Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Abstract Purpose The COVID-19 vaccination is probably the most important source to fight the COVID-19 pandemic. However, recommendations and possibilities for vaccination for pregnant and breastfeeding women are inconsistent and dynamically changing. Methods An anonymous, online, cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant and breastfeeding women in Germany between 30th March and 19th April 2021 addressing COVID-19 vaccination attitudes including the underlying reasons for their decision. Additionally, anxiety regarding a SARS-CoV-2 infection and a symptomatic course of the infection were evaluated. Results In total, 2339 women (n = 1043 pregnant and n = 1296 breastfeeding) completed the survey. During pregnancy the majority (57.4%) are not in favour of receiving the vaccine, 28.8% are unsure and only 13.8% would get vaccinated at the time of the survey. In contrast, 47.2% would be in favour to receive the vaccine, if more scientific evidence on the safety of the vaccination during pregnancy would be available. Breastfeeding women show higher vaccination willingness (39.5% are in favour, 28.1% are unsure and 32.5% not in favour). The willingness to be vaccinated is significantly related to the women’s anxiety levels of getting infected and to develop disease symptoms. Main reasons for vaccination hesitancy are the women’s perception of limited vaccination-specific information, limited scientific evidence on vaccination safety and the fear to harm the fetus or infant. Conclusions The results provide important implications for obstetrical care during the pandemic as well as for official recommendations und information strategies regarding the COVID-19 vaccination.
Abstract Traditionally, advertising relies on creativity to increase its effectiveness. However, little is known about the use of creativity in negatively-valenced situations. For instance, in times of crisis such as the COVID-19 pandemic, how should retailers engage in advertising? Should they strive to deliver creative advertising, or not? We investigate the role of ad creativity during times of crisis, based on 43,459 consumer responses to 49 retail and service brand ads. To do so, we investigate the separate effects of the two dimensions of ad creativity: originality and appropriateness. Results indicate that creativity works differently in a crisis context, with originality and appropriateness having different effects on consumers. Further, we find that originality and appropriateness trigger emotions in opposite ways. However, ads that engage thanking - be it of employees, customers, or frontline emergency workers - strengthen these effects.
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology Journals
ABSTRACT Small noncoding RNAs regulate a variety of cellular processes, including genomic imprinting, chromatin remodeling, replication, transcription, and translation. Here, we report small replication-regulating RNAs (srRNAs) that specifically inhibit DNA replication of the human BK polyomavirus (BKV) in vitro and in vivo . srRNAs from FM3A murine mammary tumor cells were enriched by DNA replication assay-guided fractionation and hybridization to the BKV noncoding control region (NCCR) and synthesized as cDNAs. Selective mutagenesis of the cDNA sequences and their putative targets suggests that the inhibition of BKV DNA replication is mediated by srRNAs binding to the viral NCCR, hindering early steps in the initiation of DNA replication. Ectopic expression of srRNAs in human cells inhibited BKV DNA replication in vivo . Additional srRNAs were designed and synthesized that specifically inhibit simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA replication in vitro . These observations point to novel mechanisms for regulating DNA replication and suggest the design of synthetic agents for inhibiting replication of polyomaviruses and possibly other viruses.
Publisher: The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
The extensive sequence data generated from SARS-CoV-2 during the 2020 pandemic has facilitated the study of viral genome evolution over a brief period of time. This has highlighted instances of directional mutation pressures exerted on the SARS-CoV-2 genome from host antiviral defense systems. In this brief review we describe three such human defense mechanisms, the apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide-like proteins (APOBEC), adenosine deaminase acting on RNA proteins (ADAR), and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and discuss their potential implications on SARS-CoV-2 evolution.
Background: Delirium complicating the course of Intensive care unit (ICU) therapy is a known driver of morbidity and mortality. It has been speculated that infection with the neurotrophic SARS-CoV-2 might promote delirium. Methods: Retrospective registry analysis including all patients treated at least 48 h on a medical intensive care unit. The primary endpoint was development of delirium as diagnosed by Nursing Delirium screening scale ≥2. Results were confirmed by propensity score matching. Results: 542 patients were included. The primary endpoint was reached in 352/542 (64.9%) patients, without significant differences between COVID-19 patients and non-COVID-19 patients (51.4% and 65.9%, respectively, p = 0.07) and correlated with prolonged ICU stay in both groups. In a subgroup of patients with ICU stay >10 days delirium was significantly lower in COVID-19 patients (p ≤ 0.01). After adjustment for confounders, COVID-19 correlated independently with less ICU delirium (p ≤ 0.01). In the propensity score matched cohort, patients with COVID-19 had significantly lower delirium incidence compared to the matched control patients (p ≤ 0.01). Conclusion: Delirium is frequent in critically ill patients with and without COVID-19 treated at an intensive care unit. Data suggests that COVID-19 itself is not a driver of delirium per se.
Massimo Federico; C.S. Chiattone; H. M. Prince; Astrid Pavlovsky; Martina Manni; Monica Civallero; Tetiana Skrypets; C.A. De Souza; Eliza A Hawkes; Lorena Fiad; +10 more
Massimo Federico; C.S. Chiattone; H. M. Prince; Astrid Pavlovsky; Martina Manni; Monica Civallero; Tetiana Skrypets; C.A. De Souza; Eliza A Hawkes; Lorena Fiad; A. Lymboussakis; C. Tomuleasa; R. Nair; Juliana Pereira; P. Pereyra; Carla Minoia; I. Kryachok; N. S. De Castro; R. Advani; Stefano Luminari;
Introduction: Mature T and NK-cell lymphomas represent a heterogeneous group of lymphoid disorders (29 subtypes according to the 2016 WHO classification) arising from mature T cells of post-thymic origin with different morphological characteristics, phenotypes, and clinical presentation. Following the success of the T Cell Project (TCP), which allowed the analysis of more than 1,500 cases of peripheral T-Cell lymphomas (PTCLs) collected prospectively in 18 Countries, in 2018 the TCP 2.0 was launched. Here we report the global distribution of PTCLs, from the cases registered so far based on the locally established histological diagnosis. Methods: The TCP2.0 (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03964480) is a prospective, international, observational study which adapts to changes made in the new WHO classification. Results: Since the beginning of the study (October 2018), 648 patients with newly diagnosed PTCL were registered by 75 active centers across 14 countries. Of these data, 594 patients have been validated by the centralized trial office. Overall, PTCL-NOS, Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) ALK-negative, and Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL), represent the most frequent subtypes, representing 31.3%, 18,9% and 13,5% of cases, respectively. As reported in Table 1, PTCL-NOS represents the most frequent subtype worldwide, whereas Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma was more frequent in Brazil, AITL and ALCL ALK-negative in Australia/ India, and ALCL ALK-positive in North America and Europe. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type was relatively frequent in Brazil and quite rare in the other Latin America Countries. Finally, many sub-types represent less than 5% of cases in all geographic areas. Conclusions: The TCP2.0 continues to recruit very well, despite the difficulties linked to the COVID-19 pandemic, and may represent a useful resource for the prospective study of this group of rare lymphomas.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic comprises approximately 50 million confirmed cases and over 1.2 million deaths as of November 10, 2020 , affecting health care systems worldwide in an unprecedented way. In the absence of effective treatments or preventive measures, all attempts to control the pandemic are based on reliable diagnostic procedures, particularly RT-PCR of upper respiratory specimens, which is considered the diagnostic gold standard . A previously unimaginable number of these diagnostic procedures has been performed since the beginning of the pandemic and there is a clear trend towards further expanding the number of tests . Although specimens are frequently obtained by semi-skilled temporary staff, the collection is generally considered safe. However, possible adverse events (AEs) of the procedure have largely escaped systematic recording and reporting to date. A Pubmed search, performed on October 10, 2020, using every possible combination of the search terms “complications”, “adverse events”, “adverse effects” and “nasal swab”, “oral swab”, “nasopharyngeal swab”, “oropharyngeal swab”, revealed only three publications relevant for the question of AEs caused by pharyngeal swab procedures. The first one represents a case report describing the break of a nasal swab by triggering the swab's breakpoint mechanism during the examination of an uncooperative patient . The second publication compared commercially available swabs with three-dimensional printed nasopharyngeal swabs, reporting different mild complications in several individuals, and one individual with severe epistaxis needing medical help . Lastly, one case of cerebrospinal fluid leak requiring endoscopic surgical repair was reported after a nasal COVID-19 test . Of note, even the second study investigated AEs in only 176 individuals . Although swab procedures during SARS-CoV-2 testing are generally safe (3 adverse events in 11 476 swab procedures; 0.026%), increased awareness of complications is necessary, considering approximately 5.1 million tests conducted worldwide daily.
Almanya Federal Cumhuriyeti'nde görev yapan Türkçe ve Türk Kültürü Dersi öğretmenlerine yönelik 2020 Mayıs- Haziran aylarında toplam 69 çevrimiçi seminer düzenlenmiştir. Seminerlere Almanya Federal Cumhuriyeti’nde görev yapan MEB Türkçe ve Türk Kültürü Dersi öğretmenleri katılmış; her bir seminerden sonra öğretmen görüşleri alınmıştır. Araştırmanın evrenini 2019-2020 eğitim öğretim yılı itibarı ile Almanya'da görevli 1338 Türkçe öğretmeni, örneklem grubunu ise MEB tarafından görevlendirilen 506 Türkçe ve Türk Kültürü dersi öğretmeni oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmacı grubu tarafından geliştirilen veri toplama anketi Mayıs -Haziran 2020 aylarında (pandemi dönemi) verilen çevrimiçi seminerlere paralel olarak uygulanmıştır. Bu çalışmada öğretmenlerin yurt dışındaki öğretmenlere verilen seminerler belli bir farkındalığın oluşmasını sağlamış; yurt dışı teşkilatının öğrenen organizasyonlar olarak öğretmenlerin bu tür programlara ilgi düzeyleri, varlığı/yokluğu, katılım sayısı ve sıklığı ile ölçümlenerek değerlendirilmiştir. Elde edilen bulgular, bu tür seminer çalışmalarının gelecek dönemlerde de yapılmasının elzem olduğunu ortaya koymuştur. In May-June 2020, 69 online seminars, attended by Turkish and Turkish Culture course teachers working in the Federal Republic of Germany, were held. After each seminar, the opinions of the teachers were taken. The population of the study consists of 1338 Turkish teachers having worked in Germany in the academic year 2019-2020, whereas the sample group consists of 506 Turkish and Turkish Culture course teachers assigned by the Turkish Ministry of Education. Developed by the researcher group and serving as a basis for data collection, the questionnaire was applied at the same time as the online seminars given in May-June 2020 (pandemic period). In this study, the seminars given to teachers abroad provided a certain awareness; As an educational institution of the foreign organization, teachers' level of interest in such programs have been evaluated by measuring their presence/absence, number, and frequency of participation. The findings obtained revealed that it is essential to carry out such seminars in the future, as well.
Kariem El-Boghdadly; Danny J.N. Wong; Ruth Owen; Mark D. Neuman; Stuart J. Pocock; J. B. Carlisle; C. Johnstone; P. Andruszkiewicz; Paul A. Baker; Bruce M Biccard; +13 more
Kariem El-Boghdadly; Danny J.N. Wong; Ruth Owen; Mark D. Neuman; Stuart J. Pocock; J. B. Carlisle; C. Johnstone; P. Andruszkiewicz; Paul A. Baker; Bruce M Biccard; Gregory L. Bryson; Matthew T. V. Chan; M. H. Cheng; Ki Jinn Chin; M. Coburn; M. Jonsson Fagerlund; Sheila Nainan Myatra; Paul S. Myles; E.P. O’Sullivan; Laura Pasin; Faisal Shamim; W.A. van Klei; Imran Ahmad;
Summary Healthcare workers involved in aerosol‐generating procedures, such as tracheal intubation, may be at elevated risk of acquiring COVID‐19. However, the magnitude of this risk is unknown. We conducted a prospective international multicentre cohort study recruiting healthcare workers participating in tracheal intubation of patients with suspected or confirmed COVID‐19. Information on tracheal intubation episodes, personal protective equipment use, and subsequent provider health status was collected via self‐reporting. The primary endpoint was the incidence of laboratory‐confirmed COVID‐19 diagnosis or new symptoms requiring self‐isolation or hospitalisation after a tracheal intubation episode. Cox regression analysis examined associations between the primary endpoint and healthcare worker characteristics, procedure‐related factors, and personal protective equipment use. Between 23 March and 2 June 2020, 1718 healthcare workers from 503 hospitals in 17 countries reported 5148 tracheal intubation episodes. The overall incidence of the primary endpoint was 10.7% over a median (IQR [range]) follow‐up of 32 (18–48 [0–116]) days. The cumulative incidence within 7, 14 and 21 days of the first tracheal intubation episode was 3.6%, 6.1%, and 8.5%, respectively. The risk of the primary endpoint varied by country and was higher in females, but was not associated with other factors. Around 1 in 10 healthcare workers involved in tracheal intubation of patients with suspected or confirmed COVID‐19 subsequently reported a COVID‐19 outcome. This has human resource implications for institutional capacity to deliver essential healthcare services, and wider societal implications for COVID‐19 transmission.