the responses to the epidemic outbreak (“perturbation”) with correlations in the absence of the perturbation. Indeed, the spatial correlation function of the ridership changes is observed to follow a power law, sharing the same exponent as the spatial relaxation of the response function. This new theoretical approach offers a useful tool for understanding responses of public transportation system to epidemic or accidental disasters.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gennaro Angiello;
    Publisher: TeMA - Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment

    Starting from the relationship between urban planning and mobility management, TeMA has gradually expanded the view of the covered topics, always following a rigorous scientific in-depth analysis. This section of the Journal, Review Notes, is the expression of a continuous updating of emerging topics concerning relationships among urban planning, mobility and environment, through a collection of short scientific papers. The Review Notes are made of four parts. Each section examines a specific aspect of the broader information storage within the main interests of TeMA Journal. In particular, the Urban practices section aims at presenting recent advancements on relevant topics that underlie the challenges that the cities have to face. The present note provides an overview of the policies and initiatives undertaken in three North American cities in response to the Covid-19 outbreak: New York City (US), Mexico City (MX) and Montreal (CA). A cross-city analysis is used to derive a taxonomy of urban policy measures. The contribution discusses the effectiveness of each measures in providing answers to epidemic threats in urban areas while, at the same time, improving the sustainability and resilience of urban communities. TeMA - Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, Vol 14 No 1 (2021): The city challenges and external agents. Methods, tools and best practices

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Hans Ittmann;
    Publisher: AOSIS

    Background: For the last 20 years Zimbabwe has been dependent on humanitarian aid. The country is in a desperate condition, with millions of citizens leaving to reside in neighbouring countries. These Zimbabweans are providing and sending food, necessities and cash to relatives in the country using largely informal humanitarian supply chains (HSCs). The outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was disastrous causing more hardship.Objective: This case study explores how informal HSCs played a significant role in the Zimbabwe humanitarian aid initiative and the impact of COVID-19 on these supply chains.Method: A mixed method design was used to collect qualitative data through personal interviews with Zimbabweans in South Africa. Additional quantitative data was obtained from humanitarian reports, Zimbabwe government reports as well as other publications. These were used to present the humanitarian crisis in Zimbabwe and specifically how support was provided through informal HSCs from outside Zimbabwe.Results: Through the case study the devastating effect COVID-19 had on a large component of the food insecure and suffering population of Zimbabwe is vividly illustrated. The closing of national borders prevented any food and other necessities, sent by diaspora from South Africa, reaching relatives.Conclusion: The results of this case study show the effect COVID-19 had on the humanitarian aid from relatives in South Africa. All the aid to Zimbabweans completely stopped for an extended period as these informal HSCs were completely broken because of the COVID-19 pandemic and 2 years later they remain disrupted.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Olabisi Michael Olapoju;
    Publisher: International Global Health Society

    Background: The focus of the study is to assess the role of different transport means in the importation and diffusion of 1918-19 influenza and a novel 2019 corona virus designated as COVID-19 in Nigeria. Methods: The study provides a review of the means by which the two pandemics were imported into the country and the roles the transport means of each period played in the local spread of the epidemics. Results: The study notes that seaports and railways, being the emerging transportation modes in the country were significant to the importation and local diffusion of 1918-19 influenza, respectively, while air transport is significant to the importation of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions: The study concludes that increasing preference for the transport at a given epoch is significant to the diffusion of prevailing epidemic in the epoch.