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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Christianne de Faria Coelho-Ravagnani; Flávia Campos Corgosinho; Fabiane La Flor Ziegler Sanches; Carla M. Prado; Alessandro Laviano; João Felipe Mota;
    Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP)

    Abstract Optimal nutrition can improve well-being and might mitigate the risk and morbidity associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This review summarizes nutritional guidelines to support dietary counseling provided by dietitians and health-related professionals. The majority of documents encouraged the consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grain foods. Thirty-one percent of the guidelines highlighted the importance of minerals and vitamins such as zinc and vitamins C, A, and D to maintain a well-functioning immune system. Dietary supplementation has not been linked to COVID-19 prevention. However, supplementation with vitamins C and D, as well as with zinc and selenium, was highlighted as potentially beneficial for individuals with, or at risk of, respiratory viral infections or for those in whom nutrient deficiency is detected. There was no convincing evidence that food or food packaging is associated with the transmission of COVID-19, but good hygiene practices for handling and preparing foods were recommended. No changes to breastfeeding recommendations have been made, even in women diagnosed with COVID-19.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Brooke Fisher Liu; Jeannette I Iannacone;
    Publisher: Nicholson School of Communciation and Media

    With the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, we are facing another watershed moment for our field. There truly could not be a better time to be editing an open-access journal for the international community of risk and crisis communication scholars and practitioners. In this essay, we provide an update on the Journal’s status in terms of acceptance rates, global perspective, and readership rates.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Marcus Vinicius Dantas de Assunção; Carla Simone de Lima Teixeira Assunção; Rute Anadila Amorim de Oliveira; Mariah Caroline Martins de Sousa;
    Publisher: Grupo de Pesquisa Metodologias em Ensino e Aprendizagem em Ciências

    Since the beginning of the year 2020, the world has been experiencing a COVID-19 pandemic, which challenges the public sector to make quick and efficient decisions, as the result is counted in lives. Thus, it is necessary to search for predictive models that support the decision and assist in the understanding of the behavior of the transmissions. In this context, the work aims to present a dynamic model for the daily increase in the number of deaths in order to determine a safety range capable of predicting a stabilization period for these deaths. For this, the model uses exponential and potential curves as limits for analyzing the behavior of the increment curve. The model proved to be efficient when compared to the actual data obtained so far.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Daniel Arthur B. Kasal; Andrea De Lorenzo; Eduardo Tibiriçá;
    Publisher: Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V.

    The recently described severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected millions of people, with thousands of fatalities. It has prompted global efforts in research, with focus on the pathophysiology of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), and a rapid surge of publications. COVID-19 has been associated with a myriad of clinical manifestations, including the lungs, heart, kidneys, central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, skin, and blood coagulation abnormalities. The endothelium plays a key role in organ dysfunction associated with severe infection, and current data suggest that it is also involved in SARS-CoV-2-induced sepsis. This critical review aimed to address a possible unifying mechanism underlying the diverse complications of COVID-19: microvascular dysfunction, with emphasis on the renin-angiotensin system. In addition, research perspectives are suggested in order to expand understanding of the pathophysiology of the infection.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Steven Birkmeyer; Bernd W. Wirtz; Paul F. Langer;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract Mobile health (mHealth) applications have become an important tool to support public health, especially in times of increased health awareness in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there is still uncertainty about what factors determine successful mHealth services from the users’ perspective. Based on the results of a systematic literature review, a qualitative content analysis of available apps and semi-structured user and expert interviews, we derive a structural model with antecedents on user attitudes towards mHealth and user satisfaction with the mHealth application. These variables determine users’ intention to continue using the application and their intention to recommend it to others. For verification, we tested the model with a sample of 249 German mHealth users from the “MyFitnessPal” community using structural equation modelling and found that all derived path relations have significant coefficients.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nora K. Schaal; Janine Zöllkau; Philip Hepp; Tanja Fehm; Carsten Hagenbeck;
    Country: Germany

    Abstract Purpose The COVID-19 vaccination is probably the most important source to fight the COVID-19 pandemic. However, recommendations and possibilities for vaccination for pregnant and breastfeeding women are inconsistent and dynamically changing. Methods An anonymous, online, cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant and breastfeeding women in Germany between 30th March and 19th April 2021 addressing COVID-19 vaccination attitudes including the underlying reasons for their decision. Additionally, anxiety regarding a SARS-CoV-2 infection and a symptomatic course of the infection were evaluated. Results In total, 2339 women (n = 1043 pregnant and n = 1296 breastfeeding) completed the survey. During pregnancy the majority (57.4%) are not in favour of receiving the vaccine, 28.8% are unsure and only 13.8% would get vaccinated at the time of the survey. In contrast, 47.2% would be in favour to receive the vaccine, if more scientific evidence on the safety of the vaccination during pregnancy would be available. Breastfeeding women show higher vaccination willingness (39.5% are in favour, 28.1% are unsure and 32.5% not in favour). The willingness to be vaccinated is significantly related to the women’s anxiety levels of getting infected and to develop disease symptoms. Main reasons for vaccination hesitancy are the women’s perception of limited vaccination-specific information, limited scientific evidence on vaccination safety and the fear to harm the fetus or infant. Conclusions The results provide important implications for obstetrical care during the pandemic as well as for official recommendations und information strategies regarding the COVID-19 vaccination.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Constanze A. Jakwerth; Martin Feuerherd; Ferdinand Guerth; Madlen Oelsner; Linda Schellhammer; Johanna Giglberger; Lisa Pechtold; Claudia Jerin; Luisa Kugler; Carolin Mogler; +9 more
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Countries: Germany, Switzerland

    Abstract SARS-CoV-2 has evolved to enter the host via the ACE2 receptor which is part of the kinin-kallikrein pathway. This complex pathway is only poorly understood in context of immune regulation but critical to control infection. This study examines SARS-CoV-2-infection and epithelial mechanisms of the kinin-kallikrein-system at the kinin B2 receptor level in SARS-CoV-2-infection that is of direct translational relevance. From acute SARS-CoV-2-positive study participants and -negative controls, transcriptomes of nasal curettages were analyzed. Primary airway epithelial cells (NHBEs) were infected with SARS-CoV-2 and treated with the approved B2R-antagonist icatibant. SARS-CoV-2 RNA RT-qPCR, cytotoxicity assays, plaque assays, and transcriptome analyses were performed. The treatment effect was further studied in a murine airway inflammation model in vivo. Here, we report a broad and strong upregulation of kallikreins and the kinin B2 receptor (B2R) in the nasal mucosa of acutely symptomatic SARS-CoV-2-positive study participants. A B2R-antagonist impeded SARS-CoV-2 replication and spread in NHBEs, as determined in plaque assays on Vero-E6 cells. B2R-antagonism reduced the expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2, G protein–coupled receptor signaling, and ion transport in vitro and in a murine airway inflammation in vivo model. In summary, this study provides evidence that treatment with B2R-antagonists protects airway epithelial cells from SARS-CoV-2 by inhibiting its replication and spread, through the reduction of ACE2 levels and the interference with several cellular signaling processes. Future clinical studies need to shed light on the airway protection potential of approved B2R-antagonists, like icatibant, in the treatment of early-stage COVID-19. Graphical Abstract Key messages Induction of kinin B2 receptor in the nose of SARS-CoV-2-positive patients. Treatment with B2R-antagonist protects airway epithelial cells from SARS-CoV-2. B2R-antagonist reduces ACE2 levels in vivo and ex vivo. Protection by B2R-antagonist is mediated by inhibiting viral replication and spread.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Riccardo E. Giunta; Konstantin Frank; Horacio Costa; Cenk Demirdöver; Giovanni Di Benedetto; Anna Elander; Mark Henley; Dylan J. Murray; Dirk J. Schaefer; Stephan Spendel; +2 more
    Publisher: Georg Thieme Verlag KG

    AbstractThe present article provides an overview of the current and expected effects of plastic surgery in Europe. It presents the experience of departments for plastic and reconstructive surgery, as evaluated by interviews with members of the Executive Committee (ExCo) of the European Society of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery (ESPRAS). The objective of this overview is to summmarise current information in our area of work and to make this accessible to a broad group of readers. As our knowledge is rapidly increasing during the current pandemic, it is evident that we can only provide a snapshot and this will inevitably be incomplete.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Narayan Prasad; Mansi Bhatt; Sanjay K. Agarwal; H.S. Kohli; Natarajan Gopalakrishnan; Edwin Fernando; Manisha Sahay; Mohan Rajapurkar; Arpita Roy Chowdhary; Manish Rathi; +13 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Introduction The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected the care of patients with noncommunicable diseases, including those suffering from kidney-related ailments. Many parts of the world, including India, adopted lockdown to curb community transmission of disease. The lockdown affected transportation, access to health care facilities, and availability of medicines and consumables as well as outpatient and inpatient services. We aimed to analyze the effect of lockdown imposed due to the COVID-19 pandemic on the care of patients with kidney diseases in India. Methods We surveyed 19 major hospitals (8 in the public and 11 in the private sector) to determine the effect of lockdown on the care of patients with kidney disease, including those on dialysis after the first 3 weeks of lockdown. Results The total number of dialysis patients in these centers came down from 2517 to 2404. Approximately 710 (28.2%) patients missed 1 or more dialysis sessions, 69 (2.74%) required emergency dialysis sessions, 104 (4.13%) stopped reporting for dialysis, and 9 (0.36%) were confirmed to have died. Outpatient attendance in the surveyed hospital came down by 92.3%, and inpatient service reduced by 61%. Tele-consultation was started but was accessed by only a small number of patients. Conclusion Lack of preparedness before lockdown resulted in an interruption in health care services and posed an immediate adverse effect on the outcome of dialysis patients and patients with kidney disease in India. The long-term impact on the health of patients with less severe forms of kidney disease remains unknown.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lisa M. Raven; Ann McCormack; Jerry R. Greenfield;
    Publisher: Oxford University Press
Advanced search in Research products
Research products
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Searching FieldsTerms
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The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
42,859 Research products, page 1 of 4,286
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Christianne de Faria Coelho-Ravagnani; Flávia Campos Corgosinho; Fabiane La Flor Ziegler Sanches; Carla M. Prado; Alessandro Laviano; João Felipe Mota;
    Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP)

    Abstract Optimal nutrition can improve well-being and might mitigate the risk and morbidity associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This review summarizes nutritional guidelines to support dietary counseling provided by dietitians and health-related professionals. The majority of documents encouraged the consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grain foods. Thirty-one percent of the guidelines highlighted the importance of minerals and vitamins such as zinc and vitamins C, A, and D to maintain a well-functioning immune system. Dietary supplementation has not been linked to COVID-19 prevention. However, supplementation with vitamins C and D, as well as with zinc and selenium, was highlighted as potentially beneficial for individuals with, or at risk of, respiratory viral infections or for those in whom nutrient deficiency is detected. There was no convincing evidence that food or food packaging is associated with the transmission of COVID-19, but good hygiene practices for handling and preparing foods were recommended. No changes to breastfeeding recommendations have been made, even in women diagnosed with COVID-19.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Brooke Fisher Liu; Jeannette I Iannacone;
    Publisher: Nicholson School of Communciation and Media

    With the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, we are facing another watershed moment for our field. There truly could not be a better time to be editing an open-access journal for the international community of risk and crisis communication scholars and practitioners. In this essay, we provide an update on the Journal’s status in terms of acceptance rates, global perspective, and readership rates.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Marcus Vinicius Dantas de Assunção; Carla Simone de Lima Teixeira Assunção; Rute Anadila Amorim de Oliveira; Mariah Caroline Martins de Sousa;
    Publisher: Grupo de Pesquisa Metodologias em Ensino e Aprendizagem em Ciências

    Since the beginning of the year 2020, the world has been experiencing a COVID-19 pandemic, which challenges the public sector to make quick and efficient decisions, as the result is counted in lives. Thus, it is necessary to search for predictive models that support the decision and assist in the understanding of the behavior of the transmissions. In this context, the work aims to present a dynamic model for the daily increase in the number of deaths in order to determine a safety range capable of predicting a stabilization period for these deaths. For this, the model uses exponential and potential curves as limits for analyzing the behavior of the increment curve. The model proved to be efficient when compared to the actual data obtained so far.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Daniel Arthur B. Kasal; Andrea De Lorenzo; Eduardo Tibiriçá;
    Publisher: Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V.

    The recently described severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected millions of people, with thousands of fatalities. It has prompted global efforts in research, with focus on the pathophysiology of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), and a rapid surge of publications. COVID-19 has been associated with a myriad of clinical manifestations, including the lungs, heart, kidneys, central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, skin, and blood coagulation abnormalities. The endothelium plays a key role in organ dysfunction associated with severe infection, and current data suggest that it is also involved in SARS-CoV-2-induced sepsis. This critical review aimed to address a possible unifying mechanism underlying the diverse complications of COVID-19: microvascular dysfunction, with emphasis on the renin-angiotensin system. In addition, research perspectives are suggested in order to expand understanding of the pathophysiology of the infection.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Steven Birkmeyer; Bernd W. Wirtz; Paul F. Langer;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract Mobile health (mHealth) applications have become an important tool to support public health, especially in times of increased health awareness in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there is still uncertainty about what factors determine successful mHealth services from the users’ perspective. Based on the results of a systematic literature review, a qualitative content analysis of available apps and semi-structured user and expert interviews, we derive a structural model with antecedents on user attitudes towards mHealth and user satisfaction with the mHealth application. These variables determine users’ intention to continue using the application and their intention to recommend it to others. For verification, we tested the model with a sample of 249 German mHealth users from the “MyFitnessPal” community using structural equation modelling and found that all derived path relations have significant coefficients.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nora K. Schaal; Janine Zöllkau; Philip Hepp; Tanja Fehm; Carsten Hagenbeck;
    Country: Germany

    Abstract Purpose The COVID-19 vaccination is probably the most important source to fight the COVID-19 pandemic. However, recommendations and possibilities for vaccination for pregnant and breastfeeding women are inconsistent and dynamically changing. Methods An anonymous, online, cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant and breastfeeding women in Germany between 30th March and 19th April 2021 addressing COVID-19 vaccination attitudes including the underlying reasons for their decision. Additionally, anxiety regarding a SARS-CoV-2 infection and a symptomatic course of the infection were evaluated. Results In total, 2339 women (n = 1043 pregnant and n = 1296 breastfeeding) completed the survey. During pregnancy the majority (57.4%) are not in favour of receiving the vaccine, 28.8% are unsure and only 13.8% would get vaccinated at the time of the survey. In contrast, 47.2% would be in favour to receive the vaccine, if more scientific evidence on the safety of the vaccination during pregnancy would be available. Breastfeeding women show higher vaccination willingness (39.5% are in favour, 28.1% are unsure and 32.5% not in favour). The willingness to be vaccinated is significantly related to the women’s anxiety levels of getting infected and to develop disease symptoms. Main reasons for vaccination hesitancy are the women’s perception of limited vaccination-specific information, limited scientific evidence on vaccination safety and the fear to harm the fetus or infant. Conclusions The results provide important implications for obstetrical care during the pandemic as well as for official recommendations und information strategies regarding the COVID-19 vaccination.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Constanze A. Jakwerth; Martin Feuerherd; Ferdinand Guerth; Madlen Oelsner; Linda Schellhammer; Johanna Giglberger; Lisa Pechtold; Claudia Jerin; Luisa Kugler; Carolin Mogler; +9 more
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Countries: Germany, Switzerland

    Abstract SARS-CoV-2 has evolved to enter the host via the ACE2 receptor which is part of the kinin-kallikrein pathway. This complex pathway is only poorly understood in context of immune regulation but critical to control infection. This study examines SARS-CoV-2-infection and epithelial mechanisms of the kinin-kallikrein-system at the kinin B2 receptor level in SARS-CoV-2-infection that is of direct translational relevance. From acute SARS-CoV-2-positive study participants and -negative controls, transcriptomes of nasal curettages were analyzed. Primary airway epithelial cells (NHBEs) were infected with SARS-CoV-2 and treated with the approved B2R-antagonist icatibant. SARS-CoV-2 RNA RT-qPCR, cytotoxicity assays, plaque assays, and transcriptome analyses were performed. The treatment effect was further studied in a murine airway inflammation model in vivo. Here, we report a broad and strong upregulation of kallikreins and the kinin B2 receptor (B2R) in the nasal mucosa of acutely symptomatic SARS-CoV-2-positive study participants. A B2R-antagonist impeded SARS-CoV-2 replication and spread in NHBEs, as determined in plaque assays on Vero-E6 cells. B2R-antagonism reduced the expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2, G protein–coupled receptor signaling, and ion transport in vitro and in a murine airway inflammation in vivo model. In summary, this study provides evidence that treatment with B2R-antagonists protects airway epithelial cells from SARS-CoV-2 by inhibiting its replication and spread, through the reduction of ACE2 levels and the interference with several cellular signaling processes. Future clinical studies need to shed light on the airway protection potential of approved B2R-antagonists, like icatibant, in the treatment of early-stage COVID-19. Graphical Abstract Key messages Induction of kinin B2 receptor in the nose of SARS-CoV-2-positive patients. Treatment with B2R-antagonist protects airway epithelial cells from SARS-CoV-2. B2R-antagonist reduces ACE2 levels in vivo and ex vivo. Protection by B2R-antagonist is mediated by inhibiting viral replication and spread.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Riccardo E. Giunta; Konstantin Frank; Horacio Costa; Cenk Demirdöver; Giovanni Di Benedetto; Anna Elander; Mark Henley; Dylan J. Murray; Dirk J. Schaefer; Stephan Spendel; +2 more
    Publisher: Georg Thieme Verlag KG

    AbstractThe present article provides an overview of the current and expected effects of plastic surgery in Europe. It presents the experience of departments for plastic and reconstructive surgery, as evaluated by interviews with members of the Executive Committee (ExCo) of the European Society of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery (ESPRAS). The objective of this overview is to summmarise current information in our area of work and to make this accessible to a broad group of readers. As our knowledge is rapidly increasing during the current pandemic, it is evident that we can only provide a snapshot and this will inevitably be incomplete.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Narayan Prasad; Mansi Bhatt; Sanjay K. Agarwal; H.S. Kohli; Natarajan Gopalakrishnan; Edwin Fernando; Manisha Sahay; Mohan Rajapurkar; Arpita Roy Chowdhary; Manish Rathi; +13 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Introduction The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected the care of patients with noncommunicable diseases, including those suffering from kidney-related ailments. Many parts of the world, including India, adopted lockdown to curb community transmission of disease. The lockdown affected transportation, access to health care facilities, and availability of medicines and consumables as well as outpatient and inpatient services. We aimed to analyze the effect of lockdown imposed due to the COVID-19 pandemic on the care of patients with kidney diseases in India. Methods We surveyed 19 major hospitals (8 in the public and 11 in the private sector) to determine the effect of lockdown on the care of patients with kidney disease, including those on dialysis after the first 3 weeks of lockdown. Results The total number of dialysis patients in these centers came down from 2517 to 2404. Approximately 710 (28.2%) patients missed 1 or more dialysis sessions, 69 (2.74%) required emergency dialysis sessions, 104 (4.13%) stopped reporting for dialysis, and 9 (0.36%) were confirmed to have died. Outpatient attendance in the surveyed hospital came down by 92.3%, and inpatient service reduced by 61%. Tele-consultation was started but was accessed by only a small number of patients. Conclusion Lack of preparedness before lockdown resulted in an interruption in health care services and posed an immediate adverse effect on the outcome of dialysis patients and patients with kidney disease in India. The long-term impact on the health of patients with less severe forms of kidney disease remains unknown.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lisa M. Raven; Ann McCormack; Jerry R. Greenfield;
    Publisher: Oxford University Press