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2,125 Research products, page 1 of 213

  • COVID-19
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  • COVID-19

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Chatterjee, Maitrayee; Huang, Liane Z.X.; Wang, Chunyan; Mykytyn, Anna Z.; Westendorp, Bart; Wubbolts, Richard W.; Bosch, Berend-Jan; Haagmans, Bart L.; Putten, Jos P.M. van; Strijbis, Karin; +9 more
    Publisher: bioRxiv
    Country: Netherlands

    Mucins play an essential role in protecting the respiratory tract against microbial infections. The heavily O-glycosylated gel-forming mucins MUC5AC and MUC5B eliminate pathogens by mucociliary clearance while transmembrane mucins MUC1, MUC4, and MUC16 restrict microbial invasion at the apical surface of the epithelium. In this study, we determined the impact of host mucins and mucin glycans on SARS-CoV-2 spike-mediated epithelial entry. Human lung epithelial Calu-3 cells have endogenous expression of the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2 and express high levels of glycosylated MUC1 on the surface but not MUC4 and MUC16. Removal of the MUC1 extracellular domain (ED) using the O-glycan-specific mucinase StcE greatly enhanced spike binding and viral infection. By contrast, removal of mucin glycans sialic acid and fucose did not impact viral invasion. This study implicates the glycosylated ED of MUC1 as an important component of the host defense that restricts the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Badimon, L.; Robinson, E.L.; Jusic, A.; Carpusca, I.; DeWindt, L.J.; Emanueli, C.; Ferdinandy, P.; Gu, W.; Gyongyosi, M.; Hackl, M.; +9 more
    Country: Netherlands

    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been as unprecedented as unexpected, affecting more than 105 million people worldwide as of 8 February 2020 and causing more than 2.3 million deaths according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Not only affecting the lungs but also provoking acute respiratory distress, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is able to infect multiple cell types including cardiac and vascular cells. Hence a significant proportion of infected patients develop cardiac events, such as arrhythmias and heart failure. Patients with cardiovascular comorbidities are at highest risk of cardiac death. To face the pandemic and limit its burden, health authorities have launched several fast-track calls for research projects aiming to develop rapid strategies to combat the disease, as well as longer-term projects to prepare for the future. Biomarkers have the possibility to aid in clinical decision-making and tailoring healthcare in order to improve patient quality of life. The biomarker potential of circulating RNAs has been recognized in several disease conditions, including cardiovascular disease. RNA biomarkers may be useful in the current COVID-19 situation. The discovery, validation, and marketing of novel biomarkers, including RNA biomarkers, require multi-centre studies by large and interdisciplinary collaborative networks, involving both the academia and the industry. Here, members of the EU-CardioRNA COST Action CA17129 summarize the current knowledge about the strain that COVID-19 places on the cardiovascular system and discuss how RNA biomarkers can aid to limit this burden. They present the benefits and challenges of the discovery of novel RNA biomarkers, the need for networking efforts, and the added value of artificial intelligence to achieve reliable advances.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bos, Lieuwe D. J.; Sinha, Pratik; Dickson, Robert P.;
    Country: Netherlands
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Reiter, R.; Sharma, Ramaswamy; Castillo, Rafael; Marik, Paul E.; Domínguez Rodriguez, Alberto; Cardinali, Daniel Pedro; Tesarik, Jan;
    Country: Argentina

    Abstract: Two highly relevant studies related to SARS-CoV-2 and coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and supporting the use of melatonin to prevent and treat this serious infection were published recently. Campos-Codo and colleagues [1] documented experimentally their claim that drugs which specifically target hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) would likely have great therapeutic value in treating COVID-19. The second report is a retrospective analysis based on the clinical experience at the Columbia University Irving Medical Center with the use of drugs to treat respiratory distress in COVID-19-infected patients who required endotracheal intubation [2]. Hyperinflammatory monocytes/macrophages accumulate in abundance in the lower respiratory tract where they play a key role in determining the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Campos-Codo, et al. [1] found that monocytes/macrophages infected with the SARSCoV-2 virus reprogram their metabolism from the conventional mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to the (usually) pathological cytosolic glycolysis. This so-called Warburg-type metabolism is aided by the inadequately controlled elevated blood glucose levels of diabetic patients, which enhances cellular glycolysis, viral replication and hastens development of a severe respiratory infection resulting from the elevated cytokine release (“cytokine storm”).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vaccine Coverage Collaborators, Local Burden of Disease; Kisa, Adnan; Kisa, Sezer;

    The safe, highly efective measles vaccine has been recommended globally since 1974, yet in 2017 there were more than 17 million cases of measles and 83,400 deaths in children under 5 years old, and more than 99% of both occurred in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs)1–4 . Globally comparable, annual, local estimates of routine frst-dose measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) coverage are critical for understanding geographically precise immunity patterns, progress towards the targets of the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP), and high-risk areas amid disruptions to vaccination programmes caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)5–8 . Here we generated annual estimates of routine childhood MCV1 coverage at 5 × 5-km2 pixel and second administrative levels from 2000 to 2019 in 101 LMICs, quantifed geographical inequality and assessed vaccination status by geographical remoteness. After widespread MCV1 gains from 2000 to 2010, coverage regressed in more than half of the districts between 2010 and 2019, leaving many LMICs far from the GVAP goal of 80% coverage in all districts by 2019. MCV1 coverage was lower in rural than in urban locations, although a larger proportion of unvaccinated children overall lived in urban locations; strategies to provide essential vaccination services should address both geographical contexts. These results provide a tool for decision-makers to strengthen routine MCV1 immunization programmes and provide equitable disease protection for all children.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aamodt, Anne Hege; Høgestøl, Einar August; Popperud, Trine Haug; Holter, Jan Cato; Dyrhol-Riise, Anne Ma; Tonby, Kristian; Stiksrud, Birgitte; Paulsen, Else Quist; Berge, Tone; Barratt-Due, Andreas; +5 more
    Publisher: Springer

    Objective To test the hypotheses that blood biomarkers for nervous system injury, serum concentrations of neurofilament light chain protein (NfL) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAp) can serve as biomarkers for disease severity in COVID- 19 patients. Methods Forty-seven inpatients with confirmed COVID-19 had blood samples drawn on admission for assessing serum biomarkers of CNS injury by Single molecule array (Simoa), NfL and GFAp. Concentrations of NfL and GFAp were analyzed in relation to symptoms, clinical signs, inflammatory biomarkers and clinical outcomes. We used multivariate linear models to test for differences in biomarker concentrations in the subgroups, accounting for confounding effects. Results In total, 21% (n = 10) of the patients were admitted to an intensive care unit, and the overall mortality rate was 13% (n = 6). Non-survivors had higher serum concentrations of NfL (p < 0.001) upon admission than patients who were discharged alive both in adjusted analyses (p = 2.6 × 10–7) and unadjusted analyses (p = 0.001). The concentrations of NfL in non-survivors increased over repeated measurements; whereas, the concentrations in survivors were stable. The GFAp concentration was also significantly higher in non-survivors than survivors (p = 0.02). Conclusion Increased concentrations of NfL and GFAp in COVID-19 patients on admission may indicate increased mor- tality risk. Measurement of blood biomarkers for nervous system injury can be useful to detect and monitor CNS injury in COVID-19.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Brizzi, Andrea; Whittaker, Charles; Servo, Luciana MS; Hawryluk, Iwona; Prete, Carlos A; de Souza, William M; Aguiar, Renato S; Araujo, Leonardo JT; Bastos, Leonardo S; Blenkinsop, Alexandra; +31 more
    Country: Belgium

    The SARS-CoV-2 Gamma variant spread rapidly across Brazil, causing substantial infection and death waves. We use individual-level patient records following hospitalisation with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 to document the extensive shocks in hospital fatality rates that followed Gamma's spread across 14 state capitals, and in which more than half of hospitalised patients died over sustained time periods. We show that extensive fluctuations in COVID-19 in-hospital fatality rates also existed prior to Gamma's detection, and were largely transient after Gamma's detection, subsiding with hospital demand. Using a Bayesian fatality rate model, we find that the geographic and temporal fluctuations in Brazil's COVID-19 in-hospital fatality rates are primarily associated with geographic inequities and shortages in healthcare capacity. We project that approximately half of Brazil's COVID-19 deaths in hospitals could have been avoided without pre-pandemic geographic inequities and without pandemic healthcare pressure. Our results suggest that investments in healthcare resources, healthcare optimization, and pandemic preparedness are critical to minimize population wide mortality and morbidity caused by highly transmissible and deadly pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2, especially in low- and middle-income countries. NOTE: The following manuscript has appeared as 'Report 46 - Factors driving extensive spatial and temporal fluctuations in COVID-19 fatality rates in Brazilian hospitals' at https://spiral.imperial.ac.uk:8443/handle/10044/1/91875 . ONE SENTENCE SUMMARY: COVID-19 in-hospital fatality rates fluctuate dramatically in Brazil, and these fluctuations are primarily associated with geographic inequities and shortages in healthcare capacity. ispartof: medRxiv ispartof: medRxiv ispartof: location:United States status: Published online

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Van Puyvelde, Bart; Van Uytfanghe, Katleen; Van Oudenhove, Laurence; Gabriels, Ralf; Van Royen, Tessa; Matthys, Arne; Razavi, Morteza; Yip, Richard; Pearson, Terry; van Hulle, Marijn; +11 more
    Country: Belgium

    INTRODUCTION The pandemic readiness toolbox needs to be extended, providing diagnostic tools that target different biomolecules, using orthogonal experimental setups and fit-for-purpose specification of detection. Here we build on a previous Cov-MS effort that used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and describe a method that allows accurate, high throughput measurement of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein. MATERIALS and METHODS We used Stable Isotope Standards and Capture by Anti-Peptide Antibodies (SISCAPA) technology to enrich and quantify proteotypic peptides of the N protein from trypsin-digested samples from COVID-19 patients. RESULTS The Cov2MS assay was shown to be compatible with a variety of sample matrices including nasopharyngeal swabs, saliva and blood plasma and increased the sensitivity into the attomole range, up to a 1000-fold increase compared to direct detection in matrix. In addition, a strong positive correlation was observed between the SISCAPA antigen assay and qPCR detection beyond a quantification cycle (Cq) of 30-31, the level where no live virus can be cultured from patients. The automatable “addition only” sample preparation, digestion protocol, peptide enrichment and subsequent reduced dependency upon LC allow analysis of up to 500 samples per day per MS instrument. Importantly, peptide enrichment allowed detection of N protein in a pooled sample containing a single PCR positive sample mixed with 31 PCR negative samples, without loss in sensitivity. MS can easily be multiplexed and we also propose target peptides for Influenza A and B virus detection. CONCLUSIONS The Cov2MS assay described is agnostic with respect to the sample matrix or pooling strategy used for increasing throughput and can be easily multiplexed. Additionally, the assay eliminates interferences due to protein-protein interactions including those caused by anti-virus antibodies. The assay can be adapted to test for many different pathogens and could provide a tool enabling longitudinal epidemiological monitoring of large numbers of pathogens within a population, applied as an early warning system.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Asche, Frank; Straume, Hans-Martin; Garlock, Taryn M.; Johansen, Ulf; Kvamsdal, Sturla Furunes; Nygård, Rune; Pincinato, Ruth Beatriz; Tveterås, Ragnar;

    A rapidly growing literature shows that COVID-19 and the measures to contain the spread of the virus can have significant market impacts for seafood. These can be interruptions of production, or reductions in demand directly or indirectly due to supply chain challenges. In this paper we investigate the potential impacts of COVID-19 on seafood exports from Norway, the world's second largest seafood exporter, using highly detailed data from 2016 through May 2021. These data allow us to assess upstream impacts in the seafood supply chain close to the producer level in aggregate and by main sector, impacts on the largest products, and the extent to which export firm structure and export markets served have changed. We find very few impacts in aggregate as well as for individual products, suggesting that the markets and supply chains used by Norwegian seafood exports were sufficiently robust and flexible to accommodate the shocks created by COVID-19. Given Norway's size as a seafood exporter, the impact of COVID-19 has likely been moderate upstreams for a number of seafood sectors around the world, especially those in wealthy nations, with opportunities balancing out challenges, and that the supply chains have been highly resilient.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Smith, Kari; Ulvik, Marit; Curtis, Elizabeth; Guberman, Ainat; Lippeveld, Lut; Shapiro, Tali; Viswarajan, Sheeba;
    Publisher: OsloMet og Høgskolen i Oslo og Akershus

    In the 2018 International Forum for Teacher Educator Development (InFo-TED) Summer Academy, we, seven teacher educators from Belgium, England, Israel, Norway, and Scotland, became interested in strengthening our ICT competence. At an international conference in June 2019, we presented our personal stories about how we used ICT in our teaching, and what we wanted to learn more about. In June 2020 we wrote a new narrative describing our experiences with ICT which was forced upon us in the spring of 2020. In this narrative, we reflected on how we think our practice will change post-Covid-19. In this paper, we discuss our new narratives in relation to those we wrote in 2019. The two sets of stories were formed into seven vignettes seeking an answer to: 1) How did teacher educators (we) experience the Covid-19 which forced the need for change in working only online, and 2) How do we foresee that the current pandemic will change our future practice? The vignettes show we have had a steep learning curve regarding the technicalities of using ICT, exploring on our own as we were working from home. Moreover, we believe we will not return to pre-Covid-19 ways of teaching as we realise that ICT has not been fully exploited. Yet, we still need to find ways to combine ICT with our pedagogical visions as teacher educators. There are differences, benefits and disadvantages, related to our respective contexts, disciplines and competence. However, we found more similarities than differences. The latter is used to feed into each other’s professional learning. We all had to learn how to manage technical issues, and now we need to find ways to incorporate ICT critically and reflectively to model good teaching in teacher education. Covid-19 was a Black Swan which forced us to change. Now it is time to position ourselves as teacher educators in a changed reality.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to COVID-19. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
2,125 Research products, page 1 of 213
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Chatterjee, Maitrayee; Huang, Liane Z.X.; Wang, Chunyan; Mykytyn, Anna Z.; Westendorp, Bart; Wubbolts, Richard W.; Bosch, Berend-Jan; Haagmans, Bart L.; Putten, Jos P.M. van; Strijbis, Karin; +9 more
    Publisher: bioRxiv
    Country: Netherlands

    Mucins play an essential role in protecting the respiratory tract against microbial infections. The heavily O-glycosylated gel-forming mucins MUC5AC and MUC5B eliminate pathogens by mucociliary clearance while transmembrane mucins MUC1, MUC4, and MUC16 restrict microbial invasion at the apical surface of the epithelium. In this study, we determined the impact of host mucins and mucin glycans on SARS-CoV-2 spike-mediated epithelial entry. Human lung epithelial Calu-3 cells have endogenous expression of the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2 and express high levels of glycosylated MUC1 on the surface but not MUC4 and MUC16. Removal of the MUC1 extracellular domain (ED) using the O-glycan-specific mucinase StcE greatly enhanced spike binding and viral infection. By contrast, removal of mucin glycans sialic acid and fucose did not impact viral invasion. This study implicates the glycosylated ED of MUC1 as an important component of the host defense that restricts the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Badimon, L.; Robinson, E.L.; Jusic, A.; Carpusca, I.; DeWindt, L.J.; Emanueli, C.; Ferdinandy, P.; Gu, W.; Gyongyosi, M.; Hackl, M.; +9 more
    Country: Netherlands

    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been as unprecedented as unexpected, affecting more than 105 million people worldwide as of 8 February 2020 and causing more than 2.3 million deaths according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Not only affecting the lungs but also provoking acute respiratory distress, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is able to infect multiple cell types including cardiac and vascular cells. Hence a significant proportion of infected patients develop cardiac events, such as arrhythmias and heart failure. Patients with cardiovascular comorbidities are at highest risk of cardiac death. To face the pandemic and limit its burden, health authorities have launched several fast-track calls for research projects aiming to develop rapid strategies to combat the disease, as well as longer-term projects to prepare for the future. Biomarkers have the possibility to aid in clinical decision-making and tailoring healthcare in order to improve patient quality of life. The biomarker potential of circulating RNAs has been recognized in several disease conditions, including cardiovascular disease. RNA biomarkers may be useful in the current COVID-19 situation. The discovery, validation, and marketing of novel biomarkers, including RNA biomarkers, require multi-centre studies by large and interdisciplinary collaborative networks, involving both the academia and the industry. Here, members of the EU-CardioRNA COST Action CA17129 summarize the current knowledge about the strain that COVID-19 places on the cardiovascular system and discuss how RNA biomarkers can aid to limit this burden. They present the benefits and challenges of the discovery of novel RNA biomarkers, the need for networking efforts, and the added value of artificial intelligence to achieve reliable advances.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bos, Lieuwe D. J.; Sinha, Pratik; Dickson, Robert P.;
    Country: Netherlands
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Reiter, R.; Sharma, Ramaswamy; Castillo, Rafael; Marik, Paul E.; Domínguez Rodriguez, Alberto; Cardinali, Daniel Pedro; Tesarik, Jan;
    Country: Argentina

    Abstract: Two highly relevant studies related to SARS-CoV-2 and coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and supporting the use of melatonin to prevent and treat this serious infection were published recently. Campos-Codo and colleagues [1] documented experimentally their claim that drugs which specifically target hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) would likely have great therapeutic value in treating COVID-19. The second report is a retrospective analysis based on the clinical experience at the Columbia University Irving Medical Center with the use of drugs to treat respiratory distress in COVID-19-infected patients who required endotracheal intubation [2]. Hyperinflammatory monocytes/macrophages accumulate in abundance in the lower respiratory tract where they play a key role in determining the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Campos-Codo, et al. [1] found that monocytes/macrophages infected with the SARSCoV-2 virus reprogram their metabolism from the conventional mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to the (usually) pathological cytosolic glycolysis. This so-called Warburg-type metabolism is aided by the inadequately controlled elevated blood glucose levels of diabetic patients, which enhances cellular glycolysis, viral replication and hastens development of a severe respiratory infection resulting from the elevated cytokine release (“cytokine storm”).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vaccine Coverage Collaborators, Local Burden of Disease; Kisa, Adnan; Kisa, Sezer;

    The safe, highly efective measles vaccine has been recommended globally since 1974, yet in 2017 there were more than 17 million cases of measles and 83,400 deaths in children under 5 years old, and more than 99% of both occurred in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs)1–4 . Globally comparable, annual, local estimates of routine frst-dose measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) coverage are critical for understanding geographically precise immunity patterns, progress towards the targets of the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP), and high-risk areas amid disruptions to vaccination programmes caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)5–8 . Here we generated annual estimates of routine childhood MCV1 coverage at 5 × 5-km2 pixel and second administrative levels from 2000 to 2019 in 101 LMICs, quantifed geographical inequality and assessed vaccination status by geographical remoteness. After widespread MCV1 gains from 2000 to 2010, coverage regressed in more than half of the districts between 2010 and 2019, leaving many LMICs far from the GVAP goal of 80% coverage in all districts by 2019. MCV1 coverage was lower in rural than in urban locations, although a larger proportion of unvaccinated children overall lived in urban locations; strategies to provide essential vaccination services should address both geographical contexts. These results provide a tool for decision-makers to strengthen routine MCV1 immunization programmes and provide equitable disease protection for all children.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aamodt, Anne Hege; Høgestøl, Einar August; Popperud, Trine Haug; Holter, Jan Cato; Dyrhol-Riise, Anne Ma; Tonby, Kristian; Stiksrud, Birgitte; Paulsen, Else Quist; Berge, Tone; Barratt-Due, Andreas; +5 more
    Publisher: Springer

    Objective To test the hypotheses that blood biomarkers for nervous system injury, serum concentrations of neurofilament light chain protein (NfL) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAp) can serve as biomarkers for disease severity in COVID- 19 patients. Methods Forty-seven inpatients with confirmed COVID-19 had blood samples drawn on admission for assessing serum biomarkers of CNS injury by Single molecule array (Simoa), NfL and GFAp. Concentrations of NfL and GFAp were analyzed in relation to symptoms, clinical signs, inflammatory biomarkers and clinical outcomes. We used multivariate linear models to test for differences in biomarker concentrations in the subgroups, accounting for confounding effects. Results In total, 21% (n = 10) of the patients were admitted to an intensive care unit, and the overall mortality rate was 13% (n = 6). Non-survivors had higher serum concentrations of NfL (p < 0.001) upon admission than patients who were discharged alive both in adjusted analyses (p = 2.6 × 10–7) and unadjusted analyses (p = 0.001). The concentrations of NfL in non-survivors increased over repeated measurements; whereas, the concentrations in survivors were stable. The GFAp concentration was also significantly higher in non-survivors than survivors (p = 0.02). Conclusion Increased concentrations of NfL and GFAp in COVID-19 patients on admission may indicate increased mor- tality risk. Measurement of blood biomarkers for nervous system injury can be useful to detect and monitor CNS injury in COVID-19.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Brizzi, Andrea; Whittaker, Charles; Servo, Luciana MS; Hawryluk, Iwona; Prete, Carlos A; de Souza, William M; Aguiar, Renato S; Araujo, Leonardo JT; Bastos, Leonardo S; Blenkinsop, Alexandra; +31 more
    Country: Belgium

    The SARS-CoV-2 Gamma variant spread rapidly across Brazil, causing substantial infection and death waves. We use individual-level patient records following hospitalisation with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 to document the extensive shocks in hospital fatality rates that followed Gamma's spread across 14 state capitals, and in which more than half of hospitalised patients died over sustained time periods. We show that extensive fluctuations in COVID-19 in-hospital fatality rates also existed prior to Gamma's detection, and were largely transient after Gamma's detection, subsiding with hospital demand. Using a Bayesian fatality rate model, we find that the geographic and temporal fluctuations in Brazil's COVID-19 in-hospital fatality rates are primarily associated with geographic inequities and shortages in healthcare capacity. We project that approximately half of Brazil's COVID-19 deaths in hospitals could have been avoided without pre-pandemic geographic inequities and without pandemic healthcare pressure. Our results suggest that investments in healthcare resources, healthcare optimization, and pandemic preparedness are critical to minimize population wide mortality and morbidity caused by highly transmissible and deadly pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2, especially in low- and middle-income countries. NOTE: The following manuscript has appeared as 'Report 46 - Factors driving extensive spatial and temporal fluctuations in COVID-19 fatality rates in Brazilian hospitals' at https://spiral.imperial.ac.uk:8443/handle/10044/1/91875 . ONE SENTENCE SUMMARY: COVID-19 in-hospital fatality rates fluctuate dramatically in Brazil, and these fluctuations are primarily associated with geographic inequities and shortages in healthcare capacity. ispartof: medRxiv ispartof: medRxiv ispartof: location:United States status: Published online

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Van Puyvelde, Bart; Van Uytfanghe, Katleen; Van Oudenhove, Laurence; Gabriels, Ralf; Van Royen, Tessa; Matthys, Arne; Razavi, Morteza; Yip, Richard; Pearson, Terry; van Hulle, Marijn; +11 more
    Country: Belgium

    INTRODUCTION The pandemic readiness toolbox needs to be extended, providing diagnostic tools that target different biomolecules, using orthogonal experimental setups and fit-for-purpose specification of detection. Here we build on a previous Cov-MS effort that used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and describe a method that allows accurate, high throughput measurement of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein. MATERIALS and METHODS We used Stable Isotope Standards and Capture by Anti-Peptide Antibodies (SISCAPA) technology to enrich and quantify proteotypic peptides of the N protein from trypsin-digested samples from COVID-19 patients. RESULTS The Cov2MS assay was shown to be compatible with a variety of sample matrices including nasopharyngeal swabs, saliva and blood plasma and increased the sensitivity into the attomole range, up to a 1000-fold increase compared to direct detection in matrix. In addition, a strong positive correlation was observed between the SISCAPA antigen assay and qPCR detection beyond a quantification cycle (Cq) of 30-31, the level where no live virus can be cultured from patients. The automatable “addition only” sample preparation, digestion protocol, peptide enrichment and subsequent reduced dependency upon LC allow analysis of up to 500 samples per day per MS instrument. Importantly, peptide enrichment allowed detection of N protein in a pooled sample containing a single PCR positive sample mixed with 31 PCR negative samples, without loss in sensitivity. MS can easily be multiplexed and we also propose target peptides for Influenza A and B virus detection. CONCLUSIONS The Cov2MS assay described is agnostic with respect to the sample matrix or pooling strategy used for increasing throughput and can be easily multiplexed. Additionally, the assay eliminates interferences due to protein-protein interactions including those caused by anti-virus antibodies. The assay can be adapted to test for many different pathogens and could provide a tool enabling longitudinal epidemiological monitoring of large numbers of pathogens within a population, applied as an early warning system.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Asche, Frank; Straume, Hans-Martin; Garlock, Taryn M.; Johansen, Ulf; Kvamsdal, Sturla Furunes; Nygård, Rune; Pincinato, Ruth Beatriz; Tveterås, Ragnar;

    A rapidly growing literature shows that COVID-19 and the measures to contain the spread of the virus can have significant market impacts for seafood. These can be interruptions of production, or reductions in demand directly or indirectly due to supply chain challenges. In this paper we investigate the potential impacts of COVID-19 on seafood exports from Norway, the world's second largest seafood exporter, using highly detailed data from 2016 through May 2021. These data allow us to assess upstream impacts in the seafood supply chain close to the producer level in aggregate and by main sector, impacts on the largest products, and the extent to which export firm structure and export markets served have changed. We find very few impacts in aggregate as well as for individual products, suggesting that the markets and supply chains used by Norwegian seafood exports were sufficiently robust and flexible to accommodate the shocks created by COVID-19. Given Norway's size as a seafood exporter, the impact of COVID-19 has likely been moderate upstreams for a number of seafood sectors around the world, especially those in wealthy nations, with opportunities balancing out challenges, and that the supply chains have been highly resilient.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Smith, Kari; Ulvik, Marit; Curtis, Elizabeth; Guberman, Ainat; Lippeveld, Lut; Shapiro, Tali; Viswarajan, Sheeba;
    Publisher: OsloMet og Høgskolen i Oslo og Akershus

    In the 2018 International Forum for Teacher Educator Development (InFo-TED) Summer Academy, we, seven teacher educators from Belgium, England, Israel, Norway, and Scotland, became interested in strengthening our ICT competence. At an international conference in June 2019, we presented our personal stories about how we used ICT in our teaching, and what we wanted to learn more about. In June 2020 we wrote a new narrative describing our experiences with ICT which was forced upon us in the spring of 2020. In this narrative, we reflected on how we think our practice will change post-Covid-19. In this paper, we discuss our new narratives in relation to those we wrote in 2019. The two sets of stories were formed into seven vignettes seeking an answer to: 1) How did teacher educators (we) experience the Covid-19 which forced the need for change in working only online, and 2) How do we foresee that the current pandemic will change our future practice? The vignettes show we have had a steep learning curve regarding the technicalities of using ICT, exploring on our own as we were working from home. Moreover, we believe we will not return to pre-Covid-19 ways of teaching as we realise that ICT has not been fully exploited. Yet, we still need to find ways to combine ICT with our pedagogical visions as teacher educators. There are differences, benefits and disadvantages, related to our respective contexts, disciplines and competence. However, we found more similarities than differences. The latter is used to feed into each other’s professional learning. We all had to learn how to manage technical issues, and now we need to find ways to incorporate ICT critically and reflectively to model good teaching in teacher education. Covid-19 was a Black Swan which forced us to change. Now it is time to position ourselves as teacher educators in a changed reality.