The topic of this thesis is digital transformation of air cargo, and this research aims to identify drivers and barriers of change as well as solutions for the future. Main themes of this research have been visible in form of new innovations, articles and researches as well as from an industry bodies such as IATA, for some years now. There have been efforts within the air cargo industry to move towards a more digital world, but still adaptation lags behind and funding is limited. At the same time e-commerce and COVID-19 are transforming the air cargo industry with challenges requiring rapid changes. Literature review of this research consists of knowledge on air cargo and air cargo supply chain, first providing knowledge of the value of air cargo, forces and constraints for growth followed by introduction the common concepts, processes and stakeholders. Most importantly, literature review explains the data transfer within the air cargo supply chain and provides some examples of future digitalization of the air cargo industry. Literature review is based on industry articles and researches conducted. Research methodology consists of qualitative in-depth interviews conducted with aviation industry professionals, with decades of experience from different parts of the air cargo supply chain. Interviews were conducted during the fall of 2020 and sample size for this research was five participants. Based on the results from the interviews, the most common drivers of change were the rapid rise of e-commerce and the current COVID-19 pandemic. Most notable problems were fragmentation of the supply chain as well as lack of funding for new innovations and developments. However, also solutions for these problems were identified in forms of data- sharing and collaboration. These factors create many opportunities and the literature review of this report introduces the shift from traditional EDI systems used in air cargo into APIs as the enables of collaborative supply chains of the future. Data sharing being one primary solution as it hosts major opportunities in the shift from fragmented arcanely lead industry into transparent and collaborative future. In aim for a brighter future and digital transformation, air cargo industry has seen global standards set, partnerships created and innovations formed.
Many countries around the world have chosen lockdown and restrictions on people's mobility as the main strategies to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. These actions have significantly affected environmental noise and modified urban soundscapes, opening up an unprecedented opportunity for research in the field. In order to enable these investigations to be carried out in a more harmonized and consistent manner, this paper makes a proposal for a set of indicators that will enable to address the challenge from a number of different approaches. It proposes a minimum set of basic energetic indicators, and the taxonomy that will allow their communication and reporting. In addition, an extended set of descriptors is outlined which better enables the application of more novel approaches to the evaluation of the effect of this new soundscape on people's subjective perception.
Year 2020 will mark History, with the emergence of the new Covid-19 virus, and more importantly, the consequent political decisions to apply freedom restriction at such a largescale. Identifying the human behaviours during this extraordinary period represents a unique opportunity to both improve our fundamental knowledge and to improve future management of similar issues. Throughout almost all the duration of the French lockdown (from March 24, 2020 to May 10, 2020), we carried out an online survey on more than 12,000 individuals well distributed over the country. This online survey was performed by using both Lime-Survey and Google Forms services and was addressed to adults living in France. Statistical analyses combined classical inferential approach, mapping, clustering and text mining. The results showed that a significant part of the population moved out just before the lockdown (around 10% of our sample) and we highlighted three different profiles of participants. The results emphasised that the lockdown measures compliance was lower in two cases: (i) an unfavourable living environment (referring to social and economic inequity) associated with a high feeling of fear and a lack of trust towards Governmental measures; or (ii) the feeling that the risk was low due to the fact that others complied with the measures. In case a similar situation should occur again, it is recommended that Governments broadcast clear speeches to improve trust, limit fear and increase cooperative behaviours.
Over the past two years (2018-2019) European aviation has been confronted with serious capacity challenges and high levels of delay. Subsequently, the Covid-19 pandemic has revealed that the European airspace system lacks resilience and the ability to absorb demand shocks, be these in the form of increases or drops in air traffic. The provision of Air Traffic Management (ATM) data services holds the potential to boost the system’s resilience while enabling the development of virtual centers. Virtual centers, in turn, can make it possible to shift capacities in times of crisis of the kind we are facing today, where, for instance, a significant reduction of the capacity in one center may be needed. Building upon the first workshop on Enabling ATM Data Services, this second workshop aimed to share the latest progress made on the European Commission’s study as well as to provide an opportunity for an open discussion with key stakeholders. This brief summarises the presented results and captures the main reactions received to the study.
Cities will be home to 2 billion new residents by 2045, and the pressure to develop land in and around cities is growing. This will pose a great challenge to lower‐income cities since they tend to grow through slums and other informal settlements. Slum residents have inadequate and inequitable access to public services and economic opportunities, and on account of the living conditions in these settlements, they are also more vulnerable to diseases, especially highly communicable ones, such as COVID-19. In 2014, an estimated 880 million urban residents lived in slum conditions, compared with 792 million in 2000 (UN 2019). This number is likely to keep growing unless urban spatial expansion is planned and managed well. To achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, development institutions will need to support clients in managing urban spatial growth. An integrated approach towards land administration, land use planning, and land development – three major determinants of urban spatial growth – will be key. This evaluation offers IEG’s first systematic assessment of the World Bank’s support to the management of urban spatial growth. It answers the question: To what extent has World Bank engagement been relevant and effective towards supporting its clients in managing urban spatial growth through land administration, land‐use planning, and land development?
Abstract copyright UK Data Service and data collection copyright owner.International Passenger Survey and COVID-19The Office for National Statistics notes that International Passenger Survey (IPS) interviewing was suspended on 16 March 2020 because of the coronavirus (COVID-19). It is not certain when it will resume.Travel and tourism estimates for Quarter 1 (Jan to Mar) 2020 have been published to make the best possible use of the available data. The ONS expect that publishable estimates for March 2020 can be produced using the data collected up to 16 March 2020. The data available from UKDS covers Quarter 1 2020 with four subject areas, termed 'Airmiles', 'Alcohol', 'Qregtown' and 'Qcontact'. These files can be joined together using the variables YEAR, SERIAL, FLOW and QUARTER.No IPS data will be collected for the period when the survey is not operational, and the usual travel and tourism outputs from the IPS will not be published for this period. However, the IPS team will publish information to help users to understand trends in total international travel, based on the available administrative data from the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) and the Department for Transport (DfT). This will provide figures on numbers of international journeys arriving into and departing from the UK, but there will be no information about the characteristics of these passengers. Further information can be found on the ONS Travel Trends webpage. Abstract copyright UK Data Service and data collection copyright owner.The International Passenger Survey (IPS) aims to collect data on both credits and debits for the travel account of the Balance of Payments, provide detailed visit information on overseas visitors to the United Kingdom (UK) for tourism policy, and collect data on international migration. Main Topics:Each of the four subject areas covers different topics:'Airmiles': quarter; flow; serial; UK port or route; direct leg overseas port; final overseas port; distance from UK port to first port; from first to second port; from UK port to second port'Alcohol': year; quarter; month; flow; serial; money spent on spirits; wine; beer; champagne; cigarettes; hand-rolled and other tobacco'Qreg': year; quarter; month; flow; serial; towns stayed in overnight; details of type of accommodation; number of nights spent in towns; expenditure in towns; regional stay weight; regional visit weight; regional expenditure weight; various validation checks'Qcontact': year; quarter; month; flow; serial; nationality; country of visit/residence; UK counties; date visit began; purpose of visit; intended length of stay; number of people; package tour and cost; expenditure pre-, post- and during visit; flight prefix and suffix; first carrier air or shipping line; direct leg overseas port; final overseas port; long- or short-haul; type of vehicle; number travelling in vehicle; fare type and cost; class of travel; business trip; type of flight; flight origin or destination; gender; age group; UK port or route; quality of response; date of interview; money transfer, net and total expenditure; type of transport; arrivals (number of adults); departures (type of travelling group, number of adults and children); weighting variables; various validation checks Multi-stage stratified random sample Face-to-face interview
With the flooding and sickness impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, most businesses have seen the need for online or virtual trading and products' delivery to the point of order. Whether through their channels, sub-contracted, or third-party agents, the process of delivering items to the customers has gained significant attention over the years. Therefore, referred to as the last-mile delivery process, and the growth of e-commerce activities has enhanced it. Though it comes with an additional fee, the last-mile logistical system is a convenient and sustainable distribution mode, which provides a competitive advantage to companies. The current study analyses the effect of e-commerce last-mile modes on the environment and the mediating role of sustainable logistics technology. Contextually, this study took in the city of Helsinki and Oulu. The study highlights four critical issues linked to the last-mile logistical modes to incorporate a qualitative research methodology a thematic analytical process. Such as convenience due to fewer traffic jams and fuel savings, cost-cutting for distribution functions minimized queuing problems, improved ecological environment due to suppressed carbon emissions, and improved quality of life of consumers. It is recommended that firms adopt technologies that minimize substantial waste pollution, which can be addressed through the last-mile logistical options.
Around 75% of European cargo transport operations in terms of ton-kilometers are performed by trucks, which, in turn, entail massive environmental and societal impacts. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, road freight was projected to increase by around 40% by 2030 and by little over 80% by 2050. To support the greening of cargo operations, the European Green Deal calls for a substantial part of the inland freight traffic to shift away from road towards cleaner modes such as rail, inland waterways and short-sea shipping. The subsequent Sustainable and Smart Mobility Strategy stipulates that rail freight traffic should increase by 50% by 2030 and double by 2050, whereas transport by inland waterways and short sea shipping should increase by 25% by 2030 and by 50% by 2050. In this context, the European Commission has pledged to substantially revamp the framework for multimodal transport by revising the Combined Transport Directive, among other instruments. The scarcity of transhipment infrastructure, and of inland multimodal terminals, in particular, would need to be addressed, and missing links in multimodal infrastructure closed. Moreover, work is underway to establish a common framework for the harmonised measurement of transport and logistics-related greenhouse gas emissions based on global standards. This stands to empower consumers and businesses to make more sustainable delivery and transport choices through the provision of adequate information on the climate footprint as well as on the available alternatives of their deliveries. Inspired by the discussions at the 8th Florence Intermodal Forum, this policy brief reflects on the various measures to green European cargo operations, with a focus on boosting the share of multimodal freight and creating a common carbon accounting framework.
Since the SARS-CoV-2 emergence in December 2019, one of the major concerns has been the duration of immune protection after a first episode. This question is of paramount importance for healthcare workers (HCWs), who are a highly exposed population and among the first targets of vaccination programmes. To date, the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in HCWs 6 months after disease onset (ADO) has not been studied with both a virus neutralisation btest and commercial assays.
Because of Covid-19, air cargo operations have become more and more important for the airlines to cope with the loss of the passenger traffic revenues. To guarantee the safety and security for a flight carrying cargo, smooth processes are required throughout the whole air cargo supply chain. One of the most important players in this chain is the ground handling agent at the airport who is responsible for ensuring proper handling and weight control of the cargo before it is loaded on the flight. This thesis was commissioned by Japan Airlines Helsinki branch, and it was linked to the project of the airline changing the cargo ground handling agent from the beginning of 2022. The transfer from the previous ground handling agent to the new one needed to be as smooth as possible to guarantee the continuity of the cargo operations for the import and export cargo. The main goal of this thesis project was to find ways to measure the quality during the early stage of the new contract. The research aimed to measure how the new ground handling agent succeeded in taking over the cargo handling operations, and if the service level was meeting the expectations of the airline. The idea for the thesis came from the writer and the focus was set for the first month of operations. The research was conducted as a case study, and the main method for data collection was observation. In addition, data was collected by using irregularity records and other information available related to daily handling. The theoretical framework was built around the concepts of air cargo handling, ground handling agent, and service quality. The results of this research indicated that the transfer was rather smooth and the new ground handling agent was able to take over the operations in such manner that there was no bigger impact on the daily operations from the airline perspective. The research also provided some focus points for the future by identifying certain service deviations during the first month.